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Abstract July 2011

Abstract 2011
+ Abstract July 2011

 

ABSTRACTS IJBB VOLUME 8 NO. 3. JULY 2011


INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 8 (3): 333-336, 2011.

ON A NEW ACANTHOCEPHALA NEOECHINORHYNCHUS MACRORCHIS SP. NOV. (NEOECHINORHYNCHIDAE) FROM A FRESHWATER FISH OF HALEJI LAKE, SINDH, PAKISTAN

G.S. Shaikh1, Aly Khan2 and Fatima Mujib Bilqees3

1Department of Zoology, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Sindh, Pakistan
2Crop Diseases Research Institute, PARC, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan
3Department of Zoology, Jinnah University for Women, Karachi-74600, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

Nine male worms collected from the intestine of freshwater fish Mastacembelus armatus from Haleji Lake, Sindh, Pakistan are being described. The present species, when compared with the previously reported species, differs in several morphological characters such as body size, size of proboscis hooks, shape of the body, size of bursa and presence of two bursal glands. On the basis of the above morphological as well as morphometric differences worm in hand and previously described species, it is concluded that the worm is new to science and therefore designated as Neoechinorhynchus macrorchis n.sp.

 

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 8 (3): 337-341, 2011.

GENARCHOPSIS HECKMANNI SP. N.(TREMATODA: HEMIUROIDEA) FROM CHANNA O. STRIATUS IN THATTA, SINDH, PAKISTAN

Syed Muhammad Hassan Mehdi Naqvi1, Rafia Rehana Ghazi2, Noor-un- Nisa2 and Aly Khan3

1Livestock and Fisheries Research Unit, Southern zone Agricultural Research Centre, Karachi University Campus, Karachi-75270
2Vertebrate Pest Control Institute, Southern zone Agricultural Research Centre, Karachi University Campus, Karachi-75270
3Crop Diseases Research Institute, PARC, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

A new species Genarchopsis heckmanni is described from freshwater fish Channa O. striatus purchased from Thatta fish market, Sindh, Pakistan. The new species differs in possessing a large voluminous, hen’s egg-shaped ‘metraterm’ like structure which is packed with thousands of eggs, yellowish brown in colour. Additionally the new species can also be distinguished by its larger body size, sucker size, shape and position of gonads.

 

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 8 (3): 343-346, 2011.

THE JEWEL BEETLE GENUS CAPNODIS ESCHSCHOLTZ (COLEOPTERA: BUPRESTIDAE) OF PAKISTAN

N. Fatima1, S.A. Rizvi1 and Z. Ahmed2

1Department of Zoology, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan.
2Department of Zoology, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Sciences & Technology, Karachi, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

Five species and one subspecies of the genus Capnodis Eschscholtz, 1829 are listed from Pakistan. Key to the species and additional distribution are also provided.

 

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 8 (3): 347-352, 2011.

THE GENUS ONTHOPHAGUS LATREILLE, 1802 (SENSU LATO) (COLEOPTERA: SCARABAEIDAE) IN PAKISTAN

Hareem Siddiqui and Syed Kamaluddin

Department of Zoology, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Sciences and Technology, Karachi, Pakistan.
Corresponding author: Hareem Siddiqui (pakistan.siddiqui@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Eleven species of the genus Onthophagus Latreille, 1802 (sensu lato) are listed from Pakistan and a key is provided for their separation. Two new records Onthophagus paliceps and O.quadridentatus are included with their distributions.

 

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 8 (3): 353-358, 2011.

CLADISTIC ANALYSIS OF THE GENERA OF AGRYPNINAE Candèze, 1857 (COLEOPTERA: ELATERIDAE) FROM PAKISTAN

Mohammad Atique Akhter1*, Syed Anser Rizvi1, Saima Naz1 and Zubair Ahmed2

1Department of Zoology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.
2Department of Zoology, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Techology,Gulashan-e-Iqbal, Karachi, Pakistan.
atiq_m_akhter@yahoo.com; anserrizvi@hotmail.om; symanaz@hotmail.com; *corresponding author.

ABSTRACT

Ten genera of the subfamily Agrypninae have been analyzed cladistically on the basis of their apomorphies and a cladogram has been constructed. The relationship of these genera has been discussed in the light of apomorphies found in the ten genera included in the present study of the subfamily Agrypninae. A key to the genera of the subfamily Agrypninae has also been given.

 

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 8 (3): 359-362, 2011.

A CLADISTIC ANALYSIS OF SPECIES OF THE GENUS PSALMOCHARIAS KIRKALDY (HEMIPTERA:CICADIDAE) FROM PAKISTAN

Zubiar Ahmed1, Syed Anser Rizvi2 and Muhammad Atique Akhter2

1Department of Zoology, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Sciences & Technology, Karachi, Pakistan.
2Department of Zoology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

Five species of the genus Psalmocharias Kirkaldy belonging to the subfamily Cicadinae (Cicadidae) have been cladistically analyzed and a cladogram has been constructed and discussed in the light of apomorphies found in the included species of the genus Psalmocharias Kirkaldy.

 

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 8 (3): 363-366, 2011.

HISTOPATHOLOGY OF POMEGRANATE ROOTS INFECTED WITH ROOT-KNOT NEMATODES, MELOIDOGYNE INCOGNITA (KOFOID AND WHITE, 1919) CHITWOOD, 1949

Aly Khan1, Juma Khan Tareen2, F.M. Bilqees3 and Nasira Khatoon4

1Crop Diseases Research Institute, PARC, Karachi University Campus, Karachi
2Directorate of Plant Protection, Agriculture Research Institute, Sariab, Quetta.
3Department of Zoology, Jinnah University for Women, Karachi-74600
4Department of Zoology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan

ABSTRACT 

Cellular alteration in Meloidogyne incognita infected Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) cv. Red Kandhari roots were histologically studied. The common features encountered were hypertrophy and erosion of cortical surface. Damage to all layers of root tissues which comprise of cortex, endodermis, pericycle and vascular parenchyma was observed. The giant cells with ill defined boundaries had section of nematodes and egg masses. A large region with fibrous boundaries at the base was also observed.

 

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 8 (3): 367-375, 2011.

GROWTH OF BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS ISOLATES (B.t.-16 and B.t.-64) ON ORGANIC SUBSTRATES AS NUTRIENT SOURCE

M. Qasim Khan, M. Waseem Abbasi, D. Khan and M. Javed Zaki

Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

Different organic substrates (maize flour, barley flour, rice flour, sawdust, wheat bran and millet grains) were used as nutrient source to Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (B.t.) isolates (B.t.-16 and B.t.-64). The purpose of the study was to determine the most efficient substrate for the growth of the bacteria. All the tested substrates, showed increase in growth of B.t.  isolates from the first week except sawdust, which showed a decline in bacterial population in the first week but thereafter a gradual increase in bacterial population occurred till the end of the experiment. Rice, Wheat bran, and Barley flours were found to be more effective substrates for the bacterial growth. The isolate B.t.-16 appeared to possess relatively more ligninolytic potential. Based on promotion or reduction magnitude of final population sizes (on 28- day of incubation) the growth pattern of B.t.-16 and B.t.-64 on various substrates, in decreasing order of suitability, may be shown as follows:
    B.t.- 16  - Rice > Wheat > Barley >  Maize > Millet > Sawdust
    B.t.- 64 –Wheat > Barley > Millet  > Rice > Maize > Sawdust

 

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 8 (3): 377-381, 2011.

ASSESSING ENZYME ACTIVITY OF TRICHODERMA SPECIES

Amna Ali*1, Sana Hanif 2, Rukhsana Bajwa2 and Rasheda Jabeen2

1First Fungal Bank of Pakistan (FCBP), Institute of Agriculture Sciences (IAGS), University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan. 
2Institute of Agriculture Sciences (IAGS), University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan. 
*Corresponding author: write2amna@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

Trichoderma is a ubiquitous fungus found in air, soil, plant materials and other substrates. Twenty four isolates of Trichoderma belonging to four species T. harzianum, T. hamatum, T. koningii and T. pseudokoningii were procured from First Fungal Culture Bank of Pakistan (FCBP), Institute of Agriculture Sciences (IAGS), University of the Punjab, Lahore. All species were screened out for their enzyme production potential biochemically on different substrates. The isolates exhibited variable efficiency on producing amylase, cellulase, catalase, urease, lipase, pectinase enzymes. In addition, alkaloid estimation was also carried out through Ehrlich test. The results revealed that except for cellulase productivity of all other test enzymes was comparatively low. The highest amylase activity was recorded in T. harzianum; T. koningii and T. pseudokoningii. In alkaloids estimation test, T. harzianum showed high activity by producing violet ring around the plug of mycelium. In lipase and urease test, T. harzianum, T. koningii and T. hamatum displayed high enzymatic activity. In case of pectinase estimation, almost same trend was observed regarding different isolates as in case of lipase activity. The study clearly indicated that some strains of Trichoderma species like T. harzianum and T. koningii can be exploited in industrial production of fruit juices by cellulase enzyme activity along with further genetic engineering with the selected isolates.

 

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 8 (3): 383-386, 2011.

EFFECTS OF VARIOUS IRRIGATION TREATMENTS ON ACCLIMATIZATION OF IN VITRO REGENERATED SUGARCANE (SACCHARUM OFFICINARUM L.) PLANTS

Beena Naqvi1, Yasmeen Tariq1,  Ali M. Dahri1,  Tabassum Bibi1 and Raiha Qadri2

1Plant Tissue Culture Lab, Pakistan Council of Scientific & Industrial Research (PCSIR) Laboratories Complex Karachi, Pakistan
2Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.
e-mail: nbeena25@hotmail.com

ABSTRACT

This study aimed at the development of protocol for effective acclimatization of sugarcane plantlets (cv. SPC-79) regenerated through tissue culture. After successful in vitro multiplication and rooting, sugarcane plantlets were transferred to the green house under partially controlled conditions for acclimatization. To achieve maximum survival efficiency of in vitro regenerated plants, these were transferred in soil medium supplied with various types of nutrient solutions i.e. ½ MS salts, 10 % coconut water,  1 % DAP +  1 % urea  in 1:1 (w/w) and 5 % farm yard manure. It was found that among all the nutrient solutions tested during acclimatization, application of ½ MS salts solution proved to be the most effective treatment closely followed by 10 % coconut water, for achieving significant survival efficiency by improving the growth characteristics of in vitro grown sugarcane plants.

 

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 8 (3): 387-389, 2011.

INTEGRATED POTASH NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT ENHANCES RICE PRODUCTIVITY UNDER PADDY SOIL

Abdul Wahab Khan1*, Riaz A, Mann1, M. Saleem2 and A. Majeed1

1Rice Programme, Crop Sciences Institute, NARC, Islamabad, Pakistan
2Soil Science Division, Nuclear Institute for Agriculture & Biology (NIAB), Faisalabad, Pakistan
*Corresponding author: awahabkhan2009@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

The objective was to study the effect of soil incorporated potassium sulphate when applied alone and in combination with FYM on the growth and yield of fine rice “Super Basmati”. The experiment was conducted at Kala Shah Kaku during 2010 using RCBD with three replications. The treatments were control (T1) where no K2SO4 and FYM was applied , soil application of K2SO4 @ 70Kg ha-1 ( T2), FYM application @ 5 t ha-1 (T3), FYM application @ 5 t ha-1 + K2O @ 20 Kg ha-1 (T4), FYM application @ 5 t ha-1+K2O @ 40 Kg ha-1  (T5). Paddy yield was significantly enhanced when K2SO4 was applied in combination with FYM. Maximum paddy yield (6.11 t ha-1)  was recorded in T5 while, lowest paddy yield (4.15 t ha-1) was found in control. The increase in yield with K2SO4 and FYM application (47.23%) compared to control was an outcome of positive correlation between grain yield and tillers m-2, grains panicle-1 and thousand-grain weight which ultimately enhanced paddy yield.

 

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 8 (3): 391-394, 2011.

EXPLORING THE SCIENTIFIC BASIS OF PRUNING LEAF WEBBER AFFECTED SESAMUM INDICUM L. BY LOCAL FARMERS TO ACHIEVE MAXIMUM POSSIBLE YIELD

Wajahat Ali Khan 1,2 and Rafiq Ahmad2

1Department of  Botany, Shaheed-e-Millat, Govt. Degree Sc. College for Women, Azizabad, Karachi, Pakistan
2Biosaline Research Laboratory, Department  of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270. Pakistan

ABSTRACT

Pruning of Sesamum indicum L. affected by Antigastra catalaunalis is investigated at the field of a local farmer situated in Khipro Sindh (Pakistan). Itis a broad leaf annual summer crop. The local farmers neither provide proper fertilizer nor insecticide against the leaf webber/capsule borer diseases caused by A. catalaunalis due to their high cost and prunes the  infected foliage of about three months old plants to minimizing the losses. This disease does not appear during early stages of plant growth and its out burst occurs during onset of monsoon when plants are about three months old.  This practice of pruning about upper 12 to 18 cm of disease affected branches and main stem not only increases further vegetative and reproductive growth but also minimizes the severity of infection. Life cycle of A.catalaunalis is completed within 25 to 35 days after which chances of causing infection are reduced. The correct timing of pruning is very important to get the better result. Yield in term of seeds per plant was found better in pruned as compared to non pruned plants.

 

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 8 (3): 395-399, 2011.

EVALUATING A NEW WHEAT GENOTYPE (NARC 2009) AGAINST TWO RAINFED CULTIVARS AT DIFFERENT NITROGEN TO PHOSPHOROUS PENTA OXIDE RATIOS

*Muhammad Saleem1, Syed Haider Abbas2, Riaz A. Mann3, Abdul Wahab Khan3, Abid Majeed3 and Maqsood Qamar2

1Soil Science Division, Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology (NIAB), Faisalabad, Pakistan
2 Wheat Programme, National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad, Pakistan
3Rice-Wheat Programme, NARC, Islamabad, Pakistan
*Corresponding author’s email: drsaleemyousaf@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

A newly developed wheat variety NARC 2009 performed significantly superior to wheat cultivar GA 2002, however, it was statistically at par with Wafaq 2001. The experiment was laid out using randomized complete block design (RCBD) with split plot arrangement to evaluate a wheat genotype NARC 2009 in comparison to wheat cultivars (cvs.) GA 2002 and Wafaq 2001 in interaction with three nitrogen to phosphorous penta oxide (N:P2O5) ratios (58-58, 85-58 and 115-85). Non-significant effect of N:P2O5 ratios was set up for grain yield representing 58-58 kg ha-1 as an economical ratio. Highest grain yield of 5120 kg ha-1 was achieved with NARC 2009 hence resulting in 28 percent greater yield than cv. GA 2002 (4007 kg ha-1). Variation in growth and yield was presumably ascribed to genetic make up of the genotypes.

 

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 8 (3): 401-407, 2011.

LEAF AREA ESTIMATION IN JATROPHA CURCAS L.
 
Naeem Ahmed and D. Khan

Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.
ABSTRACT

The graphically measured one-sided leaf area (LAM) of individual leaves of Jatropha curcas L varied from 9.48 – 158.55 cm2 (mean = 72.094 ± 6.937 cm2; CV = 56.93%). The leaf area (LAM) was found to correlate significantly with multiplicative parameter of leaf length and breadth (LL x LB) as simple linear model (R2 = 0.983, F= 1955.64 (p < 0.0001) as well as the power model (R2 = 0.9898; F = 2883.76 (p < 0.0001). Leaf area also correlated significantly with LL and LB linearly combined in a multiple linear correlation / regression model (R2 = 0.960; Adj. R2: 0.958; F = 387.03 (p < 0.0001).  The coefficient k estimated arithmetically as k = Area measured / (L x B) averaged to 0.858748 and distributed normally.  On statistical comparison, the estimated leaf areas on the basis of above models were not found to vary significantly from the measured areas of the leaves (LAM). In view of simplicity and convenience, the method of using average k value of 0.858748 may be recommended for estimation of leaf area in J. curcas.

 

 INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 8 (3): 409-412, 2011.

SEASONAL VARIATION IN THE LENGTH, WEIGHT AND CONDITION FACTOR OF THUNNUS TONGGOL (FAMILY-SCOMBRIDAE) FROM KARACHI COAST OF PAKISTAN

Farzana Yousuf and Quratulan

Department of zoology,University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

Length, weight and condition factor in 361 Fish individuals of Thunnus tonngol were determined between (Oct. 2007 to Sept. 2008) from Karachi coast of Pakistan. Results showed highest mean length of fish of 38.3+0.079 cm in winter season and lowest of 22.27+0.17 cm in autumn. The Highest and mean weights of 416.4 ± 12.19 and 114.79 + 2.29g, respectively, were recorded in autumn. The condition factor (K) averaged to 0.941 ± 0.006. The mean condition factor was highest in autumn (1.06+ 0.07) and the lowest in winter (0.48+0.09). The seasonal distribution of various size classes of the fish catch is followed.

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 8 (3): 413-418, 2011.

 

FOOD  AND  FEEDING  HABITS  OF  THE  CUTLASSFISH   TRICHIURUS LEPTURUS(LINNAEUS,1758) FROM  KARACHI COAST, PAKISTAN

Farzana Yousuf and Sadaf Tabassum

Department of  Zoology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.
                                                                                                                                    
ABSTRACT           

The  stomach  contents of  915 Trichiurus  lepturus  collected from west wharf  fish  harbour  in Karachi  coast  were  investigated  between  December  2009- December  2010. Two  hundred  seventy  five  (30.1%) stomachs  were  empty.  Forty  five  Taxonomic  categories were identified from the 1980  prey  items  analysed. It was determined that the diet of T.lepturus  consisted of fish  species, Cephalopods, Crustacean, Euphausiid, Mysidacea, Copepods and Stomatopods. The individuals of length (40-70cm) fed  mainly  on  Euphausia,  the  individuals of length (70-90cm) fed Euphausia, small fish and Cephalopods, individuals of length more than 90cm  fed mainly on fishes and Cephalopods. Feeding Intensity and the number of food items increased with increasing size of this ribbon  fish.

 

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 8 (3): 419-422, 2011.

EVALUATION OF ANTI-EMETIC ACTIVITY OF CYMBOPOGON CITRATUS (DC.) STAPF

Zahra Yaqeen1, Naeem-ul-Hassan Naqvi2, Nudrat Fatima1, Hina Imran1, Tehmina Sohail1,
Atiq-ur-Rahman1, Zakir-ur-Rehman, and Shazia Syed3

1Pharmaceutical Research Centre, PCSIR Labs Complex, Karachi, Pakistan.
2Baqai Institue of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Baqai Medical University, Karachi, Pakistan.
3Dept. of Chemistry, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan..

ABSTRACT

Anti-emetic activity of ethanolic extract of Cymbopogon citratus leaves was investigated by anti-emetic assay at 300 and 500mg/kg doses in young male chicks. Acute oral toxicity test was also performed to confirm the safety of the test drug. The results showed that crude extract is safe up to the dose of 7.5g/kg body weight of animals. C. citratus extract at 500mg/kg dose possesses significant activity just equal to the standard drug while at 300mg/kg dose the drug showed only mild activity. The results were compared with that of standard and control groups. Domperidone in recommended dose i.e. 0.15mg/kg body weight was used as standard anti-emetic drug, while control group was treated with distilled water.Phytochemical analysis was also carried out which showed the presence of certain phytoconstituents in test drug that are responsible for anti-emetic activity.

 

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 8 (3): 421-426, 2011.

MEDICINAL REMEDIES USED BY THE TORWAL AND GUJARS COMMUNITIES OF MANKIAL VALLEY SWAT, HINDUKUSH RANGE PAKISTAN
 
Asad Ullah1 and Abdur Rashid2

1Centre of Plant Biodiversity, University of Peshawar, Pakistan
2Department of Botany, University of Peshawar, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

Mankial Valley is located at 35o 12/ N and 72o, 32/ E in the Hindukush range of Northern Pakistan. Its area is 13063 ha and its elevation range is 1430-5800 m. The landscape includes snow covered peaks, barren rocky mountain slopes; alpine and sub alpine pastures glaciated tracts and forested slopes. The valley floor is the site of irrigated agricultural fields, waterfalls, and small villages of the local communities. Most of the inhabitants of the valley are Torwal (67%) who remain in the valley for all year. The remainder are Gujars (33%), who migrate seasonally. Both groups rely on the local plants and plant products for almost all their medicinal needs. We interviewed people in eight communities, asking which plants were used, how they prepared various remedies and what dosage was used for curing various ailments. In addition, we asked what part of the plant was used, what it was used for, how it was administered, and when and where it was collected. We divided the interviewees into four age groups (15-30 years, 30-45 years, 45-60 years, 60+ years) to determine how effectively knowledge is being transmitted. Twenty plant species are regularly used for medicinal purposes by the Torwal and Gujars of Mankial Valley, seven as a tonic, five for stomach problems, three each for diarrhoea and as pain killer, blood purifier, and stimulant, two each for dysentery, wounds, carminative, antiseptic, and one each for cholera, dropsy, emetic, cathartic, ulcer, coolant, kidney problems, asthma, purgative, fever, vomiting, eye problems, toothache, milk production, fever, jaundice and throat infections. People in the two older age groups knew more than those in the younger groups. The Torwal and Gujars communities have a rich ethnobotanical heritage, but traditional medicinal knowledge is disappearing rapidly.

 

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 8 (3): 427-432, 2011.

A STUDY ON PERCEPTION EVALUATION OF PAKISTANI POPULATION AGAINST INFLUENZA A (H1N1)

Amit Khan1, Zulfiqar Ahmad1, Kamran Nazir1, Muhammad Noman Khan1, Farhat Iqbal2 and Taseer Ahmed Khan1

1Poultry Research Laboratory, Department of Physiology, University of Karachi-Karachi.75270, Pakistan
2Department of Statistics, University of Balochistan, Quetta. 22060

ABSTRACT

Swine flu and its respective strains have influenced the world at an alarming level. Pakistan is no exemption. The main purpose of this study was to identify the current knowledge, attitude and behaviour of the Pakistani people towards Influenza A (H1N1) virus. The survey based pilot study was based on a close ended questionnaire containing the information matching to the clear and concise understanding of the respondents. Karachi and its adjoining territories were selected as the main zone for the sample collection. A total of 288 respondents (18-60 years of age) were accessed. The results showed significant (p< 0.05) association between the knowledge levels of males and females, attitude and behaviour levels of different literacy groups and difference of attitude between employed, un-employed and self-employed sections of the people. A significant (p<0.01) correlation was observed among the knowledge, attitude and behavior scores of the respondents.

 

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 8 (3): 433-435, 2011.

PLASMA CHOLESTEROL AND TRIGLYCERIDES IN OBESE SMOKERS

Waheeb D. M. Alharbi

Department of Physiology, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia
E.Mail: wdharbi@uqu.edu.sa

ABSTRACT

Influence of smoking, obesity, and body fat distribution on serum lipids, and  lipoproteins have extensively been studied. However, there is still a controversy regarding the role of cholesterol and triglycerides in obese smokers. In view of that, this study was conducted in male students attending Umm Al-Qura University and other institutions in Makkah. The results show that the significant differences in plasma levels of total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C and triglycerides in obese smoking subjects exist as compared to non-obese non-smoking control subjects. The current study was planned with appropriate control group and the clinical, physiological criteria were obeyed for obtaining information. However, further studies might clarify the subject with additional better controlled studies.

 

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 8 (3): 437-440, 2011.

SOME BIOCHEMICAL ALTERATIONS IN OBESE CIGARETTE SMOKERS

Waheeb D. M. Alharbi

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia.E.Mail: wdharbi@uqu.edu.sa

ABSTRACT

Obesity is a complex and multifactorial disorder, and the association between obesity and smoking has extensively been studied. A variety of the aspects of electrolytes involved in obesity, smoking and combined condition of both have been thoroughly studied. However, it is still controversial to explain the influence of electrolytes in smoking and obesity. The influence of cigarette smoking on electrolytes in obese subjects was studied in a group of obese smoking subjects and compared with those who were neither smokers, nor obese. Statistical comparisons showed significant variations for plasma sodium, potassium and calcium. Fasting glucose concentration in control and obese smokers showed significantly higher percentage of obese smokers with impaired glucose levels. All subjects in control group (non-obese non-smoking controls) showed normal level of fasting glucose. However, further studies are required for elucidating the precise mechanism underlying alterations caused by smoking in obesity.

 

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 8 (3): 441-443, 2011.

EFFECTS OF ECCENTRIC EXERCISE ON SKELETAL MUSCLE MARKERS IN HUMANS

Nabeeh  I. A. Rakkah

Department of Physiology, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah,Saudi Arabia.
E-mail: nr@uqu.edu.sanabeehrakkah@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

Most of the studies consider the significance of creatine kinase (CK) and myoglobin (Mb) as the best markers of skeletal muscle injury after high force eccentric exercise (ECE). To confirm this and the activity of other injury markers mainly lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), C-reactive protein (CRP), aldolase, fatty acid binding protein (FABP) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), eighteen physically active and healthy male Saudis (mean age: 22.5 years (range: 18-27 years); basal body weight: 70 kg (range: 58-78 kg) from Makkah (Saudi Arabia) were included in the ECE program using cycle ergometer. Highly significant post-ECE increase compared to pre-ECE in CK, Mb, LDH, FABP, CRP and AST were recorded whereas no significant variation occurred in aldolase activity.

 

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 8 (3): 445-448, 2011.

THE INFLUENCE OF EXERCISE ON PHYSICAL AND MENTAL FITNESS OF EXERCISING YOUNG MALES

Sadaf Ahmed.1,2 N. Shamoon2, S. Tooba2 and J. Hiba

1Department of Physiology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan,
2Advanced Educational Institute & Research Centre, Karachi, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

Exercising affects the individual behaviors and lifestyle. The opportunity for exercise available to each person with respect to social and economical surroundings may become manage to change the eating and sleeping patterns and in majority of cases show a burst of activity when overall outcomes of exercising were compared with non-exercising individuals. Randomized Performa based study was conducted on 207 young males who were exercising, going gym regularly for weight loss or physical fitness. After exercising 79% of the regularly exercising males felt fresh, relaxed and less frustrated on day to day issues. Moreover 71% were got less irritated when compared with non-exercising males. Significant and improved mental and physical fitness was achieved through the combination of exercise and diet in regularly exercising young subjects, although no differences were found based on different exercise durations and intensities in this group and majority of the males were reported to exercise only to achieve fitness as their primary goal rather than to loose weight or build body.

 

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 8 (3): 449-453, 2011.

PUBLIC HEALTH QUALITY OF ATTAABAD LAKE WATER OF GILGIT-BALTISTAN AREA 

Moazzam Ali Khan, Aamir Alamgir, S. Shahid Shaukat, Atif Shahzad, Waqar Ahmed and Arshad Ali Beg

Institute of Environmental Studies, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan
 
ABSTRACT

A devastating landslide at Atta Abad in Gilgit–Baltistan region of Northern Pakistan takes place on January 24, 2010 that obliterated the village Atta Abad killing 20 persons, and creating a lake on the Hunza River.  This lake grew to more than 23 km length and submerged a 22-km stretch of the Karakoram Highway (KKH), a trade route for consumer goods from China. About 5,000 families in the Upper Hunza Valley were isolated from the rest of the country. Many upstream villages including Ainabad, Shishkat, Gulmit and Hussaini were evacuated due to rising water levels in the lake. The present study focused on the public health quality of Attaabad lake water.  Samples were collected from the lake to determine the physical and chemical quality of the lake water. All the samples were found fit for human consumption either chemical or microbiologically. However, the lake needs immediate protection from anthropogenic pollution which is likely to occur in future and may effect the down stream population.

 

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 8 (3): 455-461, 2011.

MORPHOLOGY AND EARLY LIFE HISTORY PATTERN OF SOME LUTJANUS SPECIES: A REVIEW

*Zubia Masood and Rehana Yasmeen Farooq

 Department of Zoology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.
 *email: masoodzubia@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

The present study was based on the literature review of the fishes belonging to the snapper family Lutjanidae. Data parameters about the morphology and early life history pattern not measured during the survey were taken from the FishBase data base (see www.fishbase.org and Froese et al., 2000). These data parameters included, Lmax (maximum length), Linf (length infinity); K (growth rate); M (natural mortality); LS (life span); Lm (length at maturity); tm (age at first maturity); to (age at zero length); tmax (longevity) and also the morphological data. Morphological and life history data were taken only for five species of fishes belongs to genus Lutjanus i.e., L.johnii, L.malabaricus, L.lutjanus, L.fulvus, L.russellii.  The main objective of this study was to review some aspects of distribution, morphology and feeding habits, spawning and also acquired and analyze information on selected life history variables to described patterns of variation among different species of snappers.

 


 
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