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Abstract July 2012

Abstract 2012
+ Abstract July 2012

 

ABSTRACTS IJBB VOLUME 9 NO. 3. JULY 2012


INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 9(3): 161-190, 2012.

PLANT SIZE-FECUNDITY RELATIONS IN THESPESIA POPULNEA (L.) SOL. EX. CORR. GROWING UNDER ARID–SALINE CONDITIONS IN KARACHI, PAKISTAN

Zahida N. Gohar, D. Khan and Rafiq Ahmad

Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

Twenty five T. populnea (L) Sol. ex. Corr. plants (1.2 to 5m in height) cultivated in saline soils of ECe: 1.56 to 64.7 dS-1 were studied for various morphometric and fecundity parameters. The plants were generally monostemmic and stem size varied from 2.5 to 32.8 cm in diameter. The highest number of capsules produced by any plant studied was 2600. The number of capsules produced in autumn were on an average 1.57 times to that of the spring. The number of seeds per capsules varied from 6.0 ± 0.39 to 15.2 ± 0.62 and averaged to 11.85 ± 0.174 (8 – 18). Average seed mass per capsule ranged from 0.99 ± 0.053 to 2.31 ± 0.07 g. Mean individual seed mass was 135.99 ± 0.3719 mg ranging from 20 to 300 mg – a 15-fold variation. The seed mass distribution was leptokurtic and negatively skewed. The fecundity varied greatly from plant to plant (6 – 29822 seeds per plant). The trees of stem diameter size-class of 20-25 cm were more productive. Average Seed yield in mature trees was 1.25 ± 0.2169 kg and varied c 86.4%. There was a great degree of multi-colinearity among vegetative and reproductive parameters. Allometric relationships were developed between vegetative morphometric parameters of the plants and their fecundities. The best predictive equation of fecundity (SN, number of seeds per plant) with stem diameter (SD) was as follows:

Loge SN = -2.79171 + 3.78597 Loge SD –1.2763 (Loge SD) 2 ± 0.7008
                    t = - 2.72       t = 7.18               t = - 4.93
                    p < 0.001      p < 0.001             p < 0.001
                    R2 = 0.9104; Adj. R2 = 0.9021; F = 111.78

 

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 9(3): 191-193, 2012.

A NEW SPECIES OF DIORCHIS (CESTODA) FROM COMMON TEAL (ANAS CRECCA L.)

Rafia Rehana Ghazi1 and Aly Khan2

1Vertebrate Pest Control Laboratory, SARC, Karachi University Campus, Karachi-75270
2Crop Diseases Research Institute, PARC, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270

ABSTRACT

During December 2010, six cestodes were collected from the intestine of a bird, common teal (Anas crecca L.) from Hub Dam, district Lasbela, Balochistan, Pakistan. The cestode  was named Diorchis shaukati sp.n. being characterized in having medium size body; scolex with eversible rostellum with four muscular suckers; immature segments fewer as compared to mature segments; mature segments wider than long; two testes rounded to oval in shape; cirrus sac strongly developed either long and bottle shaped or pyriform; cirrus sac is striped longitudinally; genital opening is unilateral; bilobate compact ovary; vitelline gland is single compact; vagina is simple, bottle shaped; uterus sac-like occupying entire medulla and eggs with filaments.

 

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 9(3): 195-199, 2012.

A NEW ACANTHOCEPHALA, NEOECHINORHYNCHUS NAWAZI SP. NOV. (NEOECHINORHYNCHIDAE), FROM A FRESH-WATER FISH (CIRRHINUS MRIGALA (HAM.)

Syed Muhammad Hassan Mehdi Naqvi1, Aly Khan2, Rafia Rehana Ghazi3 and Noor-un-Nisa4

1Livestock and Fisheries Research Unit, Vertebrate Pest Control Institute, Southern Zone Agricultural Research Centre, Karachi University Campus, Karachi-75270
2Crop Diseases Research Institute, PARC, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan
3,4Vertebrate Pest Control Institute, Southern Zone Agricultural Research Centre, Karachi University Campus, Karachi-75270

ABSTRACT 

Eight acnthocephalon worms were collected from the intestine of freshwater fish (Cirrhinus mrigala (Ham.) from Kalri Lake, Sindh, Pakistan. This worm was identified as a new species,  Neoechinorhynchus nawazi  characterized by having medium size stout body, small proboscis with  3 rows of hooks each having 6 hooks; anterior row hooks larger as compared to the other two rows; proboscis receptacle single layered; lemnisci slightly unequal, testes two, cement gland elongated, saefftigen’s gland prominent, bursa well developed and eggs oval, small and numerous.

 

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 9(3): 201-208, 2012.

PYCNOGONIDS (ARTHROPODA: PYCNOGONIDA) FROM PAKISTAN WATERS (NORTH ARABIAN SEA)

Shahnawaz Gul 1 and Naseem Ghani 2

1Jamia Millia, Govt. Degree College, Malir, Karachi, Pakistan
2Department of Zoology, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan
Corresponding author, email: gulshahnawaz@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

Fourteen described pycnogonid species are recorded from Pakistan waters for the first time. These records increase the known species to sixteen. The pycnogonid fauna in the region is poorly studied and little understood with only two species, Pycnogonum tessellatum Stock, 1968 and Pigrogromitus timsanus Calman, 1927 previously recorded. The species now known belong to nine genera in five families. Callipallene brevirostris (Johnston, 1837) is recorded from the Indian Ocean for the first time and may have been introduced to the region as part of the fouling community on the hulls of ships. No new species are reported.

 

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 9(3): 209-211, 2012.

ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF CASSIA ITALICA (MILL.) SPRENG. AND PLUCHEA WALLICHIANA DC.

Sadia Khan and Mehdi Hassan Kazmi

Department of Applied Chemistry and Chemical Technology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

Methanolic extract of Cassia italica and Pluchea wallichiana have shown antimicrobial activity against ten different species of microorganisms.

 

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 9(3): 213-218, 2012.

ANTIMICROBIAL CONSTITUENTS FROM PLUCHEA WALLICHIANA DC.

Mehdi Hassan Kazmi, Sadia Khan and Saira Hameed

Department of Applied Chemistry and Chemical Technology, University of Karachi, Karachi- 75270, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

Eight compounds viz., β -amyrin (1), β -amyrin acetate (2), (+) – syringaresinol (3), ent-pimara- 8 (14), 15-dien-19-oic acid (4), pluviatilol (5), β-sitosterol (6), β -sitosterol 3-O-β-D – glucopyranoside (7), and apigenin 7-O- β -D-glucoside (8),  were isolated for the first time from Pluchea wallichiana DC. and their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic studies. All the isolated compounds were tested for their antimicrobial activity.

 

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 9(3): 219-223, 2012.

EVALUATION OF UREA PHOSPHATE AS A PHOSPHORUS SOURCE FOR WHEAT CROP IN COMPARISON TO DAP IN CALCAREOUS SOIL

Zafar Iqbal*, Muhammad Yaqub, Asma Lodhi, Shermeen Tahir, Muhammad Akhtar, Tariq Mahmood Qureshi and Asif Naeem

Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology (NIAB), Jhang Road, Faisalabad
*Tel: 0419201781, 03338989643; Fax: 0419201776; Email: zafar477@yahoo.co.uk

ABSTRACT

The efficiency of acidic phosphate fertilizer is considered better as compared to basic phosphate fertilizers in calcareous soils. Urea phosphate (UP), an acidic fertilizer (pH, 2) having 17% N and 44% P2O5 was prepared and evaluated in greenhouse studies for its effect on wheat crop (variety Sehar) in comparison to di-ammonium phosphate (DAP), a basic fertilizer with pH~ 8. The soil used for the pot experiments was a sandy clay loam and calcareous in nature. Phosphorus treatments were applied at sowing time from either source @ 0, 20, 40, 45 60 and 80 mg P2O5 kg-1 soil. Urea was applied @ 120 mg N kg-1 soil in three splits to all the pots. Both the P fertilizer sources increased wheat grain yield over control (where no P was applied); which was higher in UP (42.98 – 48.44 g pot-1) as compared to DAP (42.23 – 44.53 g pot-1). Phosphorus uptake in grain was also higher with the application of UP (138 – 161 mg P2O5 pot-1) as compared to DAP (134 – 145 mg P2O5 pot-1).In all the treatments, nitrogen  percentage in grains remained almost unchanged and it ranged from 1.93 – 1.94% and 1.87 –  1.91% for UP and DAP, respectively. The results suggested that UP was a better source of P for wheat in calcareous soil.

 

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 9(3): 225-228, 2012.

ENHANCING GROWTH AND YIELD OF DIRECT SEEDED RICE THROUGH INTEGRATED NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT UNDER DERA ISMAIL KHAN CONDITIONS

Abdul Wahab Khan1, Matiullah Khan2, Abdul Sattar Anjum3 and Motsim Billah2

1Rice Programme, Crop Sciences Institute, NARC, Islamabad
2 Water Resources Research Institute, NARC, Islamabad
3Orgainc Farming, Crop Sciences Institute, NARC,   Islamabad
 Email: awahabkhan2009@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

The research study was conducted on farmer’s field in village Dhakki, Dera Ismail Khan (KPK) during Kharif season, 2011 to determine the effect of integrated nutrient management on the growth and yield of direct seeded rice. Treatments were assigned randomly using RCBD having three replications. IR-6 was used as test variety. The net plot size was 2.5 x 5(12.5m2) with10 rows. Treatments were T1 = wheat straw @ 5 t ha-1 alone, T2 = wheat straw @ 5 t ha-1 + P2O5 @ 30 Kg ha-1 , T3 = wheat straw @ 5 t ha-1 + P2O5 @ 60 Kg ha-1 and T4 = P2O5 @ 90 Kg ha-1 alone.  Effect of wheat residues/straw and different phosphorus levels showed significant variations for plant height (cm), productive tillers m-2, number of grains panicle-1, panicle length (cm),1000 grain weight (g) and that the treatment T2 (wheat straw @ 5 t ha-1 + P2O5 @ 30 Kg ha-1) performed the best and gave the maximum paddy yield of 7.35 t ha-1. It was concluded that selection of suitable cultivars, timely planting and accurate use of phosphorus with organic fertilizers, rates of fertilizer can be reduced by 50% thus sustaining the agricultural productivity and reducing environmental degradation.

 

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 9(3): 229-232, 2012.

GENETIC DIVERSITY IN COMMON OAK (QUERCUS) SPECIES USING SDS-PAGE

Sultan-ud-din1, I. Khalilullah1, H. Ahmad2, I. A. Khan2 and Haidar Ali3
                                                        
1Department of Botany, Hazara University, Mansehra, Pakistan.
2Department of Genetics, Hazara University, Mansehra, Pakistan.
3Institute of Plant Sciences & Biodiversity, University of Swat, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

Five Oak species found in Pakistan are Q. baloot, Q. dilatata, Q. incana, Q. glauca and Q. semecarpifolia. The seed storage proteins in these five species of Oak found in Pakistan were analyzed. Proteins were extracted at room temperature for about 20 minutes in extraction buffer containing 0.05 M Tris, 2.0 % SDS, 5 M Urea, and 1-2% beta mercaptoethanol. Gels were prepared in 30% Acrylamide solution having Acrylamide: bisacrylamide ratio of 30:0.8. One sample of Quercus incana collected from Shawer; Swat was identified where a protein band was missing indicating possibilities of previously miss identification of the species. More research work is needed for better understanding of the genetic structure of the species.

 

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 9(3): 233-255, 2012.

A METHOD TO GENERATE GROWTH-AND-OBESITY PROFILES OF CHILDREN OF STILL-GROWING PARENTS


Syed Arif Kamal1, 3 * and Samira Sahar Jamil2,  3 #

1 Mathematical Biology Group, Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Karachi,
Karachi 75270, Pakistan; e-mail
:sakamal(at the rate of)uok.edu.pk
2 Mathematical Sciences Research Center, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Sciences and Technologies,
Gulshan-é-Iqbal Campus, University Road, Karachi 75300, Pakistan
3 SF Growth-and-Imaging Laboratory, the NGDS Pilot Project, University of Karachi, Box 8406, Karachi 75270, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

This work presents the method of computing growth-and-obesity profiles of children of still-growing parents (under-21 father and under-19 mother). The method for generating growth-and-obesity profiles of children of grown-up parents cannot be employed for the children of young spouses, as it is based on values of adult height of both parents. In the present scenario, adult height is not available as the parents are still growing. This work modifies the box-interpolation-based model to produce growth-and-obesity profiles of such families. This is accomplished by computing estimated-adult heights of both parents, using the percentiles of their current heights. These values are, then, utilized for the computation of mid-parental (target) heights. This model estimates adult heights and weights of all the family members and expresses as percentage the degrees to which the individuals are obese (wasted), taking optimal weights as standard. For children, this method, also, provides the information if the incumbents are tall (stunted), based on current-age-mid-parental heights. This procedure is demonstrated through simulated data with an example of a young couple and their twin children. This framework can be adjusted for families, in which, one of the parents is still growing, while the other one has attained adult height. Extreme cases presented earlier have been enhanced and concept of estimated-adult BMI (body-mass index) for children introduced. This index could be used to, roughly, classify a child as obese or wasted. Sociological and psychological implications of underage marriages are, also, looked into.

 

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 9(3): 257-262, 2012.

LIGAND-BASED SCREENING OF CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS OF GLYCYRRHIZA GLABRA IN SEARCH OF INHIBITORS OF XANTHINE OXIDASE

Sadaf Naeem1*, Erum Shireen1, Khalida Bano1 and Dave J. Barlow2

1Department of Biochemistry, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan
2 Institute of Pharmaceutical Science, King’s College London, London, SE1 9NH, UK
*Corresponding author email: sadafnaeem_4@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

The ligand-based screening of the chemical compounds found in Glycyrrhiza glabra has been performed by Random forest modeling to search the inhibitors of xanthine oxidase, which has been implicated in oxidative injury to tissue and in many other diseases. The hits obtained by RF modeling are mostly flavonoids with Kumatakenin, Isoquercitrin and astragalin among the top of the list with 0.97, 0.96 and 0.95 RF score, and thus potentially be inhibitors of enzyme xanthine oxidase.

 

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 9(3): 263-266, 2012.

HOMOCYSTEINE VARIATIONS IN PATIENTS WITH ISCHEMIC HEART DISEASE

Aisha Javaid1 ,  Zahir Hussain*, 1,2, Ruqaiya Hasan1 and Amir Elmubarek Ali2

1Department of Physiology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan 
2Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia.
*E-mail: zahussai@yahoo.ca

ABSTRACT

Age, sex, hyperlipidemia, hypertension (HT), smoking, diabetes (DB) and familial causes are considered as the major risk factors of ischemic heart disease (IHD). High levels of plasma homocysteine (Hcy) might be a main involvement in cardiovascular disorders, but lowering the plasma levels of Hcy has not been found as the cure for the cardiac diseases. In view of the controversies related to role of Hcy in IHD it was planned to conduct a study to investigate a precise role of Hcy in IHD patients with various risk factors. The patients were selected after thorough clinical history assessments. They were categorized according to their age and the risk factors they had. The age-matched controls were selected from healthy volunteers. Results for smoking data showed no significant Hcy variations while compared with normal (N) controls. The data of the patients showing the risk factor of hypercholesterolemia (HC) showed significant elevation of Hcy levels for age ranges <30, 30-40, and 60-70. The data of hypertension (HT) gave significant change for age range <30, 30-40, and >70. Whereas N vs DM showed significant variation for age range <30, and 30-40. These results showed that the patients with <30 and 30-40 years age range had significant elevation in Hcy concentration for all risk factors except smoking in the current study.

 

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 9(3): 267-271, 2012.

INDUCTION OF THERMO-TOLERANCE THROUGH SALICYLIC ACID IN MUNG BEAN (VIGNA RADIATA L.) SEEDLINGS

Simeen Mansoor* and Sadia Khan

*Department of Genetics , University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan
Email; simeenm@uok.edu.pk

ABSTRACT

High temperature is most important abiotic stress which causes morphological and physiological changes in plants. It is needed to screen those genotypes that can perform well under elevated temperatures. Developing plants with improved thermotolerance can mitigate the adverse effects of heat stress. There are certain hormones or hormone like substances like salicylic acid (SA) that can enhance stress tolerance in plants. During current investigations, seeds of four mung bean genotypes (NM 19-19, NM 20-21, NM 121-123 and NCM 89) were imbibed in 0.1  and 1.0 mM SA prior to lethal temperature stress (50°C for 2h). Seedling length, fresh weight and dry weight were reduced remarkably under lethal stress but the pretreatment of SA before lethal  stress caused significant improvement in these parameters  at P<0.05 level of significance for all genotypes. Heat stress tolerance index (HSTI) is used as an effective tool for the detection of stress tolerance in plants. It was observed that the HSTI values reduced considerably at lethal temperature, however pretreatment of salicylic acid improved HSTI. The performance of NM 19-19 was best and NM 20-21 was poor amongst all genotypes by considering these morphological parameters as well as HSTI values.

 

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 9(3): 273-281, 2012.

DOCKING STUDIES OF CYCLOOXYGENASE 2 INHIBITORY ACTIVITY OF FLAVONOIDS

Sadaf Naeem

Department of Biochemistry, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

Docking of small molecules within the binding site of the macromolecules and estimation of the binding affinity of those compounds is a vital part of structure based drug design. The current study illustrates the binding of flavonoids against the cyclooxygenase enzyme using in-silico docking studies.  For this purpose, apigenin, galangin, genistein, hesperitin, kaempferol, luteolin and quercetin were selected. In-silico docking studies were carried out using Molgro Virtual Docker (MVD) software.Docking result shows that all these flavonoids fits well in the active site of COX2 with Luteolin and Genisten with the highest docking score -102.99 Kcal/mol and -100.96 Kcal/mol, respectively, thus, could be potent inhibitor of COX2.

 

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 9(3): 283-292, 2012.

OYSTER CULTURE IN MANGROVES-DOMINATED ESTUARINE   ENVIRONMENT OF AMBRAH CREEK OF GAROH AND WARI CREEK OF SHAH BUNDER IN INDUS DELTA, SINDH, PAKISTAN

Syed Viqar Ali 1 and D. Khan 2

1  Sindh Coastal Community Development Project, Sindh Coastal development Authority, Karachi, Pakistan
2 Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

Growth of Crassostrea gryphoides (Schlotheim 1813) cultured through rafts at Ambrah creek, Garho and Wari creek, Shah Bunder has been described. The spats established in three months in Ambrah creek and 4 months in Wari creek. Growth data were collected from June 2011 to May 2012 from 10 rafts in Ambrah creek and eight rafts in Wari creek. The growth at the two places was continuous, however, slower in Wari creek. When cultured through rafts, the oyster reached to an average size of 12.14 ± 0.07 cm in length in a year in Ambrah creek and c 7.94 ± 0.02 cm in Wari creek with an overall rate of 1.01 cm.Moth-1 and 0.71 cm.Month-1, respectively.  The growth was significantly affected by age as well the rafts and the two factors interacted significantly at both places. RGR in both creeks declined regularly through out the year. In both creeks spat growth was faster than that of the adult oysters. Comprehensive studies pertaining to the growth of oysters in Indus delta are in progress to elucidate economic aspects of this venture and quantity and the quality of meat obtained.

 

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 9(3): 293-294, 2012.

PLANT PARASITIC NEMATODES ASSOCIATED WITH CHERRY (PRUNUS AVIUS L.) IN BALOCHISTAN, PAKISTAN

Aly Khan and Juma Khan Tareen

1Crop Diseases Research Institute, PARC, Karachi University Campus, Karachi-75270
2Directorate of Plant Protection, Agriculture Research Institute, Sariab, Quetta.

ABSTRACT

A survey was conducted to investigate plant parasitic nematodes associated with Cherry (Prunus avium L.) in Balochistan. A total of nine nematode genera were recorded from six localities namely Kalat, Mangochar, Mastung, Mugalzai, Quetta and Surab. The nematodes recorded in high frequency were Xiphinema rivesi and Helicoltylenchus cavenessi. The control measures using chemicals alongwith organic amendments are suggested.

 

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 9(3): 295-305, 2012.

COMPUTER AIDED DRUG DESIGNING OF 1-ALKYL, 4-ACYL, PIPERAZINE IMIDAZOL FREE DERIVATIVE AS H3 RECPTOR ANTAGONIST

Khalida Bano,  Sadaf Naeem,  Naveed Ali Siddiqui, Kulsoom  Javaid and Naheed Akhtar

Biophysics Research Unite, Department of Biochemistry , University of Karachi, Karachi 75270. Pakistan.
Correspondence author : khalidabano@hotmail.com

ABSTRACT

The histamine H3 receptor subtype negatively modulates the release of various neurotransmitters such as histamine, glutamate, norepinephrine, acetylcholine and many others mainly in the CNS and H3 antagonists have been developed to treat central diseases characterized by neurotransmission disturbance such as schizophrenia, memory/learning and sleep disorders. The imidazole-free derivatives possessed moderate to pronounced antagonistic potency at guinea-pig ileal H3 receptor consistent with binding affinity at rat brain H3 receptors and showed a favourable receptor selectivity profile .Computer aided drug designing of 1 – alkyl -4 acyl  piperazine derivative was performed by Argus Lab software .The minimum potential energy is calculated by grometery convergence function by Argus Lab software .The most feasible postion for the drug to interact with the recptor was found to be 38.2539624  kcal /mol

 

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 9(3): 307-312, 2012.

EUREMA HECABE (LINNAEUS, 1758) [LEPIDOPTERA: PIERIDAE], A SERIOUS SEEDLING PEST OF ACACIA STENOPHYLLA A. CUNN. EX. BENTH., IN KARACHI

D. Khan and Zulfiqar Ali Sahito

Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

The pest relationship of Common grass yellow [Eurema hecabe (Linnaeus, 1758)] with Acacia stenophylla A. Cunn. Ex. Benth., an Australian plant grown in the department of Botany, University of Karachi, Pakistan is described. The larva of this beautiful moth is a serious pest of seedlings of A. stenophylla and rapidly devours their young leaves but not the phyllodes.

 

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 9(3): 313-316, 2012.

ISOLATION OF DEEP-SEATED FUNGI FROM LENS CULINARIS. L (LENTIL) SEEDS COLLECTED FROM PAKISTAN

Summiaya Rahim and Shahnaz Dawar

Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

Forty six fungal species belonging to 21 genera were isolated from seed samples of lentil collected from different localities of Pakistan viz; Karachi (2), Swabi (1) and Ghazi (1) by component plating technique on potato dextrose agar. Highest number of storage and pathogenic fungi were isolated from cotyledons followed by seed coat and embryo. The most dominant fungi were the species of Aspergillus on all the three parts. Fourteen species belonging to 7 genera was isolated from seedling symptoms test conducted on samples collected from Karachi (1), Faisalabad (1), Ghazi (1) and Sukkur (1). Highest post emergence rot on seedlings was caused by the species of Aspergillus. Surface sterilization with 1% Na (OCl) 2 reduced the incidence of pathogenic fungi. Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium and Trichoderma species were isolated from the embryo which showed that they were deep seated and caused the death of seedlings by appearing in later stages of growth.

 

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 9(3): 317-326, 2012.

IMPACT OF INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT ON THE BENTHIC BIODIVERSITY OF GIZRI CREEK, KARACHI

 Moazzam Ali Khan, S. Shahid Shaukat, Aamir Alamgir and* Wafra Matanat Zaheen

Institute of Environmental Studies, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan
  

ABSTRACT

The concentrations and spatial distributions of different pollutants, including ammonia, Biochemical  Oxygen Demand (BOD5), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Cyanide, Dissolved Oxygen (DO), oil and grease (n-Hexane extract), Phenol, and Heavy metals (As, Cd, Cu, Cr,   Hg, Pb and Ni ) were investigated in water and sediment samples collected from eight stations at Gizri creek. The concentration of many of these pollutants was quite alarming except Cr, Pb and Ni in water and sediment samples. A total of 138 species of flora and fauna were recorded from 7 different sampling sites of Gizri creek. Ecological survey of the benthic communities revealed that the pollutants are responsible for the degradation of natural ecosystem of the creek, which has consequently resulted in reduced biodiversity of the ecosystem.

 

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 9(3): 327-330, 2012.

CHECK LIST OF HETEROPTERA OF PARACHINAR (KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA), PAKISTAN

Rafiq Hussain and Rukhsana Perveen

Department of Zoology University of Karachi, Karachi 75270, Pakistan.
E-mail: rafiqpcr@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

An investigation was carried out on Heteroptera fauna of Parachinar, located in west of Peshawar (Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan).Twenty one species belonging eighteen genera from five different families (Pentatomidae, Lygaeidae, Reduviidae, Pyrrhocoridae and Belostomatidae) were collected from 2007-2010. The specimens were identified through fauna of British India and pertinent literature. Pentatomidae is dominant family having greater number of specimens. The species listed below are new record from the studied area. All the specimens have been deposited in the Zoological Museum University of Karachi.

 

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 9(3): 331-333, 2012.

GENETICS BASIS OF LEARNING DISABILITIES : Mini Overview

Maheen Waqar* and Erum Shoeb

Department of Genetics. University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.
*Corresponding author. E-mail: maheenwaqarfarooq@gmail.com; erumsh@uok.edu.pk

ABSTRACT

Learning Disability (LD) is said to affect the abilities of brain to receive, process and store information causing difficulties for an individual to read, write or learn. Learning disabilities may have environmental reasons like prenatal exposure to alcohol or postnatal exposure to lead, but most of the learning disabilities are genetic. Fragile-X syndrome is one of the leading causes of learning disabilities, which is the reason why LD is more common in males than females.  The present review is an attempt to highlight genetic factors involved which might facilitate earlier screening of LDs through molecular identification.

 
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