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Abstract October 2011

Abstract 2011
+ Abstract October 2011

 

ABSTRACTS IJBB VOLUME 8 NO. 4. OCTOBER 2011


INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 8 (4): 463-467, 2011.

MODELING OF BRAIN CANCER DEVELOPMENT USING FRACTAL GEOMETRY

S. Shahid Shaukat1, Hamna Nasir2, Nasir Uddin Khan2 and D. Khan3

1Institute of Environmental Studies, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan
2Department of Mathematics, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan
3Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270

ABSTRACT

This investigation attempts to analyze the growth of brain cancerous tissue employing the technique of fractal geometry, specifically computing the fractal dimensions. The fractal dimensions were determined using a box-counting method. The earliest stage showed lowest fractal dimension (D), 1.6541. The intermediate stage showed maximum fractal dimension of 1.7016 while the last stage available showed slightly lower D value of 1.6847. These results were found to be in agreement with those of previous studies on certain cancer types. The use of fractal analysis in the diagnosis of cancer is discussed. It has been shown that the fractal dimension of 2D microvasculature networks can discriminate between normal versus tumor tissue. Fractal dimensions also differed between various stages of malignancy.

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 8 (4): 469-473, 2011.

STUDY OF GENOTYPES OF HEPATITIS B VIRUS PREVALENT IN KARACHI, PAKISTAN

Muhammad Hanif1, Perveen Zaidi1, Salman Habib1, Muhammad Amir2, Shoaib Ahmed3, Abid Hameed1 and Akhter AhmEd1

1Karachi Institute of Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine (KIRAN), Karachi,Pakistan.
2Lyari General Hospital, Karachi,Pakistan.
3Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT 

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is one of the major causative agents of acute and chronic liver disease worldwide and is believed to be responsible for a million deaths annually. Around 400 million people worldwide carry the virus including 4.5 million only in Pakistan. On the basis of a comparison of complete genomic sequences, HBV has been classified into eight genotypes A-H which show a geographical distribution. Some genotypes are associated with different clinical outcomes. Identification of HBV genotypes is important to begin and follow up the treatment.
Very limited research work on HBV genotyping has been done so far in Pakistan and there is a high level of discrepancy and inconsistency among different groups of researchers. The aim of present study was to determine the prevalent genotypes of HBV in Karachi, Pakistan.
Samples from different physicians and hepatologists of Karachi were sent to PCR and molecular biology lab., KIRAN for HBV DNA detection by PCR methods. A total of 40 HBV DNA PCR positive samples (30 male and 10 female) were tested for genotyping bytwo step nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Genotype D was detected as the most prevalent (92.5 %) genotype followed by mix genotype A & D (7.5 %), no other genotype were found in this limited size of samples.

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 8 (4): 475-481, 2011.

BIOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF HEPATOPANCREAS AND MUSCLES DURING MOULT STAGES IN THE PENAEID SHRIMPS, FENNEROPENAEUS MERGUIENSIS AND F. PENICILLATUS (CRUSTACEA: DECAPODA)

Habib Fatima1* and Zarrien Ayub2

1Department of Physiology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan
2Centre of Excellence in Marine Biology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

The object of the present study was to quantify the concentration of protein, carbohydrate and lipid in the hepatopancreas and muscle of Fenneropenaeus  merguiensis and F. penicillatus during the moulting stages, post moult (stages A and B), intermoult (stage C) and premoult (stage D). The protein concentrations in the hepatopancreas showed significant differences between males and females of F. merguiensis. However, the lipid and carbohydrate were not significantly different between the two sexes in this species. The protein, carbohydrate and lipid concentrations in the hepatopancreas of F. penicillatus were significantly different in two sexes. The protein and carbohydrate concentrations in the muscles of males and females F. penicillatus were significantly different but in F. merguiensis these concentrations were not significantly different. The lipid concentrations were different between two sexes in both species. The protein and carbohydrate concentrations in hepatopancreas of F. merguiensis and F. penicillatus were either of same order or slightly different during stages B and C, but significantly higher during molting stage D. The lipid concentrations in the hepatopancreas of these two species varied during the three molting stages, being lowest during stage B and highest during stage D. In two species, the protein, carbohydrate and lipid concentrations in the muscles were almost similar during moult stages B and C but higher in stage D.

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 8 (4): 483-485, 2011.

LYMPHOID LEUCOSIS IN CHICKEN–LIVER HISTOPATHOLOGY

Aly Khan1, Muhammad Akram2, Noor-un-Nisa3, Nasira Khatoon4 and Mian Sayed5

1Crop Diseases Research Institute, PARC, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan
2Micro Laboratories, 522 Anam Blessings, Shahra-e-Faisal, Karachi-75350, Pakistan
3Vertebrate Pest Control Institute, SARC, PARC, Karachi University Campus,
  Karachi-75270, Pakistan,
4Department of Zoology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270 Pakistan
5Department of Zoology, Hazara University, K.P., Pakistan

ABSTRACT

The avian leucosis virus induces lymphoma in chicken called lymphoid leucosis. This disease causes severe loss due to mortality of poultry birds and depressed performance. The avian leucosis virus (ALV’s) are prevalent throughout the world. The present paper describes histopathology of liver with lymphoid leucosis. Four commercial egg type white dead birds, thirty three weeks old with no previous sign of ill health were received from a commercial layer poultry farm of Karachi. On post mortem the liver was enlarged. A portion of liver was preserved in 10% formalin and processed for histological studies. Dehydration was carried out in serial concentration of known volume of ethanol. Dehydrated tissue was then imbedded in paraffin wax at 52°C for 12 days. During the wax infiltration process air bubbles were removed from the tissue. Using rotary microtome 10 µm thick sections were cut and stained with haemotoxylin and eosin. Photomicrographs were taken using an automatic photographic camera mounted on a microscope Nikon Optiphot-2. The sections of liver show heavy infiltration of lymphoid cells. The infiltration of cells in the liver was marked where there was loss of hepatocytes. Lymphoid cells at high magnification revealed that the cells consisted of small and large lymphocytes with scanty and ample cytoplasm. The scanty cytoplasm of large lymphocytes appears poorly stained while the small lymphocytes present are deeply stained. There is no definitive treatment for lymphoid leucosis available.

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 8 (4): 487-490, 2011.

NEPHROSTOMUM ODEROLALENSIS N. SP. (TREMATODA: DIGENEA) IN CATTLE EGRET (BUBULCUS IBIS L.) FROM SINDH, PAKISTAN

Aly Khan1 and Rafia Rehana Ghazi2

1Crop Diseases Research Institute, PARC, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan
2Vertebrate Pest Control Laboratory, Southern Zone Agricultural Research Centre, Karachi University Campus, Karachi 75270.

ABSTRACT

A new species trematode, Nephrostomum oderolalensis, was recovered from the intestine of Cattle Egret (Bubulcus ibis (Linn.) collected from wheat fields of Oderolal Station, Sindh, Pakistan is described here. The new species is characterized by having a elongated stout medium sized, narrow anteriorly, broader posteriorly body; pharynx muscular; oral sucker subterminal; single row of 40-48 very small spines; acetabulum large and funnel shaped; cirrus pouch globular, preacetabular; testes oval, pre-equatorial ovary, pretesticular ovoid, median, uterus long strongly winding between acetabulum and ovary; vitellaria lateral extending from mid-acetabulum to posterior end. Eggs numerous, yellowish and oval.  

 INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 8 (4): 491-494, 2011.

NEOECHINORHYNCHUS BRAYI SP.N. (ACANTHOCEPHALA: NEOECHINO-RHYNCHIDAE) IN FRESHWATER FISH CATLA CATLA L. FROM SINDH, PAKISTAN

Fatima Mujib Bilqees1, G.S. Shaikh2 and Aly Khan3

1Dept. of Zoology, Jinnah University for Women, Karachi-74600, Pakistan
2Department of Zoology, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Sindh, Pakistan
3Crop Diseases Research Institute, PARC, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

Catla catla L. is a freshwater fish of economic importance collected (September 2008) from Haleji Lake, Sindh, Pakistan. Nine acanthocephalan specimens were recovered from its intestine which when compared with literature indicated a new acanthocephalan species, Neoechinorhynchus brayi. The new species is characterized by having medium sized stout body; lacunar system prominent; proboscis small with three circles of hooks, six in each circle, anterior hooks larger, posterior small; proboscis receptacle small; lemnisci unequal; male genitalia situated near the posterior end of the body and the bursa with subterminal pore and two bursal glands.

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 8 (4): 495-504, 2011.

THE NESTING DYNAMICS OF SEA TURTLES AT KARACHI COAST

Fehmida Firdous1, Solaha Rahman2 and Sohail Barkati2

1Sindh Wildlife Department, Karachi, Pakistan.
2Department of Zoology, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan.
e-mail: sohailbarkati@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

Extensive ground surveys and patrolling trips were made along the sandy beaches of Karachi coast, Sindh for a period of 19 years (1979 – 1997) to study nesting grounds, nesting frequency and nesting season of green turtle (Chelonia mydas) and olive ridley (Lepeidochelys olivacea). The number of nests made in a month by green turtle ranged from 13 (May) to 197 (September) whereas that of Olive ridley varied from 1 (March & May) to 19 (August).
The nests of olive ridley are shallower than those of green turtle. Nesting of green turtle occurred throughout the year with peak in September (20.82 %). Nesting of olive ridley was observed during June to August with peak in August (49.7 %). Nesting was inversely proportional to tidal level and water temperature.
Intensity of nest forming in green turtles was markedly less during the first six months of the year compared to last six months. Arribada or mass nesting was not observed on the coast of Sindh.

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 8 (4): 505-511, 2011.

CLADISTIC ANALYSIS OF THE SPECIES OF THE GENUS Melanotus Eschscholtz (Elateridae: Melanotinae), from pakistan

Muhammad Atique Akhter1, Syed Anser Rizvi1, Zubair Ahmed2 and Saima Naz1

1Department of Zoology, University of Karachi, Karachi, 75270. Pakistan.
2Department of Zoology, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, Karachi, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

Eighteen species of the genus Melanotus (Elateridae: Melanotinae) have been analyzed cladistically on the basis of their apomorphies. Cladogram has been constructed to illustrate the closest relationship of currently included species. The relationship of these species has been discussed in the light of apomorphies found in the eighteen species. A key to the species of the genus Melanotus has also been given.

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 8 (4): 513-520, 2011.

DIVERSITY OF FRESH WATER ALGAE FROM THE NULLAH OF TAKHT BHAI, DISTRICT MARDAN, KHYBER PAKHTOON KHAWAH PROVINCE, PAKISTAN

Mohib Shah1, Fazal Malik Sarim2, Farrukh Hussain3 and Niaz Ali2

1Department of Botany, Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan, Pakistan.
2Department of Botany, University of Peshawar, Pakistan
3Center of Plant Biodiversity, University of Peshawar, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

Twenty two genera and 30 species belonging toCyanophyceae(5 Genera and 8 spp.), Charophyceae(one genus and one species), Chlorophyceae(4 Genera and 5 spp.)and Bacillariophyceae (12 Genera and 16 spp.) were recorded from the Nullah of Takht Bhai, District Mardan, Khyber Pakhtoon Khawan, Pakistan.

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 8 (4): 521-527, 2011.

COMBINED USE OF (60COBALT) GAMMA IRRADIATED SEEDS AND NURSERY FERTILIZERS IN THE CONTROL OF ROOT ROT FUNGI OF CROP PLANTS

Naheed Ikram1, Shahnaz Dawar1, M. Javed Zaki1, Marium Tariq1 and Zeeshan Abbas2

1Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.
2Department of Physics, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.

 ABSTRACT

Experiment was conducted to investigate the combined effect of seeds treated with 60Co emmiting gamma rays for 2, 8 and 16 minutes and soil amended with nursery fertilizers like frutan, DAP and urea at 0.01 % and 0.1 dosages for the control of root infecting fungi such as Fusarium spp, Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid and Rhizoctonia solani Kühn in mungbean (Vigna radiata L.) and sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) plants. Both crops showed significant increase in growth parameters like shoot length, shoot weight, root length, root weight, leaf area and germination as compared to control. Complete reduction of root rot fungi of sunflower and mung bean was observed when seeds were treated with gamma rays for 2 minutes and soil was amended with urea, DAP and frutan at 0.1 and 0.01 % w/w.

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 8 (4): 529-537, 2011.

IN-VITRO ANTIBACTERIAL AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF CINNAMOMUM VERUM (CINNAMON)  AQUEOUS  BARK EXTRACT IN REFERENCE TO ITS TOTAL PHENOL CONTENT AS NATURAL PRESERVATIVE TO FOOD

Madhumita Rakshit and C. Ramalingam

School of Bioscience and Technology, VIT University, Vellore-632014. Tamil Nadu, India.
cramalingam@vit.ac.in, madhumita_vit@yahoo.co.in

ABSTRACT

The study was aimed at evaluating the antibacterial and antioxidant activity of aqueous extract of Cinnamomum verum (cinnamon) bark  in order to prevent the spoilage and rancidity of food. The extract was tested for antibacterial activity against three gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Enterococcus faecali) and two gram negative (Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis) food borne pathogens. The extract proved to be broad spectrum antibacterial agent. Though the yield of total water soluble solid was less, there was remarkable reducing power, radical scavenging activity and metal chelation by the extract. Interestingly the extract had powerful protection to DNA against the dangerous hydroxyl radical which causes several kinds of damage to cell organelles. Total phenol content of the extract had significant positive correlation (P<0.05) with the antibacterial and antioxidant activity. Based on the results it can be concluded that besides the use of cinnamon as culinary spice in food, it can be alternately used as natural food preservative for its potent antibacterial and antioxidant activity.

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 8 (4): 539-542, 2011.

ANALGESIC AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY STUDIES OF MYRICA NAGI BARK

Mansoor Ahmad1, Shazia Syed*2,Ghazala Kabir3, Mehjabeen4, Noor Jahan5 , Nudrat Fatima6 and Hina Imran6  

1Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Pharmacognosy, University of Karachi, Karchi, Pakistan.
2Departnemt of Chemistry, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan.
3Department of Chemistry, Sir Syed Govt. Girls College, Naziambada, Karachi, Pakisatn.
4Department of Pharmacology, Federal Urdu University for Arts, Science & Technology, Gulshane-e-Iqbal, Karachi, Pakistan.
5Department of Pharmacology, Dow College of Pharmacy, Dow University of Health Sciences, Ojha Campus, Karachi, Pakistan.
6Department of Pharmacology, PCSIR Laboratory, Karachi, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

The crude extract of Myrica. nagi bark was tested for its analgesic activity by writhing and hot plate methods and its anti-inflammatory activity by formalin test method in Swiss albino mice. In analgesic activity assessment by writhing test, the extract showed effectiveness at 300mg/kg (77.24 and 58.88% inhibition respectively) in both early and late phases in comparison with 500mg/kg dose which showed non-significant activity (33.56 and 22.22% inhibition) in both phases. Standard drug aspirin showed 41.83% inhibition of first phase and 74.07% inhibition of second phase. M. nagi bark also exhibited negligible analgesic activity in comparison with standard drug aspirin. It showed significant reduction in tail flicking and biting response. M. nagi bark @ 300 and 500 mg/kg dose showed 40.0 and 11.81 and 41.64 and 6.36% of inhibition of licking and bitting respectively at early and late phases.

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 8 (4): 543-550, 2011.

CONCENTRATION OF HEAVY METALS IN LIVER AND MUSCLES OF FISH, RASTRELLIGER KANAGURATA,  FROM THE COAST OF KARACHI, PAKISTAN
                                           
Farzana Yousuf and Quratulain

Department of Zoology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan
(aquratulan_ku@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

The concentration of some heavy metals (Zn, Mn, Cu, and Fe) were determined in liver and muscles of 72 specimens of Rastrelliger kanagurta, collected during April 2008-March 2009 from the fish harbour of Karachi on monthly basis. The concentration of different metals was found to be generally higher in liver than in muscles of fish. In liver of the fish the highest mean concentration of Fe was 45.668 ug.g-1, Zn, 23.36 µg.g-1, Cu, 5.006 µg.g-1 and Mn, 3.273 µg.g-1 and the lowest mean concentrations of these metals were 12.056 ug.g-1, 3.247 µg.g-1, 1.14 µg.g-1  and  0.477 µg.g-1, respectively. In muscles of the fish the highest mean concentration of Fe was 12.74 µg.g-1, Zn, 12.71 µg.g-1, Cu, 9.81µg.g-1 and Mn, 3.67 µg.g-1 and the lowest mean concentrations of these metals were 5.89 µg.g-1, 4.53 µg.g-1, 1.94 µg.g-1  and  0.17 µg.g-1, respectively. The concentrations of all heavy metals varied significantly in different months.

 INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 8 (4): 551-557, 2011.

EFFECTS OF MATURITY ON PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF OSMOTICALLY DEHYDRATED MANGO CUBES

Mahmood Azam*, Syed Nazeer Ali, Nabeel Ahmed Khan and Abid Hasnain

Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan
* Corresponding Author; mazam.fst@uok.edu.pk

ABSTRACT

Effect of different ripening stages on the physicochemical properties of osmotic dehydrated mango cubes (var. Chonsa) was investigated. Osmotic dehydration was performed at 50°C for 2 hours using 45, 55 and 65˚Brix osmotic solutions. Water Loss (WL), Solute Gain (SG) and Dehydration Efficiency Index (DEI) found to be dependent on the maturity stage.  Partially-ripe mango cubes showed highest WL and SG but revealed low DEI. Shrinkage and Firmness revealed non-linear correlation with increasing maturity. Dehydrated mango cubes shrank more and found harder at 55°Brix. Mango cubes dehydrated at 45 and 55°Brix showed significant variation in physicochemical properties.

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 8 (4): 559-566, 2011.

RESPONSE OF EARLY AND LATE MATURING SOYBEAN TO DROUGHT STRESS

Soheil Kobraee* and Keyvan Shamsi

1Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Kermanshah Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah, Iran. (Author of Correspondence)  Kobraee@yahoo.com
2Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Kermanshah Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah, Iran. Keyvan@iauksh.ac.ir

ABSTRACT

One of the most important tolerance mechanisms to drought stress in plants is drought escape. Therefore, in order to assess responses of soybean cultivars differential maturity periods of soybean to drought stress, a experiment was conducted in field at Research Station of Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah province, Iran. At the end of growth season, ten plants were selected randomly from each plot then their yield and yield components were measured. Results showed that soybean yield at water stress are dependent largely to maturity group. Also, all of the evaluated traits were reduced remarkably by drought stress. Regular irrigation had significantly increased soybean production in both early and late maturity groups. In this study, late maturity group is the most sensitive to water stress compared to early maturity group.

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 8 (4): 567-573, 2011.

THE SPECIES COMPOSITION AND DISPERSION OF ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGAL (AMF) SPORES IN WHEAT FIELDS OF EIGHT DISTRICTS OF SINDH, PAKISTAN

Q. M. K. Anwar1 and M. Jalaluddin

Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi 75270, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

The species composition and dispersion of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) spores belonging to 5 genera varied significantly (p<0.001) over a 3 successive wheat crop years (WCY1 to WCY3) in 8 districts of Sindh, Pakistan. WCY1 showed significantly higher number of AMF species than WCY2 and WCY3. The district of Nawabshah showed higher dispersion rate (R=1232) with significantly (p< 0.001) greater number of AMF species comparatively higher organic matter, soil moisture, slightly basic pH and low percentage of soluble salts (SS) whereas the Jacobabad district showed least dispersion (R= 560) with lowest number of AMF species having low organic matter, soil moisture but higher soil pH and higher percentage of SS. The genus Glomus was found to be the most predominant and genus Acaulospora was the least frequent. Among the 22 species, Glomus mosseae was the most prevalent whereas Acaulospora gdanskensis was the least occurring species.

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 8 (4): 575-578, 2011.

THE ALTERED PLASMA ELECTROLYTES CONCENTRATIONS INDUCED BY WEIGHT REDUCING HERBAL DRUG (MEHZILEEN) IN COMMON RABBITS

Ruqaiya Hasan, Mahmood Ahmad, Aisha Javaid and Zahir Hussain
                                                                  
Department of Physiology, University of Karachi, Karachi–75270, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

The weight reducing herbal drug, Mehzileen, was administered orally to common rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculus in a daily dose of 30 mg for 27 days. Blood samples drawn from the animals on day 0, 3, 7, 10 and 27, were used to measure plasma electrolytes. The results showed significant (p< 0.05) elevation in mean concentrations of sodium and potassium. Calcium concentration initially showed a rise then declined after day 10 of drug administration. The major ingredients of the herbal drug used are tonic, laxatives and diuretic, severely affecting digestive system and kidneys, therefore, may result in electrolytes imbalance.

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 8 (4): 579-583, 2011.

MANAGEMENT OF ORGANIC AND INORGANIC NITROGEN IN CULTIVATION OF DIFFERENT MAIZE VARIETIES

Kawsar Ali1, Fazal Munsif1, Iftikhar ud din2, Wagma3 and Sikandar Shah4

1Department of Agronomy, Khayber Pakhtoonkhawah, Agricultural Universit, Peshawar, Pakistan.
2Department of Mathematics, statistics and computer science Khayber Pakhtoonkhawah, Agricultural University, Peshawar, Pakistan.                                                            
3Department of Horticulture, Khayber Pakhtoonkhawah, Agricultural Universit, Peshawar, Pakistan.
4Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Khayber Pakhtoonkhawah, Agricultural Universit, Peshawar, Pakistan.           
                                                    
ABSTRACT

Field trial to evaluate the response of different maize varieties to organic and inorganic nitrogen was conducted at Agricultural Rescobch Farm, Khyber Pakhtoonkhawah, Agricultural University, Peshawar during summer 2010. The experiment consisted of eleven nitrogen treatments (Control, Nitrogen alone, FYM alone, Poultry manure (PM) alone, Green manure (GM) alone, 50% N (Urea) + 50% FYM, 50% N (Urea)  + 50% PM, 50 % N (Urea)  + 50% GM, 50% PM + 50% FYM, 50% PM + 50% GM and 50% GM + 50 % FYM) and two maize varieties (Azam and Jalal). Nitrogen treatments (N) were kept in the sub plots whereas varieties treatment (V) was allotted to the main plots. The experiment was carried out in randomized complete block design with split plot arrangement having four replications. The results revealed that varieties and nitrogen treatment significantly affected all parameters under study. Interactions between N x V were non significant for all parameters. Application of mineral N with organic manure in combination resulted in increased yield and yield components. Application of half Mineral N and half PM produced higher plant height, higher cob length, grain cob-1, thousand grain weight, grain yield and biological yield of maize. Cultivars  influenced yield and yield components of maize and higher maximum plant height, grains cob-1, cob length, thousand grain weight, grain yield and biological yield was produced by cv. Jalal. It was concluded that Organic and inorganic N application in combination cv. Jalal resulted in higher yield and yield components of maize and hence recommend for higher productivity.

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 8 (4): 585-595, 2011.

COMPUTER AIDED DRUG DESIGNING OF HISTAMINE  H2 RECEPTOR ANTAGONIST CIMETIDINE DERIVATIVE FOR THE TREATMENT OF DUODENAL ULCER

Khalida Bano, Sana Farman, Riffat Touheed, Najaf Abbas Ghafoor and Naheed Akhtar

Biophysics Research Unit, Department of Biochemistry, University of Karachi,Karachi –75270 , Pakistan.
Corresponding Author. Tel.: 092-021-8216577,E-mail: khalidabano@hotmail.com

ABSTRACT

Conformational analysis and geometry optimization of 2-(4-phenylbutylamino)-5-(3-pyridylmethyl)-4-pyrimidone is performed according to old approach GW BASIC programming  and new approaches ACD Chemsketch and Argus lab 4 Softwares. The conformational changes and potential energy calculated and predicted. Results of GW BASIC programming  and ArgusLab 4.0.1 software shown that the minimum total potential energy is  -0.0056 kcal/mole at ω1 = 270°  and ω2= 340° and from all  pairs and Final SCF Energy - 80741.3979 kcal/mol respectively.

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 8 (4): 597-603, 2011.

PREVALENCE OF INTESTINAL PARASITES IN MALE AND FEMALE SHEPHERDS OF SWAT, PAKISTAN
                            
Noor-Un-Nisa1 Wali Khan1 and Aly Khan2

1Vertebrate Pest Control Institute (VPCI), Southern Zone-Agricultural Research Centre, (SARC) Pakistan Agricultural Research Council (PARC) old Block 9 & 10 Karachi University Campus Karachi- 75270.
2Crop Diseases Research Institute (C.D.R.I), Southern Zone-Agricultural Research Centre (SARC), Pakistan Agricultural Research Council (PARC), Karachi University Campus, Karachi, Pakistan.                  
E-mail: drnoorunisa@yahoo.com, walikhan.pk@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

A survey was conducted to determine prevalence of intestinal parasites in different seasons in male and female shepherds of Swat, district of Pakistan. Faecal samples of 256 members (159 male and 97 female) of Shepherds families were collected and brought to the Laboratory, Vertebrate Pest Control Institute (VPCI), Southern Zone-Agricultural Research Centre (SARC), Pakistan Agricultural Research Council (PARC), Karachi for  examination. The microscopic examination was done by Wet Mount Techniques (WMT), floatation and sedimentation techniques. Of these 203 (79.2%) harboured parasites. From 203 infected samples 103 had one parasite species, 57 had two, 31 had three and 12 had four parasitic species. Helminthic infestation included Ascaris lumbricoides (108, 30.1%), Trichuris trichura (57, 15.9%), Enterobius vermicularis (37, 10.3%), Hook worm (24, 6.70%), Taenia saginata (59, 16.4%) and Hymenolepis nana (25, 6.98%), Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (26, 7.26%) and Giardia intestinalis (21, 5.86%). Males were found more infected than female.

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 8 (4): 605-607, 2011.

A PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION OF THE METAL CONCENTRATION IN DIFFERENT PARTS OF RHIZOPHORA MUCRONATA FROM BHIRA VILLAGE, MIANI HOR OF BALOCHISTAN COAST, PAKISTAN
                                               
Rashida Qari and Mohammad Younus

Institute of Marine Science, University of Karachi, Karachi 75270, Pakistan
Email: rqari2002@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

Pakistan has a vast coastal line of 1120 km bordering the northeast Arabian Sea. The mangrove forest in Bhira village, Miani Hor, Balochistan coast, Pakistan is spread over an area of about 2500 hectares which represents 42% of total covered mangrove forest in Balochistan. The study site, Bhira village, Miani Hor is continuously receiving continues amount of heavy metals from effluents and discharge of different rivers and industries and ship breaking yard. The results of analysis showed that concentrations of Fe, Cd and Pb were high in Rhizophora mucronata collected from Bhira village, Miani Hor, Balochistan.

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 8 (4): 609-612, 2011.

EFFECT OF INORGANIC FERTILIZERS SUPPLEMENTED WITH FARMYARD ORGANIC MANURES ON SEEDLING GROWTH OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) IN PLATE CULTURE

Saima Ibrahim and Nayab Bashir

Department of Botany, Jinnah University for Women, Karachi, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

A laboratory experiment was conducted to evaluate the manural potential of farmyard manure (FYM), vis-a-vis 25%, 50% and 100% recommended dose of two standard, commercial rate of NPK fertilizer (i.e 120:60:30) and to find out the most productive cropping system at various strength of chemical fertilizers and organic manures. In the given research the performance of organic fertilizer for compromising with expensive inorganic fertilizer was studied with respect to the growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The policy led to the minimal usage of high quantity fertilizer with the output of quality production.
Experiment comprised fertility level of NPK @120:60:30 along with FYM @ 5t ha-1 (aprox. 2.5gm/litre) NH4NO3, CaHPO4. 2H2O, KCL were used as sources of N, P2O5 and K2O, respectively. In the given research all growth parameters including SL, RL, SFW, SDW, RFW and RDW of wheat was recorded maximum at 25% NPK (1/4th strength). Application of FYM @ 5 t ha-1, at 120:60:30 NPK, to compensate the low strength of NPK was favored at both strength 25% and 50% NPK and produced significantly higher growth in wheat than all other single treatments. It has been realized from experiments that neither chemical fertilizers nor organic manures alone can achieve sustainability in production, whereas the integrated use of organic and inorganic can sustain a highly intensive production system.

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 8 (4): 613-622, 2011.

SEED AND SEEDLING SIZE RELATIONSHIP IN CASTOR (RICINUS COMMUNIS L.)
                                    
Naeem Ahmed, D. Khan and M. Javed Zaki

Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi - 75270, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT 

The seed weight in Castor (Ricinus communis L.)  averaged to 309.99 ± 0.16.016 mg and varied 15.4-folds i.e. around 51.4%. The seed weight distribution was asymmetrical (negatively skewed) and platykurtic. Out of 101 seeds sawn (seed weight: 33.7 - 515.8 mg), twenty seven seeds of seed weight varying from 33.7 to 245.5mg could not germinate. Within the range from 248.6 to 515.8 mg, the seed weight appears not to influence the final seedling emergence percentage. The critical seed weight to affect emergence, therefore, appeared to be around 248 mg. Larger seeds gave rise to larger seedlings. The cotyledons developing from larger seeds were larger in size. The hypocotyl length related with seed size in curvilinear fashion but varied greatly and their lengths could be accounted for only around 10% by the seed weights. The seed size, on the other hand, influenced stem dry weight quite effectively. The dry weight of the seedlings (roots + stem + cotyledons + leaves) increased significantly (r = 0.6582, p < 0.00001) with the increase in seed weight. Pigments such as Chlorophyll-a, chlorophyll-b, total chlorophylls and carotenoids concentrations were not significantly affected by the seed size within the range of 248.6 to 484.2 mg.

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 8 (4): 623-630, 2011.

MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR EVALUATION AND MANAGEMENT OF TUBERCULOSIS IN MALE AND FEMALE PATIENTS

Muhammad Shahid, Nasir-udin Khan, Mushtaq Hussain, Talat Remani , Muhammad Liaquat Ali

Department of Mathematics, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to evaluate and manage the T.B infection using mathematical model. The model based upon the biomedical knowledge of the pathogenesis of this disease and the current treatment regimes, which is useful for predicting the emergence of drug resistance T.B and assessing the probability that T.B will be eliminated. The model can be employed to evaluate difference of infection in male, female and both in order to answer a variety of health questions.

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 8 (4): 631-636, 2011.

EFFECTIVE SOURCES OF NOSOCOMIAL INFECTION: STAFF HANDS AND HOSPITAL SURFACES

Shilla Jalalpoor*1 and Abdol Ghaffar Ebadi2

1*Department of Microbiology, Shahreza Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shahreza, Iran.
 jalalpour@iaush.ac.ir or shilla.jalalpoor@yahoo.com.
2Department of Biological Sciences, Jouybar branch, Islamic Azad University, Jouybar, Iran.
Dr_ebadi2000@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

Nosocomial infections (NIs), also called hospital-acquired infections are infections acquired during hospital care which are not present or incubating at admission. Nosocomial infections remain a major global concern in all countries. Microorganisms are present in great numbers in hospital environment. Both infected persons and persons at increased risk of infection congregate in the hospitals. The subject of this study was to survey effective sources of nosocomial infections in hospitalized patients. Papers related to the importance of staff hands and hospital surfaces in transmission of bacteria in hospital were extracted from pubmed, elsevier science and yahoo from 1995 to 2011. For this study key words which were search included hospital surfaces, staff hand, transmission bacteria and nosocomial infection. Staff hands and hospital surfaces have important role in spread and transmission of bacteria in hospital. There is a consensus that the control Bacterial population in these sources, lead to the control of spread and transfer bacteria and so nosocomial infections in hospital.
Hospital surfaces can serve as reservoirs of pathogenic bacteria such Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella, Clostridium perfringens, Campylobacter, Listeria monocytogenes, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli and have important role in infection chain. Bacteria on hospital surfaces have low potential to spread. Staff hands have very contact with hospital surfaces and are more sources to transmission Bacteria in hospital. Increased Sanitation Staff hands and hospital surfaces has been considered to be the most important tool in control of transmission bacteria in hospital.

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 8 (4): 637-643, 2011.

POPULATION DYNAMICS OF DENGUE VECTOR AEDES AEGYPTI L. IN THIRTEEN TOWNS OF KARACHI, PAKISTAN

Imtiaz Ahmad1, D.Khan2, R. Muhammed Tariq1 and S. Salahuddin Qadri3

1M.A.H. Qadri, Biological Research Centre, University of Karachi, Karachi- 75270, Pakistan.
2Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi- 75270, Pakistan.
3Jamia Millia Govt. Degree College, Malir Town, KarachI, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

Population dynamics of Aedes aegypti is investigated in thirteen towns of Karachi. The breeding stations were chalked and regularly visited four times (weekly) in each month. The stations of Orangi, Baldia, SITE, Liaquatabad, Gulshan-e-Iqbal, Korangi and Shah Faisal Colony were surveyed from December 2009 through May 2010 and stations of Lyari, Sadar, North Nazimabad, Gulberg, Keamari and Bin Qasim were surveyed from June 2010 through November 2010. The population varied more amongst stations than months. Liaquatabad was worst hit town with alarmingly high population throughout the observation period; varying little between the months by a factor of 1.087 only; lowest between the stations investigated. The dengue vector population in Liaquatabad was maximally high in February 2010 (2498 larvae per 100 mL water) followed by 2403 larvae per 100 mL water in January 2010and reached to the lowest in April 2010 (2299 ± 17.2).  Sadar was the least –affected area. These results appear to agree with the data reported in the literature to date.

 


 
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