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Abstract October 2010

Abstract 2010
+ Abstract October 2010

 

ABSTRACTS IJBB VOLUME 7 NO. 4. OCTOBER 2010


HERBAL REMEDIES FOR URINARY TRACT INFECTION

Sabahat Saeed

Department of Microbiology, Jinnah University for Women,  5-C Nazimabad, Karachi, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

A urinary tract infections (UTIs) are characterized by a strong and sudden urge to urinate, followed by a slow and painful release of very little urine. Antibiotics are used for the treatment of all UTIs. However, the use of antibiotics can have side effects and if not checked in time can lead to further complications. Moreover, the emergence of antibiotic resistant bacterial strains is of major concern for physicians. During last decade the prevalence of multidrug-resistant bacteria has dramatically increased worldwide due to misuse of antibiotics. As an alternative medicine, there are quite a few herbal remedies that prove very effective in preventing and treating UTIs. The present review focuses on the herbal remedies for the treatment of UTIs.

 

AEROBIC BACTERIAL FLORA OF THE NOSE: A REVIEW

Asma Naim

Department of Microbiology, University of Karachi, Karachi.

ABSTRACT

The nose carries a variety of bacteria as part of the normal flora which can cause opportunistic infections under certain conditions and the nasal carriers are known to be a more potential source of spread of infection to others as compared to throat carriers of the same organism. The bacteria normally colonizing the nasal cavities are Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Corynebacterium and Neiserria species. While the bacteria most commonly considered as nasal pathogens are Coagulase negative Staphylococci, viridians streptococci, Hemophilus influenzae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella oxytoca and various species of gram negative bacilli. Many pathogenic bacteria are developing multi-drug resistance due to irrational use of antibiotics and pose a problem in treatment. The growing concern over the advent of increasing antibiotic resistant organisms has prompted many researchers to look for alternate treatments and one such alternative is herbal remedies.

ALLOMICROCOTYLA  NIGER N.SP (MONOGENEA: ALLOMICROCOTYLIDAE) FROM PARASTROMATEUS  NIGER OF KARACHI COAST, PAKISTAN

*Rana Hadi and Fatima Mujib Bilqees

Department of Zoology, Jinnah University for Women, Karachi, Pakistan
*Corresponding autho: E.mail: ranahadi2000@yahoo.co.uk

 

ABSTRACT

A new monogenetic trematode Allomicrocotyla niger is described here from the gills of the fish Parastromateus niger (Stromateidae) of Karachi coast. The species is characterized by having fusiform to elliptical body, paired oral suckers. Pharynx is pyriform. Testes 26 in number, postovarian, irregularly arranged. Ovary Y-shaped, uterus elongated and vagina is funnel-shaped. Haptor asymmetrical, fan fringed-shaped. Clamps 47 in number, equal in size.

 

 

A NEW SPECIES OF TANYMECUS GERMAR (COLEOPTERA: CURCULIONIDAE: ENTIMINAE: TANYMECINI) FROM SINDH, PAKISTAN

Zubair Ahmed1*, S. Anser Rizvi2, Imran Khatri3, Naeemuddin Arien1

1Department of Zoology, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Sciences &Technology, Karachi, Pakistan1
2Department of Zoology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan2.
3Department of Entomology, Sindh Agricultiure University Tandojam, Sindh, Pakistan3.
*Corresponding author.

ABSTRACT

A new species of Tanymecus Germar described as Allotype from Omarkot, Sindh. The present new taxon is described with male and female components of genitalia and their comparison with closest allies.

REDESCRIPTION OF ECONOMICALLY IMPORTANT GONOCERINE SQUASH BUG CLETUS RUBIDIVENTRIS (WESTWOOD) (HEMIPTERA: HETEROPTERA) FROM MURREE, PUNJAB, PAKISTAN WITH ITS PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIP

Imtiaz Ahmad1 and Navaid Rab2                                                                                                                 

Department of Zoology, University of Karachi, Karachi 7527, Pakistan
Department of Zoology, Govt.Degree Girls College PIB Colony Karachi, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

Economically important gonocerine squash bug species Cletus rubidiventris (Westwood) is redescribed in detail with special reference to its metathoracic scent auricles and male genitalia including pygophore, paramere and aedeagus and female genitalia including ovipositer and spermatheca. This  species is compared with the other taxa known in this respect within its genus and its phylogenetic relationships  in the light of these characterstics are also briefly discussed.

REDESCRIPTION OF THE MYROCHEINE SPECIES HUMRIA BIMACULICOLLIS LINNAVUORI (HEMIPTERA: PENTATOMIDAE: PENTATOMINAE) FROM SUDAN WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO ITS GENITALIA AND THEIR BEARING ON THE PHYLOGENY

Imtiaz Ahmad1 and  Muhammad Zahid2

1M. A. H. Qadri Biological Research centre,  University of Karachi,Karachi-75270, Pakistan
2Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, Gulshan-e-Iqbal, Karachi, Pakisatn

ABSTRACT

Humria bimaculicollis Linnavuori is presently redescribed with special reference to its male genitalia including pygophore and paramere and other important characters of head , thorax, abdomen and their measurements from Lake Keilak in Kordofan, Sudan in Ethiopian region and in this light the phylogenetic relationships of the genus Humria Linnavuoris is discussed with its closest allies within its tribe Myrocheini Stål.


REDESCRIPTION OF CAYSTRUS NURISTANUS LINNAVUORI (HEMIPTERA: PENTATOMIDAE: PENTATOMINAE: CAYSTRINI) FROM AFGHANISTAN WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO ITS SEVERAL UNKNOWN CHARACTERS OF HEAD, THORAX, THEIR APPENDAGES AND THEIR OF MALE GENITALIA AND THEIR BEARING ON ITS PHYLOGENY

Muhammad Zahid1 and Imtiaz Ahmad2

1Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, Gulshan-e-Iqbal, Karachi, Pakistan
2M. A. H. Qadri Biological Research centre, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan 

ABSTRACT

The caystrine stink bug species Caystrus nuristanus Linnavuori is presently redescribed with special reference to its male genitalia including pygophore, paramere and some important characters of head, thorax and appendages and in this light its phylogenetic relationship is also briefly discussed.

SCREENING OF VARIOUS TRICHODERMA ISOLATES COLLECTED FROM PAKISTAN WITH THEIR SUBSEQUENT GENETIC HOMOLOGY BY RAPD ANALYSIS

Amna Ali*, Rukhsana Bajwa, Ghazala Nasim, Nasir Mehmood and Rasheda Jabeen

Institute of Plant Pathology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, 54590, Pakistan.
Email: aliaamna@hotmail.com

ABSTRACT                                                                                                           

A total of 23 isolates of Trichoderma spp. collected from different areas of Pakistan, were procured from First Fungal Culture Bank of Pakistan (FCBP), Institute of Plant Pathology, University of the Punjab, Lahore. On the basis of morphological and cultural characteristics, Trichoderma isolates were identified into four species, namely T. harzianum, T. hamatum, T. koningii and T. pseudokoningii. The genomic homology of these isolates of Trichoderma was examined using RAPD analysis. Out of 27 random decamer primers, five primers viz., A-11, A-12, A13, B-05 and B-18 were screened out at 25oC optimized Tm (melting temperature). The amplification of bands were observed in the range of 250bp-50000bp by all five primers. In cluster analysis of five primers, isolate of T. koningii (wood of M. indica) showed least genomic similarity of 47.30% in comparison to all others. The other isolates of T. harzianum, T. hamatum, T. koningii and T. pseudokoningii showed maximum genomic homology (~78%). This data will be useful to achieve authentic identification for maximum usage of these microbes in all research fields.

COMPARISON OF ANTIBACTERIAL PROPERTIES OF PENICILLIUM SPECIES

Amna Ali, Ibatsam Khokhar, Irum Mukhtar* and Sobia Mushtaq

First Fungal Bank of Pakistan, Institute of Plant Pathology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan.
*erumm21@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

Nine Penicillium species were isolated from different sources and were screened for antibacterial potential against ten common bacterial strains. Bacillus sp. (FCBP 234) and Acetobacter xylinum (FCBP 239) was the most sensitive to culture filtrates of P. granulatum (FCBP 1080), P. verrucosum var. cyclopium (FCBP 1052),  P. billii (FCBP 1079) and  P. expansum (FCBP 1102), with maximum inhibition zone diameters of  4.2 and 4.0 cm, respectively. On the other hand,   filtrates of P. simplicissimum (FCBP 022), P. citrinum (FCBP 024), P. oxalicum (FCBP 025) and Penicillium sp. (FCBP 1069) were weak to least effective to control the growth of all tested bacteria. The preliminary data led us to conclude that, test Penicillium strains have remarkable antibacterial potential.  These locally isolated Penicillium strains can be used for novel fungal natural products in biotechnological applications.

 

BREEDING OF WHEAT FOR LOW PHYTATE

Ijaz Ahmad1, Fida Mohammad1, Nasrullah Khan3 and Aurang Zeb2

1Department of Plant Breeding & Genetics, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Agricultural   University Peshawar, Pakistan
2Nuclear institute of Food & Agriculture, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Agricultural   University Peshawar, Pakistan
3Department of Botany Federal Urdu University, Karachi, Pakistan.
Corresponding author: nasrullahdushkheli@yahoo.com

ABSTARCT

High concentration of phytate in wheat flour hinders the absorption and utilization of some essential nutrients such as Iron (Fe), Manganese (Mn), Magnesium (Mg), Calcium (Ca) etc.  A 5 x 5 diallel field research was conducted at the research farm of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Agricultural University Peshawar during 2007-08 and 2008-09 to determine Phytate concentration F1 hybrids and parent genotypes of wheat. All 20 F1 hybrids and 5 parent genotypes were planted at research farm of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Agricultural University using Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. At threshing, grains from each plot were collected and Phytic acid was determined at Nuclear Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA). The values for Phytic acid ranged between 0.81% to 3.91% among the hybrids while the parent genotypes ranged from 1.25% to 3.42% at NIFA. The hybrid genotypes gave a wider range for phytic acid concentration compared to parent genotypes, indicating transgression at both ends. This study identified some potential hybrid populations with significantly lower phytate concentration in wheat grains, thus providing useful material to wheat breeders. These hybrids are recommended to be included further in breeding programmes and should be screened in the coming generations in order to obtain a wheat genotype with low phytate concentration which should be a big breakthrough in the improvement of nutritional quality of wheat as Phytic acid is a potent inhibitor for micro and macronutrients which in turn cause nutritional deformities in human beings. Generation of low phytate genotype is a dire need in order to overcome on nutritional deformities such as Anemia, Rickets and Osteomalacia etc.

BIODEGRADATION OF PHENOL USING CELLS AND CELL -FREE EXTRA CELLULAR CRUDE ENZYME PROTEIN PRODUCES BY NOVEL STRAIN OF PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA

Sadia Sirajuddin, Omm-e-Hany, Moazzam Ali Khan and Suriya Jabeen

Institute of Environmental Studies, University of Karachi -75270, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

Aromatic contaminants of the environment, to which belongs phenol and its derivatives, are toxic and in the most of the cases hard to degrade. A strain belonging to the genus Pseudomonas wascharacterized by high effectiveness of growth in different concentrations of phenol, which was used as carbon and energy source. The isolate of the novel strain of P.aeruginosa was used to minimize time for degrading environmental samples containing high content of phenol. Phenol utilization rates were estimated from the amount of phenol degraded. Experimental results offer the opportunity to compare the results of novel strain of P.aeruginosa cells, and cell-free extra cellular crude enzyme protein. The use of extra cellular and/or cell-free crude enzymes has been also proposed as an innovative remediation technique. They can offer some advantages over the use of microbial cells. The highest removal efficiencies 99% within 6h in terms of quantity of phenol removed were achieved when treating with cell-free crude enzymes, biodegraded phenol more rapidly than cells. The use of enzymes was desirable because they can perform the same function as many harsher chemicals. Protein concentration in cell-free crude enzymes was determined and was about 55mgm/ml. The Molecular weight of novel strain of P.aeruginosa cell-free crude enzymes protein separated by SDS-PAGE was approximately 51 kDa. Detoxification by enzymes rather than by the whole microbial cells is practically beneficial because enzymes sometime can tolerate environmental extremes better than the whole microbial cells.

 

 

ETHNOMEDICINAL STUDY OF MARGHAZAR VALLEY, PAKISTAN

*Siraj Ahmad Yousufzai1,Nasrullah Khan2, Muhammad Wahab2 and Muhammad Ajaib2

*1Department of Botany, Post Graduate Jahanzeb College, Swat Pakistan
2Department of Botany Federal Urdu University Karachi Pakistan
Corresponding author: nasrullahdushkheli@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

A study of indigenous medicinal plants of Marghazar valley, District Swat Pakistan was conducted during summer 2006. The study revealed 69 species belonging to 53 families. It included 48 Angiospermic families, 2 Gymnospermic and 1 Pteridophyte and of potential medicinal value in the area.

BACTERIAL FLORA OF CONJUNCTIVAS OF   NORMAL AND DISEASED
INDIVIDUALS

Afshan Sahar and Asma Naim

Department of Microbiology, University of Karachi, Karachi.
Corresponding author: aasma_naim@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

A variety of organisms were isolated from conjunctivas of 32 subjects, to evaluate the occurrence of different gram positive and gram negative bacteria in normal and diseased subjects. The specimens were obtained from individuals belonging to 2-61 years of age which were divided into 6 groups with respect to age. One hundred and six isolates were obtained from 64 specimens. Thirty eight (36%) specimens revealed single isolates whereas double, triple and quadruple isolates were obtained from 30%, 13% and 8% specimens, respectively. Culture results were negative for 13% specimens. Characterization of ocular flora isolates to genus level revealed that Staphylococcus (64%) was the most frequent genus isolated from conjunctivas. Micrococcus (10%)turned out to be the second most prevalent genus followed by Bacillus (7%), Streptococcus (5%), Corynebacterium (5%), Pseudomonas (3%), Moraxella (2%), Neisseria (1%), Branhamella (1%), Acinetobacter (1%), Hemophilus (1%) and Klebsiella (1%). The incidence rate of overall number of isolates with respect to sex was noted as 34/106 in males and 72/106 in females. The number of isolates obtained in different age groups was 5, 10, 43, 8, 26 and 14 from age groups of 2-11, 12-21, 22-31, 32-41, 42-51 and 52-61 years, respectively.

EVALUATION OF TOXIC EFFECTS OF TRIGONELLA FOENUM-GRAECUM LEAF AQUEOUS EXTRACT ON DEVELOPMENT OF LONG BONE TISSUE IN RAT FETUS

Ziba Mozaffari1, 2, Mahnaz Azarnia3 and S. Abdolhamid Angaji3,*

1Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Islamic Azad University, Hamedan Branch, Hamedan, Iran
2Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Islamic Azad University, Sanandaj Branch, Sanandaj, Iran
3Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Tarbiat Moallem University, Tehran, Iran
* Corresponding author
Email: Ershad110@yahoo.com, Angaji@tmu.ac.ir

ABSTRACT

In the present study, the adverse effects of Trigonella foenum- graecum leaves aqueous extract (TGLE) on the organogenesis stage of Sprague-Dawley rat fetus was investigated; particularly, the effect on fetal development of the hind limb long bone. TGLE was administered in pregnant rats by intra peritoneal (i.p.) injection at the dose levels of 0.8, 1.6 and 3.2 (g / kg / day) on the 10th day of gestation. Then all rats were sacrificed on the 20th day of gestation and fetuses were removed from their uterus. The fetuses were assayed for histopathological signs of long bone. The results indicated that the treatment with TGLE (3.2 g /kg /day) were significantly different in long bone structure and growth histology details disorder in comparison with the control group (p<0.001). The treated group showed a correlation with the histopathological changes of long bone tissue in their fetuses. As a consequence, if only TGLE is used without consumption of any herbal plant concurrently, TGLE has toxic potential on pregnant rats at the highest dose level (3.2 g /kg /day). It showed that the extract has adverse effects on the development of hind limb long bone by disorder in the histology details of cell structure and growth into long bone during endochondral ossification. Thus TGLE at the highest dose level may cause severe adverse alterations in rat fetus. Proper clinical research should be carried out to confirm the same activity in human.

ANALGESIC EFFECTS OF THE AQUEOUS EXTRACTS OF IPOMEA PES-CAPRAE (L.) R.Br. IN ALBINO MICE

Ramesh Rajamoni

Department of Zoology, Government Arts College (Autonomous), Karur-639005, Tamil Nadu, India

ABSTRACT

Ipomoea pes-caprae (L.) R. Br., is a herb traditionally used by the tribes of kerala as a single drug remedy to treat painful conditions like headache, swellings, poisonous stings and snake bites. The ethanolic extract of Ipomoea pes-caprae , Family: (Convolvulaceae) was evaluated for analgesic property using plate reaction time. I. pes-caprae  extract showed a dose dependent significant reduction of the number of writhes (P<0.05) with 100 mg/kg body weight dose giving the highest reduction. The extract showed an insignificant elongation of the hot plate reaction time (P>0.05).The preliminary studies shows that the ethanolic leaf extract of I. pes-caprae  has significant analgesic activity and needs further investigations.

ASSAYING INSECTICIDAL AND WORMICIDAL ACTIVITIES IN CRUDE EXTRACTS OF LEAVES AND SEEDS OF PORTULACA OLERACEA L.

Shazia Syed1, Mansoor Ahmad2*, Mehjabeen3, Noor Jahan4 and Nudrat Fatima5
                                                         
1Department of Chemistry, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan
2*Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Pharmacognosy, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan
3Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, Gulshan-e-Iqbal, Karachi, Pakistan.
4Department of pharmacy, Dow University of Health Sciences, Ojha Campus, Karachi, Pakistan
5Department of Pharmacology, PCSIR, Karachi, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

Methanolic extracts of leaves & seeds of Portulaca oleracea were assayed for insecticidal and wormicidal activities in different concentrations (1mg to 100 mg/mL) on Tribolium castaneum, Sitophilus oryzae and Lumbricus terrestris along with positive, negative control and standard drugs. The crude extract showed no mortality in all doses in insecticidal activity but significant dose dependent mortality was observed in wormicidal activity test.

INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT TREATMENTS ON POPULATION OF NEMATODES AND YIELD OF GUAR (CYAMOPSIS TETRAGONOLOBA (L.) TAUB. CV. BHAWALPUR

Mian Sayed1, Aly Khan1, S. Shahid Shaukat2, B. Nawab3 and Khalil A. Khanzada1

1Crop Diseases Research Institute, PARC, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan
2Institute of Environmental Studies, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan
3PCSIR Laboratories Complex, Karachi, Pakistan


ABSTRACT

The impact of different treatments on population of two nematode species associated with guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.) Taub.) and yield of guar was investigated. All the treatments namely Carbofuran, Fertinemakil Plus, plant extract of Tridax procumbens and leaf extract of Eucalyptus citriodora significantly decreased the populations of Rotylenchulus reniformis and Pratylenchus penetrans. However, the yield was elevated significantly by only Carbofuran and plant extract of Tridax procumbens.

HISTOPATHOLOGICAL CHANGES IN SKIN OF JOHNIUS MACULATUS (SCHNEIDER, 1801) INFECTED WITH PROTOZOAN PARASITE

BUSHRA KHALIL, F.M. BILQEES AND SYED AJAZUDDIN 
                                                                                                                                                 
Department of Zoology Jinnah University for Women, Karachi- 74600, Pakistan
Adamji Government Science College, Karachi, Pakistan
E-mail: bushra – juw @ yahoo.com
 
ABSTRACT

Histopathological changes are described based on observations made on the skin of the fish Johnius maculatus infected with an unidentified protozoan. Histological sections were stained with haematoxylin and eosin, dehydrated in graded series of alcohols, cleared in clove oil and xylene and mounted permanently in Canada balsam. Photographs were prepared with Nikon (Optiphot-2) photomicroscope. Protozoan infection severely damaged the skin tissue - common findings were erosion, atrophy, dislocation of muscle fibers, shrinkage and degeneration of muscle fiber which produced large spaces between the muscles fibers. Hyaline degeneration of muscle fibers was also prominent in some sections. Epidermal and dermal layers were separated from each other due to the fiber damage.                   

MAMMALIAN FAUNA OF AYUBIA NATIONAL PARK DISTRICT ABBOTTABAD KHYBER-PUKHTOONKHWA PROVINCE PAKISTAN

Chaudhry Muhammad Shafique1 and Sohail Barkati2 

1Zoological Survey Department, Ministry of Environment, Islamabad, Pakistan
2Department of Zoology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan
e-mail: sohailbarkati@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

Twenty two species of mammals belonging to 2 species of Insectivora, 6 of Chiroptera, 1 of Primates, 6 of Carnivora and 7 of Rodentia were found inhabiting the protected Ayubia National Park, Khyber-Pukhtoonkhwa province. Details about the current status, feeding habits, relative abundance, nesting and breeding etc are given. The park has now become a permanent breeding territory of leopard, Panthera pardus millardi.

A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF MOLLUSCAN BIOMASS ON FOUR ROCKY SHORES OF KARACHI, PAKISTAN

Solaha Rahman1 and Sohail Barkati1

1Department of Zoology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan
e-mail: sohailbarkati@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

The overall mean dry biomass of molluscs was highest at Nathiagali (518.684 gm/m2) followed by Buleji (418.938 gm/m2), Manora (408.088 gm/m2) and Cape Monze (337.365 gm/m2) during a period of two years from December 1993 to December 1995. The average dry biomass of molluscs was highest in mid tidal zone followed by high and low tidal zone at Manora, Buleji and Cape Monze rocky shores whereas, the average biomass was high in low tidal zone followed by high and mid tidal zones at Nathiagali rocky shore. Cerithium morus (36.88%) predominated at Manora, C. morus (29.15%) and Turbo coronatus (24.93%) co-dominated at Buleji, Cerithium rubus (16.28%), Trochus stellatus (14.82%), Turbo coronatus (16.92%) at Nathiagali and T. intercostalis (44.52%) pre-dominated at Cape Monze. The analysis of variance revealed that biomass was significantly different among sites and also among tidal zones.

EVALUATION OF DRINKING WATER QUALITY SUPPLIED IN THE CITY OF KARACHI

M. Fazal Karim1,  *Seema Jilani2 and Waseem Akhtar3

1Department of Environmental Engineering, NED University of Engineering & Technology. Karachi, Pakistan
2*Department of Science, Textile Institute of Pakistan.
3Department of Environmental Engineering, NED University of Engineering & Technology. Karachi, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to assess the quality of water as it is transported from treatment plant to the consumers of Karachi city. The water samples collected from various supply lines were analyzed chemically and microbiologically. The results indicated that at treatment plant all the water quality meet WHO standard. However, the samples from distribution lines showed the presence of coliform bacteria and fecal coliform in the water samples of branched lines supplying water to the consumers. The residual chlorine was absent in almost all the samples. In contrast, the chemical quality of the water with respect to tested parameters (pH, turbidity, EC and TDS) did not alter significantly during the distribution. From the findings it may be concluded that the quality of water supplied to the city is not fit for drinking as per WHO standard. The measures to rectify the problems of water contamination need to be undertaken.  

BIOREMEDIATION OF AN INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT CONTAINING CYPERMETHRIN

Seema Jilani1 and M. Altaf Khan2

1Department of Science, Textile Institute of Pakistan, Karachi, Pakistan
2Institute of Environmental Studies, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

Cypermethrin is a pyrethroid insecticide mainly used in Pakistan to increase cotton crop production. Being highly insoluble and toxic to aquatic organisms, its treatment need especial attention. In this study malathion degrading bacterial isolate designated as IES-Ps-1 was used to assess its biodegradation potential for Cypermethrin. The data indicate that bioaugmented conventional activated sludge system able to treat Cypermethrin contaminated wastewater and a complete removal at 20 mg/L dose was observed after 48 hours. However, further loading of organic compound (40, 80 & 120 mg/L) correspondingly decreased the removal efficiency. But under mechanical agitation using 8-9 mg/L dissolved oxygen in a wide range of pH (6.8-8.8) at 28-30 °C temperature, >85% removal efficiency was achieved even at high organic load (80 mg/L). Experimental findings proved the potential of this bacterium to be used in bioremediation of pesticide contaminated effluent. Such study would be valuable to scientist and engineers who are trying to develop methods for the clean up of contaminated soils and water.

COMPARATIVE PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS FOR REUSE IN IRRIGATION

Seema Jilani1 and M. Altaf Khan2

1Department of Science, Textile Institute of Pakistan. Karachi, Pakistan
2Institute of Environmental Studies, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

In this study a comparative performance evaluation of existing wastewater treatment systems available in the Karachi city was carried out. The three options available are trickling filter, aerated lagoon and oxidation pond. The physical, chemical and biological parameters (SS, BOD5, COD, ammonia nitrogen, phosphorous and fecal coliform) in the influent and effluent samples of each system were measured on weekly basis over a period of twelve months. Additionally, effects of temperature on different pollutants removal in oxidation pond were also studied. The result of sewage influent indicates that it is fairly strong and concentrated. However, the overall performance of oxidation pond has an edge over the other two systems on the basis of effluent quality, economics, operational and maintenance considerations. In view of the high fecal coliform count, chlorine treatment for disinfection would be mandatory. Due to prevailing conditions of developing countries, oxidation pond seems to be the viable option of wastewater treatment. It is therefore recommended, to have a number of oxidation ponds located along the periphery of the metropolis and surrounded by green belts to reuse the treated water. This may be helpful in saving large quantity of fresh water and also solving the unmanaged wastewater problem of the city.

ASSESSMENT of HEAVY Metal Contents at rehri creek area, karachi, sindh

*Atif Shahzad, Moazzam Ali Khan, Kiran Shahzad, S. Shahid Shaukat, Omm-E-Hany, Aamir Alamgir and Sara Umair Siddiqui

Institute of Environmental Studies, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

This study focuses on the heavy metal contamination along Rehri Creek area. Water and sediment samples were systematically collected from industrial and domestic discharges which is responsible for pollution st the area. Wastewater samples were collected from lower section of the drains at three different stations while seawater and sediments samples were collected close to these drains. Heavy metal contents were analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrometer. Hierarchical cluster analysis (CA) is used for statistical grouping of sites that have similar characteristics. Strong positive correlations were obtained for the heavy metals which seem to be attributable to their common origin. In addition, mineralization in the area is thought to cause variation in metal contents. Results of the heavy metal analysis in the effluent drains showed elevated concentrations of all metals except Zn at site 1 and site 2 and As at site 1 as compared to National Environmental Quality Standards. The heavy metal accumulation in the area is responsible for creating ecological disturbances which results in biodiversity losses. It is recommended that protection zones should be defined and the necessary measures be taken so as to cease the degradation of this economically and ecologically important creek.

EDAPHIC PROPERTIES AND ABOVEGROUND STANDING PHYTOMASS OF CRESSA CRETICA L. POPULATIONS IN WATERLOGGED INLAND HALOCATENA OF TANDO MUHAMMAD KHAN, DISTRICT HYDERABAD (SINDH), PAKISTAN

D. Khan1 and M.Q. Channa2

1Government National College, Shaheed-e-Millat Road, Karachi, Pakistan
2 WAPDA, Hyderabad (Sindh), Pakistan

ABSTRACT

Two populations of Cressa cretica L. in waterlogged highly saline alluvial plains of Shah Farid and Buleri Shah Karim localities in Tando Muhammad Khan area, district Hyderabad, Sindh were studied for their edaphic characteristics and aboveground standing biomass after around three months of summer rains. The plant growth at Buleri Shah Karim was monospecific. At Shah Farid, C. cretica was subordinated by Aeluropus lagopoides (L.) Trin. (% IVI: 16.93). The mean height of Cressa was recorded as 0.11± 0.08m - reaching up to c 0.20 m in height. The density of C. cretica in these sites varied from 20 to 504 shoots.m-2 - averaging to around 175 shoots.m-2. The soil associated with these populations was fine-textured alluvium and basic in reaction. The finer fraction was probably the montmorillonite type of clay that exhibited cracks on drying due to shrinkage. The soil of Buleri Shah Karim locality was comparatively more saline in surface and subsurface samples (mean EC: 25.88 ± 7.32 dS.m-1) than those of Shah Farid soil (mean EC: 10.93 ± 0.92 dS.m-1and had higher amounts of Na, and Cl and SO4 and other ions and SAR values. These soils had low amounts of K and P. The aboveground dry phytomass (AGDP) of the sites under study amounted to  84.48 ± 11.82 g.m-2 in Buleri Shah Karim locality and 113.6 ± 13.32 g.m-2 at Shah Farid locality with an overall mean: 99.04 g.m-2. It extrapolated to around 1000 kg.Ha-1 on dry weight basis which is quite low in magnitude, presumably due to grazing.

LENGTH-WEIGHT RELATIONSHIP AND CONDITION AND RELATIVE CONDITION PARAMETERS OF LUTJANUS SPECIES OF THE FAMILY LUTJANIDAE COLLECTED FROM KARACHI FISH HARBOR, PAKISTAN

*Zubia Masood and Rehana Yasmeen Farooq

Department of Zoology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.
*email: masoodzubia@gmail.com.                          
              
 ABSTRACT

Length-Weight relationship and condition and relative condition factor parameters for the five species (Lutjanus johnii, L. lutjanus, L. malabaricus, L. russelii, and L. fulvus) of fishes belonging to the genus Lutjanus offamily Lutjanidae were determined.  The values of the exponent (b) for males, females and combined sexes belonging to same species were found to be different. Results of length-weight relationship studies showed the applicability of the cube law and a highly significant coefficient of correlation (r = 0.9) was found to occur  between length and weight for all five Lutjanus species, indicating the validity of regression plots.  In present study, Lutjanus species exhibited both positive and negative allometric pattern of growth. Condition factor (K) when analyzed against the total length and weight of these fishes appeared to be vary with increase in the length and weight. The average value of the relative condition factor (Kn) was found to be around 1 for all species except L.russellii, indicating that fishes were generally in good conditions.

 

 

 
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