Homepage Aboutus Editorial Board Instruction Contents Subcribe Feedback
 


Abstract October 2012

Abstract 2012
+ Abstract October 2012

 

ABSTRACTS IJBB VOLUME 9 NO. 4. OCTOBER 2012


INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 9 (4): 335-339, 2012.

IDENTIFICATION OF DISEASE FREE POTATO GERMPLASM AGAINST POTATO VIRUSES AND PCR AMPLIFICATION OF POTATO VIRUS X

M. Fahim Abbas and Shahid Hameed

Crop Disease Research program, IPEP, NARC, Islamabad, Pakistan
Corresponding author email: fahimqurashi007@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

Potato virus caused 83% yield losses in potato crops of Pakistan. Potato virus X (PVX) is in the list of the top ten damaging plant viruses in the world. Thirty three varieties/advanced lines of potato were screened against potato virus A (PVA), potato leaf roll virus (PLRV), potato virus M (PVM), potato virus S (PVS) and PVX. CIP-72-Y-3 was infected with PVA, PVM, PVS and PVX while Sahiwal-3, 34-1-Y, Sahiwal-4, 34-2-Y, Sahiwal-5, Sahiwal-6 and CIP-72-Y-4 showed reaction against PVA, PVS and PVX. 34-Y-3 found positive against PVA and PVX while PVM and PVX were confirmed in 34-4-X and CIP-72-Y-1. Azado-3,  34-6-X and 36-2 were positive with PLRV and PVM. 36-1, 34-S-1, 34-S-3-H and 42-1(Rusal Invary) were infected with PLRV and PVX while PVS and PVX were detected in Sahiwal-2, Azado-2, 42-2 (Rusal Invary) and CIP-72-Y-2. Eleven, one, nine, two, eight and two varieties/advanced lines of potato were highly resistance, highly susceptible, moderately susceptible, resistance, susceptible, against PVX respectively. Coat protein (CP) gene specific primes successfully amplified a 750 bp fragment of PVX in infected samples.

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 9 (4): 341-345, 2012.

GENOTYPE DEPENDENT DIRECT AND INDIRECT IN VITRO REGENERATION IN ELITE TOMATO CULTIVARS

Anjum, N., M. Usman*, B. Fatima and Monis H. Shah

Institute of Horticultural Sciences, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad-38040, Pakistan
Correspondence Email: musman74@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

Different tomato cultivars were explored for direct and indirect regeneration response in vitro. Combined effect of NAA and BAP was found better for shoot induction (73%) in cv. Nagina compared with KIN and IAA with 58% in Single Node Cutting as explants in cv. Moneymaker. Cotyledon explants proved better for callogenic response (38-45%) in cv. Moneymaker compared with Hypocotyl explants. These findings confirmed that both direct and indirect shoot proliferation in tomato is highly dependent upon genotype, explants and growth regulators.

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 9 (4): 347-351, 2012.

AGROBACTERIUM MEDIATED GENETIC TRANSFORMATION IN LENTIL (LENS CULINARIS MEDIK) CROP OF PAKISTAN

Muhammad Sohaib1, M. Fahim Abbas2, K. N. Shah1, Saleem ud Din2 and S. Gull2

1Pir Mhr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi,
2National Agricultural Research Centre, Park Road Islamabad-45500, Pakistan
Corresponding, author e-mail: sohaibhassan87@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik) is ranked as sixth important pulse crop of the world. Conventional breeding in lentil is hampered due to inadequate genetic variability, high degree of self pollination and small flowers.Cotyledonary nodes (CN), epicotyls and hypocotyls of two varieties of lentilnamely Masoor-85 and 2009 were used as explants source to establish a protocol for genetic transformation system using Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain (EHA105 and LBA4404) containing pGreen plasmid vector with GUS gene. Cotyledonary nodes (93%) and epicotyls (56%) of Masoor-2009 showed maximum growth on shooting media as compared with Masoor-85. Epicotyls of Masoor-2009 and Masoor-85 showed 56% and 45% regeneration with 2-3 shoots developed on each epicotyl. The performance of EHA105 and LBA4404 in GUS expression was 70% and 60% respectively. Stable integration of GUS gene was also confirmed through PCR.

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 9 (4): 353-358, 2012.

BIO-CHEMICAL RESPONSE BY ELEVATED SALINITY STRESS IN TWO BARLEY LINES

Fozia Marjan1,  M. Yasin Ashraf2 and Khalil-ur-Rehman1

1Department of Chemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan
2Nuclear Institute for Agriculture & Biology, P. O. Box 128, Faisaslabad, Pakistan
 
ABSTRACT

A Lysimeter scale experiment was conducted to determine the effect of elevated salinity on growth parameters and changes in biochemical attributes in 15 days old barley lines PK-30108 and Haider-93 in gravel using NaCl concentrations {EC: 5 (Control), 7.5 and 15 dS m-1) in 25% Hoagland nutrients solution. Under increased salinity stress both the barley lines underwent significant decrease in shoot and root dry biomass, chlorophyll (a, b and total) and total sugars whereas a significant increase in total  amino acids and NIRA was recorded. The reduction was significantly more pronounced at EC 15 dS m-1 than EC 7.5 dS m-1 and the control. The line PK-30108 proved significantly more salt tolerant than the cultivar Haider-93 in respect of shoot and root biomass up to EC 7.5 dS m-1 while both remained similar at EC 15 dS m-1.  The NRA was found to be unaffected in line Haider 93 but was reduced significantly in line PK-30108 with elevating salinity levels. The parameters could be used as biochemical markers for investigating the elevated salinity effects on barley varieties.

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 9 (4): 359-365, 2012.

INVESTIGATION OF VIABILITY OF PROBIOTIC BACTERIA AND PHYSICO-CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SYNBIOTIC YOGURT DURING COLD STORAGE

Shaghayegh Boeni1,  Rezvan Pourahmad*1 and Hamid Reza Mahdavi Adeli2

1Department of Food Science and Technology, Varamin Branch, Islamic Azad University, Varamin, Iran.
2Animal Science Research Institute, Karaj, Iran.

ABSTRACT

Consuming synbiotic products (simultaneous presence of probiotics and prebiotics) has beneficial effects on health of consumers. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of inulin concentration (1.5, 2 and 2.5%) and kind of probiotic culture (Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus acidophilus separately, and mixture of them) on physicochemical, microbial and sensory characteristics of synbiotic yogurt. Sensory evaluation, determination of pH, acidity, syneresis and viscosity, and number of probiotic bacteria in all the samples were conducted on the first day after production. The samples with better sensory quality were stored in 4 °C for three weeks and all analyses were conducted in days 7, 14 and 21. During cold storage, pH of the samples decreased significantly (p<0.05) whereas acidity and viscosity increased significantly (p<0.05). Syneresis in sample containing mixed probiotic bacteria and 2% inulin did not change until 14th day then increased significantly (p<0.05). Syneresis in sample containing L.acidophilus and 2% inulin and sample containing L.casei and 1.5% inulin increased significantly (p<0.05) until 7th day but after that decreased. Number of probiotic bacteria increased significantly (p<0.05) until 7th day then decreased, but this decrease was not significant.

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 9 (4): 367-371, 2012.

DOCKING STUDIES OF FEBUXOSTAT BY USING MOLDOCK SOFTWARE

*Sadaf Naeem1,  Uzma Asif1,  Asif Khan Sherwani1, Khalida Bano1, M. Harris Shoaib2 and
Naheed Akhtar1.

1Biophysics Research Unit,   Department of Biochemistry, University of Karachi, Karachi –75270, Pakistan.
2 Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Karachi, Karachi –75270, Pakistan.
*Author for Correspondence: sadafnaeem_4@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

Febuxostat is a selective, novel, non-purine analog xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitor for the treatment of chronic hyperuricemia in patients with gout. This enzyme is involved in oxidation of Hypoxanthine and Xanthine to uric acid and the compounds that inhibits the action of xanthine oxidase enzyme helps in lowering the production of uric acid in the body. In this study,  molecular docking of Febuxostat has been performed against XO (PDB ID: 3NVY) by using Moldock software and found that the amino acids Glu802, Ala1079 and 880 in the active site of XO are involved in the hydrogen bond formation with Febuxostat. The best conformation of this compound is reported here in which it is active as XO inhibitor and lower the production of Uric acid in body effectively and thus be used for the treatment of Gout.

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 9 (4): 373-377, 2012.

EFFECT OF TEXTILE INDUSTRIAL WASTE WATER ON GROWTH, PROTEINS, LIPID PEROXIDATION AND PROLINE IN MUNG BEAN SEEDLINGS

Simeen Mansoor* and Afshan Iqbal Baig

*Department of Genetics, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.
simeenm@uok.edu.pk

ABSTRACT

Industrial waste water and sewage water is extensively used to irrigate various crops in Karachi. The research was conducted to evaluate the effect of textile industrial waste water, on morphological and biochemical activity of mung bean seedlings as it is composed of various heavy metals. Mung bean genotype ‘Ramzan’ was used as a test material. Seeds were imbibed in deionized water for 12 h, germinated in Petri dishes for 24 h in deionized water. Treatment of various concentrations of textile industrial waste water (10, 50 and 100%) along with control (0%), was given till 72 h.  A decrease in seedling length was observed in treated samples as compared to control with more decrease as the concentration of waste water was raised. The amount of soluble proteins was non-significantly increased in low concentrations (10 and 50%) as compared to control. However at high concentration (100%), there was significant reduction in mean protein content.  Various abiotic stresses like metal stress is able to cause lipid peroxidation which can be detected by Malandialdehyde (MDA) content. We found that there was more accumulation of MDA as well of proline in treated samples in concentration dependent manner.

 

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 9 (4): 379-385, 2012.

SODIUM NITROPRUSSIDE (SNP) SEED PRIMING IMPROVES SEED GERMINATION AND SEEDLING GROWTH IN WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) UNDER OSMOTIC STRESS INDUCED BY POLYETHYLENE GLYCOL

Arruje Hameed1*, Munir Ahmad Sheikh1, Shahzad M. A. Basra2 and Amer Jamil1

1Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan.
2Department of Crop Physiology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan.
*Corresponding author: Arruje Hameed, arrujeh@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

Effects of seed priming with sodium nitroprusside (SNP) on seed germination and seedling growth under osmotic stress induced by polyethylene glycol (PEG) were investigated. Seed priming treatments were hydropriming, soaking seeds in aerated distilled water for 8 h and SNP priming, soaking seeds in an aerated solution of 75, 100 and 125 µM SNP for 8 h. Seeds were germinated in petri plates under osmotic stress induced by 15 % PEG- 6000. Final germination percentage (FGP) significantly increased by SNP priming treatments. SNP priming also reduced the mean germination time (h) (MGT) of the seeds. The germination energy, vigor index and germination index significantly increased by SNP priming. All SNP priming treatments effectively improved the germination rate, shoot length and root length. Hydropriming of seeds reduced the MGT and improved the germination rate as compared with non-primed seeds. However, hydropriming was unable to improve the FGP, germination energy, germination index, vigor index, root and shoot lengths. This means observed enhancements in the seed germination and seeding growth were due to SNP priming not because of only seed soaking. We concluded that SNP seed priming can accelerate the seed germination and seedling growth under osmotic stress resulting in improved tolerance.

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 9 (4): 387-392, 2012.

DISTRIBUTION OF GREY MULLETS (MUGILIFORMES; MUGILIDAE) ON KARACHI COAST, PAKISTAN

Zubia Masood and Rehana Yasmeen

Department of Zoology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.
Email address: masoodzubia@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

The present investigation related with the distribution of the four selected mullet species (Mugilidae) found on the Karachi Coast. About 1006 samples of the four selected mullet species were collected from the landings at Karachi fish harbor during the years 2010 and 2011. The total collection included 307 individuals of Liza melinoptera, 293 of Valamugil speigleri, 244 of Liza macrolepis and 162 of Mugil cephalus, respectively. Among them, Liza melinoptera was found to be the most dominant species, while Mugil cephalus was least in the total catch.

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 9 (4): 393-398, 2012.

COMPARISON OF PHOSPHORUS FERTILIZER EFFICIENCY OF UREA PHOSPHATE AND DAP IN WHEAT UNDER SALINE CONDITIONS

Shermeen Tahir, Asma Lodhi, Zafar Iqbal, Ansar Mehmood, T.M Qureshi, Muhammad Akhtar, Muhammad Yaqoob and Asif Naeem

Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology (NIAB) P.O Box 128, Jhang Road, Faisalabad, Pakistan
Corresponding author: shermeen234@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

Phosphorus use efficiency of urea phosphate (17% N and 44% P2O5) and di-ammonium phosphate (18% N and 46% P) were evaluated in saline soil (ECe10.05 dS/m & pH 7.64) on wheat, grown in pots containing 10 kg soil. Phosphorus application rates from either source were (0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 mg P2O5 kg-1 soil) at the sowing time whereas urea was applied @ 150 kg N ha-1 in two splits (at sowing and anthesis). The agronomic data revealed that plant height and spike length increased with increase in phosphorus fertilizer rate (irrespective of source). Urea phosphate showed its superiority over DAP for grain yield as well as P-fertilizer efficiency (PFE). Urea phosphate at 60ppm P2O5 produced higher grain yield (9.24g pot-1) as compared to DAP (80ppm P2O5, 8.98g pot-1). The straw weights obtained with UP and DAP ranged between 11.93-16 g pot-1 and 9.2-13.3 g pot-1, respectively. Phosphorus uptake in grain was also higher with urea phosphate (9.45-13 mg pot-1) as compared to DAP (7.93-11.23 mg pot-1).Phosphorus use efficiency of both fertilizers was significantly effected at all levels of phosphorus, however it decreased with increasing level of phosphorus. Highest phosphorus use efficiency (18.95%) was recorded at lowest level of phosphorus by urea phosphate.

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 9 (4): 399-404, 2012.

FORECASTING OF AGRICULTURE PRODUCTION THROUGH BIASED ESTIMATORS

Mansoor Ahmed, Muhammad Hanif* and Nasir Jamal

Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, E-mail: mhpuno@hotmail.com

ABSTRACT

The aim of this paper is to study the biased estimators in forecasting the agriculture production. The main idea relies on using the ridge regression estimators to forecast the groundnut production. The motivation behind the study is to use the ridge regression estimators is that it overcomes the problem of Multicolinearity that often occurs in the time series data. Our simulation study reveals that the forecasting through ridge estimators found much better than the forecasting of groundnut production by using time series econometric model.

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 9 (4): 405-420, 2012.

SOME IMPORTANT MEDICINAL PLANTS ASSOCIATED WITH THE VEGETATION IN DISTRICT MIRPURKHAS, SINDH

Faisal Hussain1*, S. Shahid Shaukat2, Muhammad Abid1 and Farzana Usman1

1Laboratory of Plant Pathology and Aerobiology, Department of Botany,
Federal Urdu University of Art, Science and Technology, Gulshan e Iqbal Campus Karachi
2Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Karachi
*Correspondence author E-mail: faisal.botanist2011@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

The data on medicinal plants in the vegetation of district Mirpurkhas, Sindh was recorded during the month of June 2012. Thirty four families, 51 genera and 53 species were recorded which are used by local inhabitants as a medicine, fodder, fuel and for agricultural purpose. Many of the medicinal plants recorded are used for the treatment of two or more diseases by the local people. The family Fabaceae was dominant with respect to medicinal plants. The precious knowledge of medicinal flora is rapidly vanishing due to the illiteracy among the local people and also due to destruction of the medicinal plants. The present study was designed to convey the knowledge and importance of medicinal flora as well as traditional uses of such plants in daily life.

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 9 (4): 421-427, 2012.

ETHNOBOTANICAL STUDY OF USEFUL CLIMBERS/TWINERS OF DISTRICT KOTLI, AZAD JAMMU & KASHMIR

Muhammad Ajaib1, Zaheer-Ud-Din Khan1 and Muhammad Faheem Siddiqui2

1Department of Botany, GC University Lahore, Pakistan.
2Laboratory of Dendrochronology and Plant Ecology, Department of Botany, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, Gulshan-e-Iqbal, Karachi, Pakistan.
email: majaibchaudhry@yahoo.co; ajaibchaudhry.gcu@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

Ethnobotanically important plants are used for various resolves in daily life including medicines, food, fodder, vegetables, etc. Medicinal plants are necessary for treatment of various diseases and production of various medicines. For this purpose climbers/twiners are extensively used as medicine.  The local people of District, Kotli use 36 climbers/twiners of the vascular plants for medicine, vegetable and fodder. As traditional culture is disappearing the knowledge about the plant wealth is going to be lost.
The information on climber species is obtained while studying the flora of District Kotli, Azad Kahmir. For each plant its family, botanical name, vernacular name, flowering period is given. A total of 36 climber/twiner species belonging to 18 families were recorded for the medicinal, vegetable and fodder. Among all the families family Cucurbitaceae were found to be most abundant having 7 species followed by Convolvulaceae and Papilionaceae with 4 species each.

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 9 (4): 429-433, 2012.

RHIZOSPHERE MYCOFLORA ASSOCIATED WITH LEGUMINOUS TREES AROUND KARACHI UNIVERSITY CAMPUS

Marium Tariq, Kanwal Tayyab, Shahnaz Dawar and M. Javed Zaki

Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270 Pakistan
Email: mariumtariq02@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

Using serial dilution and direct plate methods for the detection of rhizosphere mycoflora of 22 soil samples of 3 different leguminous trees (Prosopis juliflora, Leucaena leucocephala and Adenanthera pavonina) were collected from Karachi University Campus. By direct plating method, total number of 27 species belonging to 19 genera were isolated from all leguminous trees rhizosphere soils, where 26 species belonging to 19 genera from P. juliflora, 22 species belonging to 16 genera from A. pavonina and 21 species belonging to 15 generawere isolated from L. leucocephala. Out of these fungal species Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, A. wentii, Chaetomium indicum, Cunninghamella elegans, Curvularia lunata, Drechslera maydis, Fusarium solani, F. oxysporum, Mucor sp., Paecilomyces variotii, Phoma eupyrena, Rhizopus sp., and Trichoderma viride were observed on all three leguminous trees rhizosphere soils. Serial dilution method elicited 14 species belonging to 12 genera where A. flavus, A. niger, A. wentii, P. eupyrena, F. oxysporum, A. alternata, P. variotii, C. elegans, C. lunata, D. maydis, Chaetomium indicum, Mucor sp., and Rhizopus sp., were common in the soils of all leguminous trees.

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 9 (4): 435-444, 2012.

EFFECT OF BOTANICAL PRODUCTS ON GERMINATION AND MYCOFLORA OF MAIZE SEEDS

  
Ishrat Niaz and Shahnaz Dawar

Department of Botany,University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

Seed treatment with seed powder of Nigella sativa and Ferula assafoetida showed antifungal activities and reduced the seed borne fungi on maize. Maize seeds at 8 and 16% moisture when treated with seed powder of Nigella sativa and F. assafoetida @ 0 .5, 1.0  and 2.0 % and stored at 25 and 35 ºC showed a reduction in occurrence of fungi on maize seeds with the increase in storage time and concentration of botanical products.

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 9 (4): 445-448, 2012.

COMBINED EFFECT OF BACILLUS SPECIES AND FERTILIZERS ON GROWTH AND ROOT-KNOT NEMATODE INFECTION IN OKRA 

M. Waseem Abbasi and M. Javed Zaki

Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

In the present investigation three Bacillus secies viz. Bacillus coagulans (BA), Bacillus licheniformis (BLB2) and Bacillus cereus group isolate (BS) alone and in combination with three different fertilizers namely Urea, di-ammonium phosphate (DAP) and potash (P) were applied in soil. J2 of root-knot nematodes released around roots of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench. cv. Arka anam) after 10 days of seedling emergence. Bacillus species in combination with inorganic fertilizers significantly increased plant growth. Especially, B. coagulans (BA) in combination with all fertilizers significantly (P<0.001) enhanced plant growth. B. cereus group isolate (BS) with Potash (P) and Urea most significantly reduced root-knot nematodes infection in okra.

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 9 (4): 449-454, 2012.

FREE-LIVING MARINE NEMATODES FROM CHINNA CREEK, KARACHI, SINDH, PAKISTAN

M.Z. Wafra1, Nasira Kazi2  and Moazzum Ali Khan3

1Marine Reference Collection and Resource Centre, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan
2National Nematological Research Centre, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan
3Institute of Environmental Studies, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

Biodiversity and biosystematics of free-living marine nematodes were investigated in water and sediment samples collected from five stations at Chinna Creek. Chinna Creek which is also known as Eastern Break water is about 5.0 km long , 300 to 500 m wide with a depth ranges from 1 to 3 meters and is situated at the South East of Karachi at Manora Channel. Faunastic survey of the benthic communities revealed a total of fifteen genera belonging to ten families in three orders from Chinna Creek. Epistrate feeders were the major trophic group at  Chinna Creek, they comprised 46 % of the total nematode fauna followed by predators 38 % and deposit feeders 16 % only.

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 9 (4): 455-461, 2012.

NONMODIFIABLE RISK FACTORS AND SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC STATUS IN HYPERURICEMIC SUBJECTS CONSUMING PURINE-RICH FOODS IN MAKKAH

Osama Abdulrahman Mohammad Shaikh-Omar     

 Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia
E-mail: oashaikhomar@uqu.edu.sa

ABSTRACT

Gout is not the only complication resulting from hyperuricemia (HU). There are a variety of other pathological conditions where HU plays a role. The HU may occur in gastric cancer, ischemic colitis (IC) in young adult population, urinary stones in subjects with a permanent ileostomy, entero-arthrotic syndrome, obstructive uropathy associated with rotavirus gastroenteritis, laxative abuse syndrome and morbidly obese patients after jejunoileal intestinal bypass surgery etc. In the present study, the prevalence, role of nonmodifiable risk factors (age, gender), and socio-demographic status (education, family size and monthly income) in normouricemic subjects (NUS) and hyperuricemic subjects (HUS) (total randomly selected subjects=108; male: 83; female: 25; HUS: n= 21 men (25.30% of total subjects); mean±SD of age for HUS: 34.75±12.37 years that is significantly higher (p=0.009) than the control NUS: 27.76±8.54 years) in Makkah were studied. It was noticed that the HUS had habit of consuming purine- rich foods. The greater part of investigated subjects had graduate educational level for NUS (71.26%) and HUS (42.86 %). Education level, in general was found significantly different for the NUS and HUS (p<0.01).  The highest percentage is of HUS (39.08%) and NUS (57.14%) for the family size of 5-10 persons. The income of total family subjects as <3500 SAR/month was found for the highest number of NU group as 33 subjects (37.8%), and HU group as 6  (28.57 %) receiving total family income  5000-<7000 SAR/month. In general, the value of p was found 0.09 for income levels in HUS compared with NUS. The present report is a cross-sectional design and also did not incorporate information on other factors that might be related to the prevalence of HP, and additionally considerable difficulty was faced for obtaining female HUS primarily due to religious and socio-cultural traditions. Hence, it is recommended for a comprehensive study in future with large sample size of hyperuricemic patients (HUP) with the inclusion of female subjects of various age groups.

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 9 (4): 463-466, 2012.

LITTER PRODUCTION AND TURNOVER IN THE MANGROVES OF NORTHWEST INDUS DELTA, PAKISTAN

Waqar Ahmed and S. Shahid Shaukat

Institute of Environmental Studies, University of Karachi, Karachi 75270, Pakistan.

ABSTRACTS

Litter production was studied in mangroves of North-western part of Indus Delta. Litter fall in grey mangrove forests (Avicennia marina) was studied at two sites, Sandspit and Rehdri Goth. In the study, litter traps were used to monitor monthly rates of litter fall per m2 at two sites. The rates of litter fall were found to be 6.920 t/ha/year and 6.78 t/ha/year at the two sites which were within the range of other arid zone mangroves. Largest component of the litter were leaves (56.5 % and 59.6 %). While in the fruiting season, fruits were the major component. The greatest rate of leaf litter fall coincided with the rainy season. Litter turnover rate, Kt, was 16.53 at Sandspit where the residence time was 0.06 years. At the Rehdri Goth, the turnover rate was 12.42 while the residence time was 0.08 years.

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 9 (4): 467-473, 2012.

DETERMINATION OF THE BEST RATIO OF STARTER CULTURE FOR MAKING MILK CO-FERMENTED WITH MESOPHILIC AND THERMOPHILIC LACTIC ACID BACTERIA AND MOULD GEOTRICHUM CANDIDUM

Vajiheh Fadaei 1, Hannaneh Mortazavi 2 and Rezvan Pourahmad3

1Department of Food Science & Technology, Shahr-e-Qods Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
2 Food Science & Technology, Varamin-Pishva Branch, Islamic Azad University, Varamin, Iran
3Department of Food Science & Technology, Varamin-Pishva Branch, Islamic Azad University, Varamin, Iran

ABSTRACT

The objectives of this research were:1) to produce milk co-fermented with  80:20 (treatment A), 70:30 (treatment B) and 60:40 (treatment C) ratios of the mesophilic and thermophilic starter cultures: mould Geotrichum candidum, 2) to test the influence of different ratios of starter cultures:mould on titratable acidity, viscosity, sensory properties and viability of mesophilic starter cultures and mould in the experimental samples produced, 3) to make a choice of the best treatment on basis of Iranian acceptance; and therefore, 4) to develop the novel functional fermented milk manufactured with mesophilic and thermophilic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and mould in Iran. According to results of ranking tests done by sensory panelists, optimum organoleptic properties were achieved in the product prepared with the mixed culture of 80:20 ratio of the mesophilic and thermophilic  starter cultures: mould (treatment A).

 

 
Home  |  Aboutus  |  Editorial Board  |  Instruction  |  Contents  |  Subcribe  |  Feed Back
Copyright 2011 - 2012 IJBB. All rights reserved.
Design by Citi IT Solution