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STUDIES ON THE GENUS PADINA ADANSON 1763

Mohammad Nizamuddin and Mubina Begum

Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

Genus Padina Adanson is widely distributed warm tropical waters plant and grows on upper-littoral to sub-littoral zones. A number of species has been described by Phycologists from different parts of the world. The present attempt is made to review the taxonomy and morphology to compile the monographic studies dealing with biodiversity and distribution of the Genus Padina. The present study describes the morphology, anatomy and distribution of thirty two species of Padina.

MEDICINAL PROPERTIES OF GARLIC (ALLIUM SATIVUM L.)

Sabahat Saeed

Department of Microbiology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

Garlic (Allium sativum) has been used, since time immemorial for medicinal purposes in ailments like headache, bites, tumors and worm infestations etc. Recently antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, anticancer, antiparasitic and cardiovascular properties of garlic have been established. Active constituents of garlic include allicin, alliumin, glutamyl peptides, scordinins, steroids, terpenoids, and flavanoids, which are responsible for its therapeutic effects. Side effects are generally mild and uncommon.

CONTROVERSIES IN USING ANIMAL MODELS FOR SCIENTIFIC STUDIES: A DIFFERENT PERSPECTIVE

S. Mehmood Hasan and Moazzam Ali Khan

Institute of Environmental Studies, University of Karachi, Karachi 75270. Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

It is estimated that 50–100 million animals worldwide are used annually and subsequently killed in scientific procedures. The topic is controversial, with supporters and opponents arguing about ethical issues and whether using animal models is good or bad science. According to the U.S. Foundation for Biomedical Research (FBR), "animal research has played a vital role in virtually every major medical advancement of the last century for both human and animal health"and seven of the last ten Nobel Prizes for medicine have depended in part on animal research, though whether that aspect of the research was necessary is in question. It is now been voiced that use of other alternative techniques in place of animal models can be employed successfully that includes cell cultures, statistical interpretation of data and futuristic computer simulation models that could minimized the sufferings of animals. This paper deals with the both negative and positive aspects of animal models comparable to non animal studies and conclude that improvements in experimental methedology the suffering and pain of the animal can be reduced .

 

ACILIUS CANALICULATUS NICOLAI (COLEOPTERA: DYTISCIDAE): FIRST TIME DESCRIBED WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO ITS MALE AND FEMALE GENITALIA FROM PAKISTAN

Tabinda Attique, Syed Kamaluddin and Tanveer Fatima

 

A NEW RECORD OF A PROSTEMMATINE DAMSEL BUG PROSTEMMA CARDUELIS DOHRN (NABIDAE: PROSTEMMATINAE) FROM PAKISTAN AND ITS REDESCRIPTION WITH REFERENCE TO ITS UNKNOWN MALE GENITALIA

Imtiaz Ahmad and Hina Afzal

Department of Zoology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

A prostemmatine damsel bug Prostemma carduelis Dohrn of the family Nabidae is recorded for the first time from Pakistan and is redescribed with reference to its unknown male genitalia.

REVISION OF THE GENUS LYCHUS KOCH (ARACHINDA : BUTHIDAE) WITH THREE NEW SPECIES FROM PAKISTAN AND THEIR CHROMATOGRAPHY AND ELECTROPHORESIS OF VENOM

R. Amir¬1, S. Kamaluddin2 and Afshan J. Khan3

1Department of Zoology, Govt. Degree Girls College, 11-B, North Karachi
2Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, Gulshan-e-Iqbal Campus, Karachi
3Department of Zoology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Karachi

ABSTRACT

Genus Lychus Koch is revised and keyed out to accommodating three new species and eleven already described species from Indo-Pakistan sub-continent. The chromatography and electrophorasis of the venom of new species is also performed. A cladogram is constructed by using their apomorphies and cladistic relationship is discussed.

REDESCRIPTION OF A SERIOUS CAYSTRINE STINK BUG BAMBOO PEST HIPPOTISCUS DORSALIS STÅL (HEMIPTERA: PENTATOMIDAE) ALONG WITH ITS GENUS AND THEIR PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIPS

Imtiaz Ahmad1 and Muhmmad Zahid2

1Department of Zoology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270 Pakistan
2Department of Zoology, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Sciences & Technology, Gulshan-e-Iqbal Campus, University Road, Karachi, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

Hippotiscus Bergroth along with its type species H. dorsalis Stål, a serious caystrine bamboo pest in China is redescribed with special reference to its metathoracic scent auricle and male and female genitalia and in this light their phylogenetic relationships are also briefly discussed.

A NEW NEMATODE SEURATUM BILQEESAE FROM INDIAN GERBIL TATERA INDICA (HARDWICKE, 1807)

Noor-un-Nisa1, Rafia R. Ghazi1and Aly Khan2

1Vertebrate Pest Control Institute, Southern-zone Agricultural Research Centre, Pakistan Agricultural Research Council, P.O. Box – 8401 Karachi University Campus, Karachi –75270, Pakistan
2Crop Diseases Research Institute, SARC, PARC, Karachi University Campus, Karachi -75270, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

A new nematode Seuratum bilqeesae is reported and described from Indian gerbil Tatera indica (Hardwicke, 1807). The new species is different from the previously described species of the genus and is characterized by having small body size; esophagus small, muscular; unequal spicules; a single pair of cloacal caudal papillae situated away from the margin, while at the tip of tail there are three pairs in form of a bunch. Cuticular dentate files 24-26 in males and 28-30 in females; slender gubernaculum; vulva situated in mid-body region; vagina highly muscular; uterus packed with eggs. Eggs thick-shelled, oval to rounded, 0.05-0.055 by 0.03-0.035 in size.

TREMATODES OF VERTEBRATES FROM KARACHI, PAKISTAN

F.M. Bilqees1, Aly Khan2 and Rana Hadi1

1Department of Zoology, Jinnah University for Women, Nazimabad, Karachi, Pakistan
2Crop Diseases Research Institute (PARC), University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

During a survey of helminth parasites of vertebrates from Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan Opisthorchis felineus (Rivolta, 1884) Blanchard, 1895 was recorded from Gall bladder of dog. Slight variations were observed in the shape of ovary and testes. Besides these all characters were similar to O. felineus (Rivolta, 1884) Blanchard, 1895. Paradistomoides brayi n.sp. was recorded from Gecko sp. This species is characterized by an oval to elongate body, oral sucker terminal, pharynx well developed; esophagus short; acetabulum in anterior half of body; testes oval, unequal; ovary post-acetabular; vitellaria follicular bunches extending from level of acetabulum to posterior level of cirrus sac; seminal vesicle inverted C-shaped, cirrus sac funnel-shaped; genital atrium prominent, eggs yellowish brown, oval, numerous measuring 0.025 – 0.030 by 0.020 – 0.025.

MICROMORPHOLOGICAL STUDIES OF THE FAMILY LABIATAE FROM PAKISTAN WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO TRICHOMES AND ITS USE AS A TAXONOMIC EVIDENCE

Anjum Perveen

Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

Trichomes morphology of 53 species representing 28 genera of the family Labiatae (Lamiaceae) have been examined by light and scanning microscope. With in the family various types of trichomes are found. Trichomes are generally eglandular, uniseriate (2-3 celled) rarely glandular. In some species both types of trichomes are observed. In the family Labiatae four types of trichomes are found. Small trichomes with pointed tips, soft long ribbon like trichomes with blunt apex or arrow tip, long conical trichomes with pointed tip and stellate often branched trichomes. In many genera both types of trichomes are found (long and short). Usually conical trichomes with pointed tips are common. Similarly, trichomes are distinct in trichomes base also. On the basis of trichomes morphology family is divided in to six group I: Uniseriate macroform trichomes– type, II: Uniseriate microform trichomes-type, III: Uniseriate macro & microform trichomes-type, IV: Unicellular moniliform trichomes -type, V: Stellate trichomes -type and VI: Branched trichomes– type. Trichomes morphology is significantly helpful at the specific level.

ETHNOBOTANICAL PROFILE OF PLANTS OF SHAWAR VALLEY, DISTRICT SWAT, PAKISTAN

Farrukh Hussain, Mohammad Islam and Aqal Zaman,

Department of Botany, University of Peshawar, Peshawar, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

This preliminary study indicated that the locals of Shawar Valley, District Swat use 121 plant species for various purposes. It includes 65 (53.7%) medicinal, 52 (43%) fodder, 31 (25.6%) fire wood, 30 (24.9)%) honey bee, 19 (15.7%) fruit (including 11 wild species), 16 (13%) timber wood, 11 (9%) vegetable (including 6 wild sp.) and 9 (7%) furniture wood species. Three species were used as fish poisoning and two as antilice agents.. Acorus calamus was used antidote for snakebites. Other utilities of the plants included making fences, hedges and agricultural tools. Ecological problems such as erosion, deforestation, over exploitation and overgrazing have promoted deterioration of the area. There is a need for sustainable management of the resources. The commercially grown fruit cash crops and off-season cultivation of vegetable needs encouragement with proper storage and marketing facilities.

GENDER ROLE IN THE CONSERVATION OF FAUNAL BIODIVERSITY IN AZAD JAMMU AND KASHMIR

Maqsood Anwar1, Tariq Hassan2, Nadeem Akmal3 and Sajida Taj3

1Rangeland Research Program, National Agricultural Research Centre, Park road, Islamabad, Pakistan.
2Training Institute, National Agricultural Research Centre, Park road, Islamabad, Pakistan.
3 Social Sciences Institute, National Agricultural Research Centre, Park road, Islamabad, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

A study was conducted to understand the gender differences in control over the resources, factors causing loss of biodiversity and biodiversity conservation in Azad Jammu and Kashmir. In seven villages of district Muzaffarabad, 91 respondents (47 males, 44 females) were interviewed. In the study area, average family size was 9.8 and literacy rate 69% and 43% in males and females, respectively. Every household owns at least three number of livestock which mostly graze freely. Gender difference (in opinion) was noted about population trend of wild animals and birds, reasons for increase/decrease in their population and involvement of hunters. However, both male and female respondents considered shooting as dominant hunting method. Hunting and habitat loss were the major factors causing decline in their numbers while increase in numbers was due to ban on hunting. Most of the animals, especially carnivores and rodents, were believed to be harmful while most of the birds beneficial for people. Hence, the respondents suggested to conserve only that wildlife which they considered beneficial for themselves. Both males and females recommended to take steps for afforestation programs, protection by Government Departments, organizing protection committees, ban on hunting and raising awareness among people for the conservation of biodiversity.

POPULATION STRUCTURE AND ALLOMETRIC GROWTH OF PERNA VIRIDIS FROM KARACHI COAST

Meher Fatima1, Sohail Barkati2 and Solaha Rahman3

1Institute of Marine Science, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan
2Department of Zoology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan, e-mail: sohailbarkati@yahoo.com
3M.A.H. Qadri, Biological Research Centre, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

The population of the green mussel Perna viridis at Paradise Point remained stable most of the year with recruitment in July and November. Allometric studies demonstrated that relationship between length and width of shell changed with the season; in some months length increased isometrically with the width and in others the shell length increased faster than width. Increase in shell length was faster than shell weight in all seasons. Shell length increased faster than shell height. A clear seasonal trend in length to dry tissue weight was observed. Dry tissue weight increased isometrically with length in one half of the year but showed negative allometry in the other part.

NUTRIENT DYNAMICS IN SEAWATER OF PARADISE POINT

Rashida Qari1 and Sardar Alam Siddiqui2

1Centre of Excellence in Marine Biology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan
2Department of chemistry, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

This study describes the nutrient dynamics in coastal area of Paradise Point that is mainly affected by the waste water of Karachi Atomic Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP) and sewage from different sources (domestic and industrial). For this purpose, variation in nitrogen (NH3, NO3 and NO2), Phosphorus (inorganic and organic) concentrations and hydrographic conditions (temperature, salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen, biological oxygen demand and, chemical oxygen demand) in surface seawater as well as in tide pools seawater of Paradise Point were determined. The samples of seawater were collected during the period of three years. The present study indicates that domestic and industrial urban sewage likely affects and increases the concentration of nutrient. The nutrients were mostly low in surface seawater as compared to tide pools. The nitrogen of seawater has positive insignificant correlation with phosphorus. It was noted also that the salinity was high in winter season and low in rainy season. The seasonal trend was found in temperature and dissolved oxygen and high values were found in summer (May to August) and lower values in winter (December to February). Significant differences were also observed in salinity, biological oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand.

EFFECT OF DIETARY PROTEIN ON GROWTH RESPONSE OF COMMON CARP
(CYPRINUS CARPIO)

Mohammad Shoaib1, Saadia Kazmi1, Faisal Ameer2, Mohammad Nasir2 and Mohsna Ali1

1Department of Zoology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan
2Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research Laboratories Complex, Karachi-75270, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

The frys of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were procured from Chiliya fish hatchery (Thatta- Sindh) and weighed up to 3.33-5.06 gm. All were distributed into four groups and fed @ 3% of body weight twice daily with four diets: D I, D II, D III and D IV, containing 25, 35, 45 and 55% fish meal respectively as major ingredient. Other inclusions were starch, fish oil, vitamin mixture, minerals premix, carboxymethyl cellulose, and oxytetracycline. The experimental frys respond differently throughout the study period in each group. In D I, total weight in beginning to the end was 4.193±1.567 to 5.89 ±2.86 gm and minimum weight gain was -4.53 to maximum 16.25% like wise in other diets (D II, D III & D IV as 4.4870±2.024 to 6.30±3.78 gm and 2.60 to 17.9%; 5.073±2.037 to 7.450±2.121 and -0.15 to 15.38%; and 4.633±1.568 to 7.309±2.755 and -4.51 to 17.64%. Group II fed with 45% fish meal show maximum weight gain. The growth response was calculated in term of ADG, PER, FCR, SGR and K- factor. Daily feed allowance (DFA) was similar to each group @ 3% of body weight. FCR was found to be better in D II i.e. 0.968±0.53 while SGR calculated as 2.62±1.99 in D III indicating significant effects of dietary protein on growth response of tested fish.

DIRECTIONS OF VARIATION OF EDAPHIC ENVIRONMENT IN HALOPHYTIC VEGETATION OF HIGHLY SALINIZED AND WATERLOGGED AREAS OF HYDERABAD DISTRICT. SINDH, PAKISTAN

D. Khan1, M.Q. Channa2, R. Ahmad1 and S. Shahid Shaukat3

1Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi- 75270, Pakistan.
2Lower Indus water Management & Reclamation Research Project, Hyderabad (Sindh), Pakistan
3Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

A direct gradient analysis of averaged edaphic data for 0 - 60 cm pedon depth of twelve highly salinized, waterlogged and relatively undisturbed sites of Hyderabad District (Sindh), Pakistan, was performed through Principal Components Analysis in order to determine the main directions of compositional variation of the edaphic environment and the relationship between the vegetation pattern and the environmental complex. The first principal component was largely governed by salinity and clay contents, the second component correlated with available P and silt content and the third component associated with sulphate content and pH. The distribution behaviour of Salvadora persica, Tamarix indica, Suaeda monoica, Suaeda fruticosa and Cressa cretica along the gradients is examined.

PHYTOTOXIC EFFECTS OF PROSOPIS JULIFLORA SWARTZ. DC. AGAINST SOME OF ITS FIELD ASSOCIATES AND THE CULTIVATED SPECIES

D. Khan1 and S. Shahid Shaukat2

1Department of Botany, Govt. National College, Karachi, Pakistan
2Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

Bioassays with Prosopis juliflora (Swartz) DC. demonstrated that aqueous root, shoot and fruit extracts against Lactuca sativa, a cultivated species and two field associates viz. Chloris barbata and Cassia holosericea impeded or reduced germination of test species. The fruit extract was more inhibitory than shoot or root extract. The suppression of germination and seedling growth was in the order: Cassia holosericea < C. barbata < L. sativa. Reduction in seedling growth was species specific. In general, inhibition was a function of the extract concentration. Decaying P. juliflora shoot was relatively more toxic to germination and seedling growth of T. aestivum. Artificial rain-drip arrested lettuce seedling growth at higher concentration only. Root and shoot extracts were autotoxic to P. juliflora seedling growth at higher concentrations only. Fruit extract was, however, more autotoxic to germination and seedling growth. Phytotoxic principles of P. juliflora were thermostable or thermo-convertible to secondary inhibitors. The physico-chemical nature of soil and the soil microorganisms provided limited protection to lettuce seedling growth against toxicity of the extracts. Coleoptile bioassay of ether fraction of aqueous extracts indicated some phenolic inhibitors in the extracts. Radicle growth bioassay of Brassica compestris with crude saponins, extracted by precipitation method using lead acetate, indicated some active saponins /glycosides in the extracts. The toxic effects of P. juliflora extracts further facilitated explanation to the simplicity of sociological organization in P. juliflora dominated stands.

GROWTH DYNAMICS OF POACEOUS WEEDS INFLUENCED BY HERBICIDES WITH DIFFERENT MODES OF ACTION

I. H. Shamsi1,2*, K. B. Marwat2, Ghulam Jilani3, Qaisar Mahmood4, Shahida Khalid5 and
Muhammad Akram6

1Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture and Biotech., Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.
2 Department of Weed Science, N.W.F.P. Agricultural University, Peshawar, Pakistan.
3Department of Soil Science, University of Arid Agriculture, Rawalpindi, Pakistan.
4Department of Botany, F.G. College for Men, H-8, Islamabad.
5Weed Science Program, National Agricultural Research Center Islamabad, Pakistan.
6British Cotton Growers Association (BCGA), Khanewal, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

Poaceous weeds are the most troublesome grass weeds in temperate climates, mostly infesting winter cereals, like wheat and barley. The use of mechanical cultivation to eradicate them in fields is ineffective, because of the unequal germination of seeds. Continuous use of herbicides with the same mode of action may lead to the resistance in weeds. Therefore, an investigation was carried out to study the effects of different herbicides viz. Isoproturon, Topik and Puma Super on three weeds of wheat viz. Phalaris minor, Avena fatua and Lolium temulentum, using CRD factorial design with eight replications. The data were recorded on weed density, shoot length, leaves count and mortality rate at three stages viz. 14, 21 and 28 days after herbicides treatment. Fresh biomass yield of weeds was also recorded after 30 days of herbicides treatment. All the parameters were significantly affected over the period of time. Minimum weed density (3.9 plants pot-1) was recorded after 28 days of treatment. Comparatively more reduced shoot length, leaves count and fresh biomass weight of weeds were observed under the treatment with Topik (Clodinafop-p). Maximum percent mortality (31.10) was recorded at 21 days after the application of herbicides. For the most effective control of P. minor, A. fatua and L. temulentum weeds of wheat crop, Topik @ 0.37 kg a.i./ha was found the most suitable herbicide applied at 3-4 foliar stage.

JACKKNIFING AND BOOTSTRAPPING SOME INDICES OF PATTERN DETECTION

S. Shahid Shaukat and Sabih-us-Shams

Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan

ABSTARCT

A comparison of the average degree of nonrandomness of patchiness in two or more populations as well as the degree of their statistical accuracy is often desired. Both Jackknife and Bootstrap provide nonparametric estimation of standard error of an estimator and thereby making possible the significance tests and the establishment of confidence intervals and testing the significance. In this paper we examine the statistical accuracy (standard error, bias, mean squared error) and provide methods for estimating confidence intervals for three indices of spatial dispersion pattern.

TEST ‘S’ OF HAPLOTYPE CONCORDANCE AND DISCORDANCE

Mahnaz Khattak1 , Shuhrat Shah2 and Salahuddin2

1Jinnah College for Women, University of Peshawar, NWFP,Pakistan
2Department of Statistics, University of Peshawar, NWFP, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

The test presented here is based upon the proband and his/her affected as well as non-affected siblings. Here, the siblings are analyzed in terms of similarities of haplotypes. The proposed ‘S’ test is used in testing hypothesis that a particular disease has random pattern of inheritance against the alternative hypothesis that it has non-random pattern of inheritance. Probability distribution, mean and variance of the test is derived under the null hypothesis of random inheritance of the disease. It is then applied to data set of varying size sibships having at least one affected and one unaffected sibs to investigate the existence of linkage disequilibrium.

CHEMICAL CONTROL OF NOXIOUS WEED PARTHENIUM HYSTEROPHORUS L.

Arshad Javaid, Tehmina Anjum and Rukhsana Bajwa

Department of Mycology and Plant Pathology, University of the Punjab, Quaid-e-Azam Campus Lahore, Pakistan
e-mail: arshadjpk@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the herbicidal potential of Chwastox and Buctril Super against noxious weed Parthenium hysterophorus L. The recommended doses (R) of Chwastox (4 ml L-1) and Buctril Super (2.5 ml L-1) as well as dilutions @ ¾ R, ½ R and ¼ R were sprayed on pot grown P. hysterophorus plants after 2, 5 and 10 weeks of sowing corresponding to early vegetative, pre-flowering and maturity stages, respectively. All the employed dosages of Buctril Super killed the target weed at all the three growth stages within 2 days of spray. Chwastox, however, was found to be a slow active herbicide in this case and effective control was delayed up to 7 days.

EVALUATION OF HYBRID CORN (ZEA MAYS L.)

M. Imran Sohail1, Sajjad A. Rao2 and Arshad Javaid1

1Department of Mycology and Plant Pathology, University of the Punjab, Qaid-e-Azam Campus Lahore.
2Monsanto Research Centre, Monsanto, Pakistan, Agri. Tech. Pvt. Ltd.

ABSTRACT

The evaluation of hybrid corn was done at stage 4 using 10 hybrids and growing them under different conditions and at different locations. Seedling vigour, stand count, plant height, cob height, grain quality, 50% silk emergence, moisture contents, barren plants, diseases and the yield were among the prominent agronomic characters used for the evaluation purpose. On the basis of yield, 631D528 was found to be the best hybrid followed by 671D423. These two hybrids proved to be much better than all of the commercially available hybrids that were used as check. These two hybrids also outclassed their competitors in other agronomically important characters like ear height, number of ears, grain quality and colour. These hybrids were also found to be very resistant against post harvest diseases. The germination rates of these two hybrids were quite high as compared to other hybrids and there was no seedling mortality due to abiotic conditions.

PERFORMANCE OF DIFFERENT COTTON CULTIVARS UNDER COTTON MUNGBEAN INTERCROPPING SYSTEM

M. Yousuf Memon, S. K. Hussain Shah, Muhammad Aslam, Parvez Khan, Muhammad Imtiaz and Saleem-ul-Haq Siddiqui

Soil Science Division, Nuclear Institute of Agriculture, Tando Jam-70060, Pakistan
Email:moeedaslam@gmail.com, Telephone No. 022-880868, 2765750

ABSTRACT

In a field study, mungbean (cv. AEM-96) was intercropped with four cotton cultivars to test their suitability for cotton-mungbean intercropping system during 2002 and 2003. With the exception of cv. AEHM-74, the seedcotton yield of NIAB-78, Chandi, and Sohni was considerably affected during both the years and depressed by 29.6, 24.4 and 20.1% compared to their respective sole cropping respectively. However, cotton cv. AEHM-74 interplanted with mungbean produced likely seedcotton harvest to that recorded with monoculture cotton. Among the different cultivars, cotton cv. AEHM-74 was found to be the most compatible for intercropping system because of its outstanding performance and tolerance to abiotic stress.


TILLERING CAPACITY OF WHEAT AT DIFFERENT SEED RATES AS AFFECTED BY HOLY THISTLE DENSITY

M.A. Khan and K.B. Marwat

Department of Weed Science, NWFP Agricultural University Peshawar 25130, Pakistan; E-mail: ahmadzaipk@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

Tillers production is the earliest yield component in wheat and contribute significantly to final grain yield. To assess this concept, field study was conducted during 2003-04 and 2004-05 at Malankandher Research Farm, NWFP Agricultural University Peshawar. The experiment was conducted using randomized complete block design with split-plot arrangement. Seed rates of wheat at 100, 120, 140 and 160 kg ha-1 were assigned to main plots while Holy thistle (Silybum marianum) densities at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18 m-2 were assigned to sub-plots. Regression analyses of the data showed that at seed rate 100, 120 and 140 kg ha-1, the tillers m-2 decreased linearly with the increase in Silybum density while seed rate at 160 kg ha-1 was affected quadratically. Overall, seed rate at 120 kg ha-1 gave maximum tillers. At lower seed rates, interspecific and at higher seed rates intraspecific competition decreased tillers. However, the magnitude of tillers reduction was seed rate and year dependent; greater reduction at lower seed rates rather than at higher seed rate. Similarly the magnitude of tillers reduction was greater during 2004-05 as compared to 2003-04. This year’s difference could be attributed to the higher rainfall and low temperature during 2004-05 that favoured the growth of S. marianum and thus proved more harmful to the wheat as compared to 2003-04. Thus it can be concluded from the results that seed rate as well as environmental conditions play an important role in manipulating the crop-weed competition and tillers in wheat.

QUALITATIVE COMPARISON OF WHEAT CULTIVARS UNDER RAINFED CONDITIONS

Ghulam Qadir and Fayyaz-ul-Hassan

University of Arid Agriculture, Rawalpindi, Pakistan; Corresponding author. Email. qadirakaira@hotmail.com

ABSTRACT

Quality is a Complex entity and refers to desirability of the product. It includes several physical and Chemical aspects, Protein, ash, fat, carbohydrates and gluten contents are the major quality parameters. The material for investigation comprised of twelve wheat cultivars viz., Margala, Suleman-96, Chakwal-86, Rawal-87, Bakhtawar, Kohsar- 95, Inqalab-91, Chakwal-97, Sariab-92, Wafaq-2001, Kohistan-97 and MH-97. The highest protein content (15.05%) was observed in MH-97, while Chakwal-97 gave the lowest value. The maximum crude fiber (4.95%) was recorded in Chakwal-97, but minimum (3.33%) in Rawal-87. The Margala gave the maximum fat content (2.50%) and Sariab-92 the minimum (1.54%). The highest ash content (2.91%) was recorded in MH-97 while Sariab-92 gave the lowest. In case of total carbohydrates, Bakhtawar over ruled the others with 71.485 while Kohistan-97 was at the bottom.

EFFECT OF ZINC ON GROWTH, NUTRIENT COMPOSITION AND ANTIOXIDATIVE ENZYME ACTIVITIES OF MAIZE AS INFLUENCED BY PHOSPHORUS
.
M. Aydin*, M. A. Demiral and M. A. Kaptan

Faculty of Agriculture, University of Adnan Menderes, 09100, Aydin-Turkey; E-mail:maydin@adu.edu.tr

ABSTRACT

Effect of zinc on growth, chemical composition and antioxidative enzyme activities of maize as influenced by different phosphorus rates were investigated. For this purpose, control and 3 rates of Zn (0.4, 2.0 and 10 mg Zn kg-1 soil) were applied to cv. Pioner-32K61 planted in pots by using Zn deficient soil under different P rates (50, 100 and 150 mg P kg-1). Phosphorus rates significantly increased P, K, Mg and protein contents and superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), but they decreased number of leaf per plant and Zn content. In contrast, increasing Zn doses significantly enhanced all growth parameters (plant height, number of leaf, dry matter yield, chlorophyll a and b, protein content of leaves), SOD activity and plant Zn content, but decreased other nutrient contents of plant and also catalase (CA) and peroxidase activities (PO). The correlation coefficients of SOD activity was affected significantly by aither dry matter yield or plant Zn content. The level of plant Zn content plays an important role on growth, nutrient composition and antioxidative enzyme activities of maize. Besides, increasing PO and CA activities were not sufficient enough to increase dry matter yield under Zn deficient conditions.

TOXIC EFFECTS OF ERGOTAMINE ON THE LIVER AND BLOOD OF ALBINO RATS

Nabeel M. Ghanem¹*; Aly Khan² and F. M. Bilqees³**

¹Dept. of Microbiology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan
²Crop Disease Research Institute, P. A. R. C; University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan
³Dept. of Parasitology, Faculty of health Science, Baqai Medical University, Karachi, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

Male albino rats were orally administrated with three dosages of ergotamine. The highest dose of ergotamine (0.4167 mg/ml), caused severe damage to the liver tissue. At 0.06 mg/ml, the liver showed minor changes and normal structural pattern was intact. At the highest dose, the changes were very severe and normal pattern of hepatocytes and architecture of the liver tissue totally DISAPPEARED. Minor changes on hematological parameters were observed, no bacteremia was detected and fecal samples were normal. In vitro studies, ergotamine slowly induces well-sustained vasoconstriction that can not be eliminated with drug washout. It appears that, ergotamine tends to produce a pattern of subjective effects that varies as a function of dose.

CLADOPHORA GLOMERATA (L.) KUTZING AS FEED SUPPLEMENT TO BROILER CHICKS

Abid Ali1 and Rubina Abid2

1Institute of Biochemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Sindh, Pakistan
2Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

Algal material Cladophora glomerata (L.) Kutzing was used as feed supplement for broiler chicks. After necessary processing, four concentrations at 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% w/w of algal material were mixed with commercial feed of chicks (starter and finisher feed). Feeding experiments were performed from the day old chicks to ten weeks. Biochemical parameters (ash, carbohydrate, fat, protein and water content) of liver of chicks fed on different algal compositions as well as control feed were also studied. It was observed that the birds which were fed on medium concentrations (10%-15%) of algal feed showed best results in terms of quality and quantity of meat. Cladophora glomerata showed best growth at 15%. Mortality rate was zero because not a single chick died. On the other hand chemical analysis of chicks liver showed higher amount of carbohydrates at 15%. Water and ash contents were higher in liver at 10%-20% algal supplement as compared to control. Whereas, there were no significant differences in fat contents of liver in control and algal supplements.

COMPARATIVE HYPOLIPIDEMIC EFFECTS OF GINGER (ZINGIBER OFFICINALE) AND LOVASTATIN IN CHOLESTEROL FED RABBITS

Nazish Iqbal Khan, Ghazala Yasmeen and Ruqaiya Arshad

Department of Physiology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

Hyperlipidaemia is one of the major contributors to atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease in our society. Non-pharmacological therapy especially dietary therapy and exercise are the first line of treatment in hyperlipidaemia, however pharmacotherapy is used in patients who are at high risk of coronary heart disease or patients who do not respond to non-pharmacological therapy. Present study is designed to investigate the effectiveness of fresh grated ginger (Zingiber officinale) administration over statin therapy. Age matched female rabbits were divided into three experimental groups. Base line values of all parameters were observed and animals were then administered atherogenic diet for four weeks. Lovastatin were fed @ 200mg/kg of body weight/ day ginger and 20mg/kg of body weight /day to these hypercholesterolemic rabbits for another four weeks. At the end of experimental period blood specimens were obtained and assayed for alterations in plasma lipid profile and glutamate pyruvate transaminase levels. Results of the present study were showed that both ginger and lovastatin reduce plasma cholesterol, LDL-C and triglyceride levels and increase plasma HDL-C levels, but significant results were obtained with lovastatin therapy. GPT levels were significantly reduced only with ginger administration. These findings suggests that dietary supplementation of ginger alone cannot be used effectively for secondary prevention trials, but for primary prevention trials due to adverse effects of Lovastatin on liver functions it can be used effectively.

THE EFFECTS OF WEIGHT REDUCING HERBAL DRUG (MEHZILEEN) ON THE LIPID PROFILE OF RABBIT ORYCTOLAGUS CUNICULUS

Ruqaiya Hasan, Aisha Javaid and Sana Ishtiaq

Department of Physiology, University of Karachi, Karachi–75270, Pakitsan

ABSTRACT

This study deals to investigate the effects of weight reducing herbal drug Mehzileen on blood lipid profile of common rabbits. An oral daily dose of 30mg administered to test animals for 27 days. Blood samples drawn on day 0, 3, 7, 10 and 27 showed a significant ( p<0.05 ) reduction in plasma cholesterol and HDL-Cholesterol concentrations from their initial levels of 71.93± 1.03 mg/dl and 21.02 ± 0.40 mg/dl to 41.23 ± 0.78 mg/dl and 11.19 ± 0.95 mg/dl respectively, whereas plasma LDL-Cholesterol showed a reduction in the early period of experiment. A non significant fall was observed in plasma triglycerides concentration.

CO ORDINATION OF SEPTRAN DRUG WITH TRACE METAL IONS IN THE BIOLOGICAL SYSTEM

Fouzia S. Rehmani1, Farooq A. Khan2 and Fouzia Hassan3

1Department of Chemistry, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan
2Hydrocarbon Development of Pakistan Laboratories Complex Karachi, Karachi-75270, Paksitan
3Department of Pharmaceutics, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan

ABSTARCT

Sulphonamide inhibits both gram positive and gram-negative bacteria. Septran is a combination sulphonamide drug of sulphamethaoxazole and Trimethoprim. The aim of our study was to study of complexation of naturally occurring inorganic elements with this drug. The complex formation of sulphamethoxazole with trace metal ions such as Fe (III), Cu (II), Co (II), Ni (II), Mn (II), Zn (II), Al (III) and Ca (II) were studied by potentiometric method. It was found that Mg (II), Ca (II) and Zn (II), Cu (II) showed identical behavior. All metals form complex at acidic pH as well as at basic pH, the comparison of septran DS drug with single trimethoprim compound, it was observed that septran is a combination drug it formed complexes at lower pH as compare to trimethoprim, which is not a combination drug and formed complexes at higher pH.

HPLC ANALYSIS OF CIPROFLOXACIN IN BLOOD AND URINE OF MALE VOLUNTEERS AFTER ORAL ADMINISTRATION

S. Tabasum1 , Abdul Jabbar 1, R. Nawaz 2 and M. Nawaz 3

1Department of Chemistry, Govt. College University, Faisalabad.
2Department of Chemistry, University of Agriculture Faisalabad
3Department of Pharmacology, University of Agriculture Faisalabad.

ABSTRACT

The disposition kinetics, renal clearance and urinary excretion of ciprofloxacin in blood and urine were analysed by HPLC from 12 healthy male after oral dose of 500mg tablet. Urinary excretion was determined and disposition kinetic parameters were calculated by using one compartment open model. After single oral administration of ciprofloxacin the average AUC was 11.77 ± 0.92 h.mg/L, clearance(45.6 ± 4.30 L/h), distribution (86.9 ± 10.8 L), elimination half life (0.82 ± 0.08h), and MRT 0.59 ± 0.075h. Absorption rate constant was 3.54 ± 0.26h, with its half life 1.37 ± 0.19 and lag time 0.382 ± 0.01h. Correlation between renal clearance and diuresis was positive and 30.4% of administered drug was excreted in urine. The study supported the needs for the comprehensive evaluation of drug under indigenous conditions to obtain disposition kinetics renal clearance and urinary excretion on which the rational dose regimes of drug could be based.

HISTOPATHOLOGY OF JUJUBE (ZIZYPHUS MAURITIANA LAM.) ROOTS INFECTED WITH ROOT-KNOT NEMATODE (MELOIDOGYNE JAVANICA)

Aly Khan1, F.M. Bilqees2, Nasira Khatoon3 and N. Aleemuddin3

1Crop Diseases Research Institute, PARC, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270
2Department of Zoology, Jinnah University for Women, Nazimabad, Karachi
3Department of Zoology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

Histopathological studies revealed that Meloidogyne javanica (Treub, 1885) Chitwood, 1949 readily penetrated the roots of Jujube (Zizyphus mauritiana Lam.) and affected both the epidermis and the dermis. Giant cells were common, the central region was detached and stellar region cells were damaged.
A number of cells were filled with egg masses while a few had larvae embedded in them with complete cell hypertrophy. The giant cells also showed Karyotic nuclear division and thickening of walls.

OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE OF FARMERS TO PESTICIDES IN COTTON GROWING AREAS OF SINDH, PAKISTAN

Tahir Anwar 1, Imtiaz Ahmad 2 and Seema Tahir 1

1Pesticide Research Institute, Southern zone Agricultural Research Center, Pakistan Agricultural Research Council, University Campus, Karachi-75270, Pakistan
2Department of Zoology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

In this study farmers who grew cotton or vegetables were interviewed about their socioeconomic background, health status of family, and perception about the use of pesticides and health signs and symptoms and data were collected on a pre-designed questionnaire with closed and open questions. Respondents were randomly selected using a snowballing technique. The survey was conducted in District Nawabshah a cotton-growing area of Sindh, where heavy use of pesticides had been reported. Risk associated with pesticide to agricultural workers and the needs of epidemiological studies for the assessment and management in the country are discussed.

SCREENING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF BIOTECHNOLOGICALLY IMPORTANT MARINE BACTERIA FROM BALUCHISTAN COAST

Bushra Uzair*, Nuzhat Ahmed, Nazia Jamil

Centre for Molecular Genetics, University Of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

A total of 100 bacteria were isolated from crustaceans (shrimp, crabs, lobster), fish and water samples 9surface and deep sea) collected from Baluchistan coast. Identification of these isolates was performed by gram reaction, colonial and cellular morphology, pigment production and biochemical characters. Different characters such as resistance to antibiotic and heavy metals, pigment production, sugar fermentation, antibacterial and solubilizing activity were studied. It was found that 29% of the isolates showed production of different colour pigments which were affected by different concentration of heavy metals, 45% of the isolates showed multiple metal and antibiotic resistance, 40% showed solubilizing activity and 15% showed production of antibacterial substance, 16% strains were found to be lactose fementer where as 57% were non lactose fermenter.


 
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