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Abstract April 2011

Abstract 2011
+ Abstract April 2011

ABSTRACTS IJBB VOLUME 8 NO. 2. April 2011


Obituary: Professor Dr. Muhammad Nizamuddin - a dedicated scientist
(Jan. 11 1930- January 16, 2011)

Prof. Dr. M. Nizamuddin, an internationally acclaimed expert on marine algae breathed his last on  January 16, 2001 at Karachi. He was 80. He was a pioneer Phycologist of Pakistan. He was born in Bihar, India but later migrated to Pakistan. He eceived his M.Sc. degree in Botany form University of Karachi in 1954. He qualified his Ph. D. from University of Adelaide, Australia under the supervision of the renowned phycologist Prof. H.B.S. Womersley in 1961. He taught at University of Karachi and Al-Fateh University, Tripoli.
Dr. Nizamuddin’s academic and professional career is studded with awards and honours. He was awarded the Presidential award ‘Pride of performance’ from Govt. of Pakistan in recognition of his outstanding work in marine algae in 1970.. He worked as a Fulbright Fellow with the famous Prof. Dr. G.F.  Papenfuss at University of California, Berkeley in 1966 and as an Alexander von Humboldt Fellow with Prof. F. Gessner at University of Kiel, Germany in 1968. He was also a Fellow of the Linnean Society, London. He published more than a hundred research papers in the field of marine algae.
Dr. M. Nizamuddin was a very kind hearted and compassionate person and was always eager to help any body. He was a dedicated scientist and never cared about fame and position. His colleagues and his students all speak highly of him. May Allah rest his soul in Paradise. Amen.

 

RE-DESCRIPTION AND NEW RECORD OF HYALOMMA (EUHYALOMMA) ANATOLICUM EXCAVATUM KOCH, 1844 (ACARI: IXODIDAE) FROM  NEW  LOCALITIES IN BALOCHISTAN, PAKISTAN

Juma  Khan  Kakarsulemankhel 1*  and Mohammad Iqbal Yasinzai 2

1Taxonomy Expert of Sand Flies, Ticks, Lice & Mosquitoes,
 1,  2 Department of Zoology, University of  Balochistan, Saryab Road, Quetta,   Pakistan.
Corresponding author: Prof. Dr.  Juma  Khan  Kakarsulemankhel, Department of Zoology, University of Balochistan, Saryab Road, Quetta, Pakistan.
E. mail: zmashireenafghanistan@yahoo.com //  kakarzoologist@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

Hyalomma (Euhyalomma) anatolicum excavatum Koch, 1844  is re-described  and recorded for the first time from new localities in  Balochistan, Pakistan in detail with special reference to its capitulum, basis capituli, hypostome, palpi, scutum, genital aperture, adanal and plates subanal plates,  anus and festoons. Taxonomic structures not discussed and not illustrated before are described and illustrated as additional information to facilitate zoologists and veterinarians in correct identification of female and male of this tick. A key is erected to Acari families and included genera highlighting the relationships.It is hoped that this paper will provide an anatomical base for future morphological studies.


RE-DESCRIPTION AND NEW RECORD OF HYALOMMA (EUHYALOMMA) MARGINATUM  ISSACI   SHARIF, 1928 (ACARI: IXODIDAE) FROM BALOCHISTAN, PAKISTAN

   
Juma  Khan  Kakarsulemankhel 1*  and Mohammad Iqbal Yasinzai 2

1Taxonomy Expert of Sand Flies, Ticks, Lice & Mosquitoes,
 1,  2 Department of Zoology, University of  Balochistan, Saryab Road, Quetta,   Pakistan.
☼  Corresponding author: Prof. Dr.  Juma  Khan  Kakarsulemankhel, Department of Zoology, University of Balochistan, Saryab Road, Quetta, Pakistan.
E. mail: zmashireenafghanistan@yahoo.com //  kakarzoologist@yahoo.com
           
ABSTRACT

Hyalomma (Euhyalomma) marginatum isaaci Sharif, 1928 is recorded and re-described for the first time from Balochistan, Pakistan in detail with special reference to its capitulum, basis capituli, hypostome, palpi, scutum, genital aperture, adanal and plates subanal plates,  anus and festoons. Taxonomic structures not discussed and not illustrated before are described and illustrated as additional information to facilitate zoologists and veterinarians in correct identification of female and male of this tick. A key is erected to Acari families and included genera highlighting the relationships.It is hoped that this paper will provide an anatomical base for future morphological studies.


POST-THAW EVALUATION OF KUNDHI BUFFALO BULL SEMEN

               
T. H. Rahoo, H. K. Kunbher, Z. Qureshi, A. Kaka and D. H. Kalhoro

Department of Animal Reproduction, Sindh Agriculture University Tandojam, Pakistan
Corresponding author: drtariquerahoo@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

The study on in-vitro fertility assessment of frozen thawed semen from Kundhi bulls was undertaken during the months of July to September 2006 at the Department of Animal Reproduction, Faculty of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Sciences, Sindh Agriculture University Tandojam. Before freezing, each ejaculate was assessed for volume, color, mass activity, and motility and sperm concentration. Twenty samples having motility 60% or above were frozen for post-thaw assessment. Frozen thawed semen was incubated at 250C for 5 hours and examined for progressive linear motility and live dead sperm count. It was observed that all the ejaculates were creamy white in color. The mean (± SEM) volume, mass activity, motility percentage sperm concentrations and pH of the semen from Kundhi buffalo bulls were found to be 2.79 ± 0.217 ml, 2.85 ± 0.111, 71.75 ± 2.621%, 11.35 ± 1.255 millions/ml and 5.82 ± 0.092 respectively for fresh semen. No significant (P>0.05) difference was found between the parameters except for pH value, which was significantly (P< 0.03) different between the bulls. The mean (± SEM) sperm motility percentage was found to be 20.46±1.62 and dead sperm count  were 6.9± 0.2% for frozen semen of Kundhi buffalo bull. A significant (P< 0.05) difference was found between the bulls for post-thaw motility percentage. It was found that at one hour of incubation period motile sperms were 43.25 ± 2.95% having 11.78 ± 0.28% dead sperm count. After 5 hours incubation all sperms were found dead. It was concluded that sperms maintaining long term motility and having less dead sperm count are suitable for artificial insemination.

EFFICACY STUDIES OF A POLYHERBAL VITAMIN SUPPLEMENT IN EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS

Zahra Yaqeen1, Nudrat Fatima1, Hina Imran1, Atiq-ur-Rahman1, Zakir-ur-Rehman1, Tehmina Sohail1 and Shazia Syed2

1Pharmaceutical Research Centre, PCSIR Labs Complex, Karachi, Pakistan
2Dept. of Chemistry, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

Acute oral toxicity and efficacy study of poly herbal drug was carried out in albino rats and rabbits respectively to assess its effects on gross behavior, body weight, biochemical and hematological parameters. Animals of the Test group were fed with the test drug, animals of positive control group were fed with standard multivitamin tablet “Unicap” and animals of negative control group received distilled water i.e. vehicle only. Autopsy findings showed no gross changes in vital organs and mortality during 30 days of study. Significant increase in animal’s weight was noted in test drug treated groups. Biochemical analysis indicated the presence of all essential minerals and trace elements in herbal preparation. The hemoglobin level was enhanced in the test drug treated animals as compared to the groups fed with standard drug and vehicle clotting time, WBC and RBC count indicated that drug didn’t produce any uncertain reaction in blood parameters. The sign and symptoms exhibited by chronic use were almost alike and confirm that the test drug is a safe drug and have significant nutritional supplement value.   

SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISMS (SNP) AND ITS APPLICATIONS IN TREATING HUMAN DISEASES

S. Abdolhamid Angaji*, K. Akashi , S. Darvishani and M. Sabeti Azad

Department of Biology, Tarbiat Moallem University, Tehran, Iran
Corresponding author, email: Angaji@tmu.ac.ir

ABSTRACT

Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) is a single base mutation in DNA. SNPs are the simplest form and also the most common sources of genetic polymorphism in the human genome. They have been used in homogeneity testing, plant genetics, pharmacogenetic studies and so on. They have also been used to identify and map complex and common diseases such as high blood pressure, diabetes, and heart disease and etc.  Application of SNP in human diseases is studied in this work. There are several methods for SNP genotyping as classified in four categories in this work: Hybridization-based, PCR-based, Restriction site cleavage and Combinations methods. The diseases-associated SNP which are detected by any of these methods is investigated. Finally, the application of some specific methods in detecting SNP for a certain disease is explained. These include the application of SNP array in diabetes disease, the application of Pyrosequencing in Schizophrenia disease, the application of DHPLC in breast cancer disease and the application of melting curve in Parkinson disease.

OPTIMAL CONDITIONS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF COMMERCIAL ENZYME BY PENICILIUM LILACINUM BY CULTURING ON AGRO INDUSTRIAL WASTE

Kashif Ahmed1, M. Umer Dahot2, Qamar-ul-Haq3 and Ehsan Elahi Valeem4

1 ­Department of Chemistry ,N.E.D. University of Engineering & Technology, Karachi,
2University of Sindh Jamshoro,     
3Federal Urdu University Karachi, , 
4Public Private Partnership Unit(PPPU),Planning and Development Department, Government of Sindh,Karachi-74200,Pakistan.     . 
E-mail            Kashif25473@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

Date syrup is a liquid waste of date processing industries. It is rich in reducing and non reducing sugars and may be used as a fermentation substrate. Cotton stalk is rich in cellulose and hemi cellulose. Pretreated (Physical and chemical) cotton stalk is also used as a carbon source for the production and optimization of industrial enzyme, Invertase (β-fructofuranosidase, E.C.3.2.1.26). Different nitrogen sources (corn-steep, casein, peptone potassium nitrate etc.) different pH (4-9) and temperatures (20-55) have been used. In the present study an indigenous fungus Penicilium Lilacinum is used for enzyme production. It was found that invertase production was maximum after 72 hours (on 0.6 N H2SO4 treated cotton stalk) and 96 hours (on 5% date syrup), production is enhanced by peptone as a nitrogen source at pH 8 and at a temperature of 40 оC

PREVALENCE OF CAMPYLOBACTER SPECIES IN RETAIL POULTRY CARCASSES IN AHVAZ, IRAN

Ebrahim Rahimi1, 2, Hamid Reza Kazemeini 2, 3, Navid Nozarpour 3, Nima Mohajeri 3, and Ali Chakeri 3 

1Department of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Islamic Azad University, Shahrekord Branch, Shahrekord, Iran.
2Membership of Young researchers Club, Islamic Azad University, Shahrekord Branch, Shahrekord, Iran.
3Graduated Student of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Islamic Azad University, Shahrekord Branch, Shahrekord, Iran.
*Corresponding author: Tel: +98 381 3361060, Fax: +98 311 6259809

ABSTRACT

Campylobacter spp. are often found on poultry meat and can cause gastroenteritis in human. The aim of this study was to detect thermophilic Campylobacter species in quail, partridge, and ostrich meat in Ahvaz, Iran. From July 2009 to February 2010, samples of quail (n = 50), partridge (n = 30) and ostrich (n = 24) meat for sale in retail outlets in Ahvaz, Iran, were analyzed for the presence of CampylobacterCampylobacter sp. was isolated from 28 of 50 (58%) quail meat, 9 of 30 (30%) partridge meat and 3 of 24 (12.5%) ostrich meat samples. Of the 40 Campylobacter positive samples 90% (36) samples had Campylobacter jejuni and 10% (4) C. coli. The study concluded that high proportion of poultry meats marketed in Ahvaz, Iran is contaminated by Campylobacter with a possible risk to human health.

THE INFLUENCE OF MOISTURE AND TEMPERATURE ON THE SURVIVAL OF BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS BERLINER IN AUTOCLAVED SOIL

Muhammad Qasim Khan, M. Javed Zaki and D. Khan

Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

Experiments were conducted to investigate the influence of moisture and temperature on the survival of two isolates (B.t. -16 and B.t. - 64) of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner in autoclaved soil. Both isolates under different moisture and temperature regimes exhibited decreasing trend in populations with time – mostly during first week of observation. Population of surviving bacteria related to moisture and temperature in curvilinear fashion. There were relatively more mortalities under extreme cold, hot, wet or dry conditions. The survival of the isolates was extremely low but still of the size of log10 7 units.  The survivorship indicated that B.t.-64 was relatively more tolerant to moisture austerity and temperature extremes than isolate B.t.-16.

EFFECT OF TILLAGE SYSTEMS ON EARLY SEEDLING GROWTH, FODDER YIELD AND ECONOMICS OF MAIZE

Fazal Munsif1, Muhammad Arif1, Nasrullah Khan3, Zahid Hussain2, Muhammad Waqas1and Kawsar Ali1

1 Department of Agronomy 2, Department of Weed Science, KPK Agricultural University Peshawar, Pakistan,
3Department of Botany University of Karachi
Corresponding email: nasrullahdushkheli@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

Reduced tillage has become an integral component of sustainable agriculture reducing input costs and soil loss, conserve energy, reduce soil erosion and labor costs, and elimination of extensive land preparation prior to planting. Therefore, in order to investigate the effect of tillage systems on early seedling growth, fodder yield and economic analysis, the experiment was conducted at Agricultural Research Farm of NWFP Agricultural University, Peshawar during spring 2007. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design having four replications. The tillage systems consisted of no-till, reduced tillage and deep tillage. The net plot size of 30 m by 20 m was planted at the seed rate of 60 kg ha-1 as broadcast.  Nitrogen and phosphorus were applied at the rate of 120 and 90 kg ha-1. Deep tillage resulted in greater emergence m-2 (134).  Reduced tillage produced taller plants (211 cm), more leaves per plant (9.3) and higher fresh and dry fodder yield of maize (130.5 & 48 t ha-1). Similarly, reduced tillage resulted in higher gross income (Rs. 65250) and net income (Rs. 63250). Higher value cost ratio (31.6) was recorded for reduced tillage followed by no-tillage (24.8), whereas deep tillage fetched lowest value cost ratio (11). It was concluded that reduced tillage resulted in higher fodder yield, net income and value cost ratio.

GENOTYPE X ENVIRONMENT INTERACTION AND STABILITY YIELD PERFORMANCE AMONG DIFFERENT VARIETIES OF CHICKPEA KABULI

Irshad Begum1, Shahid R. Malik2, M. Anwar Khan 3, M. Yousaf1, Javed Afzal4, Nazir Hussain5 and Naheed Akhtar5  

1Maize, Sorghum and Millet Program, Crop Sciences Institute (CSI), National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad-45500, Pakistan
2Pulses Program (CSI), National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad-45500, Pakistan
3 Wheat Program (CSI), National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad-45500, Pakistan 
4Rangeland Research Institute National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad-45500, Pakistan,
 5Insect Pest Management Program , National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad-45500, Pakistan  

ABSTRACT

Eight genotypes of chickpea (NCS-0609, CH38/00, DCK-110-1, NCS-0530, CC121/00, NCS-0608, DCK-112-2 and CM-2000) developed by different institutes of Pakistan, were evaluated under eight different locations for various agronomic traits against the prevalent biotic (pests and diseases) and abiotic (drought) stresses in the area. Grain yield of two genotypes (CH38/00 and CC121/00) from Nuclear Institute of  Agricultural  and Biology, Faisalabad, have shown significantly higher yield than check at National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad as well as at all locations. The interaction between the genotypes and environment (G x E) was used as an index to determine the yield stability of genotypes under all different eight locations during 2007-08. Both predictable and unpredictable portion of variation were found to be significant indicating equal importance in determining the stability of grain yield.  The two genotypes i.e. CC121/00 and CH38/00 produced average grain yield 1637 Kg ha-1 and 1386 Kg ha-1 respectively at all locations than the check (1152 Kg ha-1) and thus were the most adapted cultivars in the whole set of environments/locations during 2007-08. The objective of the trial in question was to find out the adaptability range of test genotypes.

SEED-OIL CONTENT AND FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF SEED-OIL OF THESPESIA POPULNEA (L.) SOL. EX. CORR. GROWING IN SALINE SOILS IN KARACHI

Zahida N. Gohar1, Razia Sultana2, D. Khan1 and Rafiq Ahmad1
1Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi- 74700, Pakistan.
2Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (PCSIR),Karachi, Pakistan.

 

ABSTRACT
Seed oil content and fatty acid composition of the seed-oil was determined from T. populnea (L.) Sol. Ex. Corr. plants growing in saline soils (ECe: 1.56-43.9 dS.m-1).  The seed oil content varied from 18.2 to 21.77% (mean: 19.81 ± 0.36%). Against the variation of salinity by 68.4%, the seed oil content varied merely by 4.83%. Twelve fatty acids were identified in T. populnea seed oil. Linoleic (37.27 ± 0.46 %), Palmitic (31.96 ± 0.24 %), and Oleic acid (17.73 ± 0.40%) were the major fatty acids. Over the ECe range of 1.56 to 43.03 dS.m-1, the variation in fatty acid composition of seed oil was too small to make any significant difference in the oil quality as was evident from the compositional similarity of c 97% on an average amongst the oil samples extracted from the seeds of various trees. Saturated fatty acids content was 36.4% and unsaturated fatty acid content 63.6%. Oleic / linoleic acid ratio was oleic / linoleic acid ratio in sunflower with increase in salinity. No such increase in oleic / Linoleic acid ratio in T. populnea seeds didn’t increase with salinity and remained almost constant - around 0.48. The saponification value of the oil was 204.

Na AND K DISTRIBUTION IN LEAF AND FRUIT COMPONENTS OF THESPESIA POPULNEA (L.) SOL. EX. CORR. UNDER SALINE CONDITIONS AND RELATIONSHIP OF THEIR FOLIAR CONCENRATIONS WITH MONO-UNSATURATED ACIDS IN THE SEED-OIL

Zahida N. Gohar1, Fahmida Parveen2, Rafiq Ahmad1 and D. Khan1

1Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi-74700, Pakistan.
2Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial research (PCSIR), Karachi, Pakistan                           

 

ABSTRACT

The plant material (fresh and older leaves and mature capsules) from variously aged trees of T. populnea growing in and around Karachi (Hawkes Bay, Boat Basin areas, Karsaz and North Nazimabad) in differentially saline soils were collected. In these samples, Na and K were extracted by acid digestion method of dry young and older leaves, and fruit components such as pericarp, seed coat and embryo. Cations, Na and K, were estimated using Petra court PFP-Flame photometer. Over a range of ECe - 7.7 to 64.7dS.m-1, Na content increased in fresh and older leaves and pericarp significantly but didn’t vary in concentration in seed coat and embryo. K contents in leaves and pericarp declined with salinity but didn’t change in seed coat and embryo. There was large accumulation of Na in older leaves. K increased in pericarp. Na / K ratio didn’t vary in seed components but it was very high (8.2-folds) in older leaves. A significantly positive relationship between monounsaturated fatty acids concentration and foliar concentration of Na in fresh and old leaves was found.

SEED MASS VARIATION IN SEED LOTS OF NINE CULTIVARS OF SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.)

D. Khan, Muhammad Anis and Muhammad Javed Zaki

Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi- 74700, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

Seed mass variation in seed lots of nine sunflower cultivars viz. S-278, local, Hybrid 1, Hysun 33, Hysun 39, N K Armoni, Aussie gold 04, Aussie gold 61 and Aussie gold 62 is described.  Within individual cultivars seed mass varied substantially from 1.91-folds in cultivar S-278 to 3.68-folds in Hybrid 1. The variation in terms of coefficient of variation was also the lowest in cultivar S-278 (13.91 %) followed by N K Armoni (15.99%). It was the highest (24.62 %) in cultivar ‘local’.  In pooled sample, variation was 26.1% (heaviest / lightest seed ratio 3.96). Cultivars varied in mean seed mass which was 50.52 ± 1.05 mg in Hysun 39 to 81.79 ± 1.14 mg in S-278. Mean seed mass of N K Armoni was 74.82 ± 1.196 mg. In other varieties mean seed weight was between 51 and 58 mg. Mean seed mass of the pooled sample was 60.12 ± 0.523 mg. The distribution of mean seed mass around the grand mean was negatively skewed. The coefficient of variation among means was 17.74% i.e., the variation was 1.62-folds. The seed masses exhibited significantly positive skewness in four cultivars local, Hysun 39, Hybrid 1, and Aussie gold 62 and pooled sample. In cultivar NK Armoni, seed masse distribution was significantly negatively skewed. The distribution was characterized with significantly positive kurtosis (leptokurtosis) in cultivars local and Hybrid 1, insignificant leptokurtosis in Aussie gold 62 and Hysun 33 and insignificantly negative kurtosis (platykurtosis) in S-278, Hysun 39, NK Armoni, Aussie gold 61, Aussie gold 04 and the pooled sample of seeds. The normality of distribution was tested with Shapiro-Wilks test. The distribution of individual seed mass was found to be normal in six cultivars viz. S-278, local, Hysun 39, Hysun 33, Aussie gold 61 and Aussie gold 04 and Non-normal in NK Armoni, Hybrid 1, Aussie gold 61 and the pooled sample of all cultivars. Hierarchical clustering, on the basis of seed mass, discretely classified varieties into two groups. Cultivars S-278 and N K Armoni were heavier seed cultivars and cultivars local, Hybrid 1, Hysun 33, Hysun 39, Aussie gold 04, Aussie gold 61 and Aussie gold 62 were substantially lighter seed varieties.

EFFECT OF SUPPLEMENTAL UV-B RADIATION ON GROWTH AND STRESS RESPONSE OF VIGNA RADIATA (L.) WILCZEK

S. Shahid Shaukat and S. Ahmed Shah

Institute of Environmental Studies, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan
           
ABSTRACT

This investigation attempts to examine the effects of UV-B radiation on seedling growth, chlorophyll content and total soluble phenol accumulation in the roots of mungbean. Imbibed seeds of mungbean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek)  were exposed to UV-B radiation in a radiation chamber for 10, 20, 30 and 40 minutes. At each radiation dose both root and shoot growth of seedlings were markedly suppressed while shoot weights were significantly reduced. The inhibitory effect increased with increasing exposure period. In response to UV-B irradiation, chlorophyll a and b as well as total chlorophyll (a and b) contents were greatly reduced. UV-B irradiation resulted in substantial accumulation of total soluble phenols in the roots of the seedlings. These results are discussed with respect to the mode of action of UV-B radiation.

HEAT STRESS AND ACQUISITION OF THERMOTOLERANCE IN MUNG BEAN (VIGNA RADIATA (L.) WILCZEK)

Simeen Mansoor1 and Farzana Nasir Naqvi2

Department of Genetics, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan
1Email; simeenshahid@gmail.com
2Email; naqvi.farzana@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

Mung bean (vigna radiata) is one of the most popular pulse crop in Asia. It is cultivated biannually in large areas of Pakistan during warm seasons and is a good source of protein. Optimum temperature for all four mung bean genotypes (NM 19-19, NM 20-21, NM121-123 and NCM 89) was found to be 30°C. Lethal temperature was 50°C (2 hours) as severe growth retardation was seen but better growth performance was found when a pretreatment of 40°C (1 hour) prior to 50°C (2 hours) was given as visualized by improvement in seedling length and heat stress tolerance index (HST). Mean seedling length and heat stress tolerance index was reduced under heat stress however more reduction was seen in NM 20-21 while less in NM 19-19.

EFFECT OF GA3 PRETREATMENTS ON THERMOTOLERANCE IN MUNG BEAN (VIGNA RADIATA (L.) WILCZEK)

Simeen Mansoor* and Farzana Nasir Naqvi**

Department of Genetics, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan
Email; *simeenshahid@gmail.com; ** naqvi.farzana@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

High temperature is one the major abiotic stress that are principal cause of reduced crop yield world wide. Four mung bean genotypes (NM 19-19,NM 20-21, NM121-123 and NCM 89) were tested against high temperature treatments with and without GA3.
When mung bean seedlings were exposed to 50°C for 2 hours (C) lethality occurred within 72 hours. The effect of lethal temperature was reduced by the mild temperature treatment of 40°C for 1 hour prior to 50°C for 2 hours (B) and most of the seedlings improved in their length and fresh weight. This effect is further improved by the  exogenous application of 100 uM GA3 either as treatment B1or treatment B2 . The effect of GA3 showed positive effect on seedling length, fresh weight and heat stress tolerance index (HST), however treatment B2 was better than treatment B1. Mean seedling length, fresh weight and heat stress tolerance index was increased during GA3 application. More improvement was seen in NM 19-19 than in NM 20-21.

 

SEED PRIMING IN ZN SOLUTIONS ENHANCES EMERGENCE AND YIELD OF CHICKPEA

Muhammad Arif1, Muhammad Waqas1, Fazal Munsif2, Abid Ali3, Zahid Hussain4, Nasrullah Khan5 and Abudul Samad2

1Department of Agronomy, Khyber Pakhtoon Khwan, Pakistan
2Agricultural Research Institute Tarnab, Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtoon Khwan, Pakistan
3Pakistan Tobacco Board Mardan, Khyber Pakhtoon Khwan, Pakistan
4Department of Weed Science, KPK Agricultural University, Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtoon Khwan, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

In order to study the effect of zinc priming on chickpea, an experiment was conducted at Agricultural Research Farm of NWFP Agricultural University Peshawar during Rabi 2002-2003. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block design with four replications. The seeds of chickpea variety ‘Karak-1’ were primed in water as well as 0.05% and 0.075% Zn solutions. Dry seeds (non primed) were used as control treatment. A plot size of 15 m by 4 m with row to row distance of 30 cm was used. Analysis of the data indicated that seed priming with Zn significantly improved seeds emergence, grain yield and biological yield of chickpea. Seeds primed in 0.05% Zn solution resulted in highest emergence, grain and biological yields of chickpea. In conclusion it can be recommended that seed priming in Zn solutions does improve the seed emergence, grain yield and biological yield of chickpea crop.

SOME BIO-ECOLOGICAL STUDIES ON CAVITY NESTERS IN AYUBIA NATIONAL PARK, DISTRICT ABBOTTABAD, KHYBER-PUKHTOON KHWA PROVINCE, PAKISTAN

Chaudhry Muhammad Shafique1 and Sohail Barkati2 

1Zoological Survey Department, Ministry of Environment, Islamabad, Pakistan
2Department of Zoology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan
e-mail: sohailbarkati@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

A variety of animals are known to occupy trees and snags as cavity nesters. Cavity makers/nesters of Ayubia National Park were studied in detail as a part of comprehensive project on the ecology of the area. Details of tree selection, cavity size and types of animal and plant species are presented for the first time from a national park. Information about cavities used by 5 species of mammals and 29 species of birds are given for the first time from a national park of Pakistan.

THE PLANT BIODIVERSITY MENTIONED IN THE HOLY QURAAN

Fazal Hadi and Farrukh Hussain

Centre of Plant Biodiversity and Botanical Garden, University of Peshawar, Pakistan

ABSTRACT
           
Twenty two plant species belonging to 21 genera and 17 families have been mentioned in the Holy Quraan. They include: Ficus carica L., Olea europaea L., Phoenix dactylifera L., Vitis vinifera L., Punica granatum L., Ocimum basilicum L., Zingiber officinale Roscoe., Cinnamomum camphora L., Brassica nigra L., Salvadora persica L., Tamarix aphylla L., Ziziphus Spina-christi L., Opuntia dellinii L., Cucurbita pepo L., Cucumis sativus L., Allium sativum L., Allium cepa L., Lens culinaris Medic., Musa paradisiacal L., Hordeum vulgare L., Triticum aestivum L. and Trifolium spp. The present study describes the plants mentioned in the Holy Quraan along with the surahs (chapters) and Aayat (verses) where these plants are mentioned. The Taxonomic position, common names, economic and medicinal uses and distribution of these plants are mentioned.

INDIGENOUS MEDICINAL PLANTS USED BY LOCAL PEOPLE OF SHAHI, LOWER DIR, (KHYBER PAKHTOON KHWA) SOUTHERN HIMALAYAN REGIONS OF PAKISTAN

Gul Jan1, Mir Ajab Khan1, Habib Ahmad2 and Farzana Gul1

Department of Plant Sciences Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad
Botany Department, Hazara University, Mansehra, Pakistan
Correspondence: drguljan@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

The present work is based on the results of research conducted on traditional uses of some important plants by the local people of Shahi, Lower Dir in southern Himalayan Mountains, Pakistan. The locals of the area have been using the medicinal plants for many day to day uses for various ailments and are dependent on the plants in their surroundings for food, health, medication and various cultural purposes. A total of 50 important plant species belonging to 35 families of wild herbs, shrubs and trees, were found to be used as medicinal plants.

PREDISPOSING FACTORS FOR URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS

Sabahat Saeed1 and Perween Tariq2

1Department of Microbiology, Jinnah University for Women, Karachi, Pakistan.
2Department of Microbiology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

The important predisposing factors for urinary infections in females are age, sex, pregnancy, sexual intercourse, menopause, use of birth control devices, catheterization, surgery, diabetes, use of calcium supplements, immuno-supperession, renal transplantation and spinal cord injury. Besides, UTI is also the most frequent medical complication in patients with neurologic bladder dysfunction leading to high morbidity, poor quality of life and limited life expectancy. Moreover, severe protein malnutrition, poor fluid intake, and poor hygiene resulting in decrease immunity are also associated with urinary tract infections.

PESTS AND DISEASES OF CHILLI CROP IN PAKISTAN: A REVIEW

Faisal Hussain and Muhammad Abid

Research Laboratory of Plant Pathology and Aerobiology, Department of Botany, Federal Urdu University for Arts, Science & Technology Gulshan-e-Iqbal Karachi-75300, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

Chilli is economically very important and valuable crop through out the world. The native home of chillies is considered to New Mexico. Portuguese brought chillies in Indo-Pak subcontinent from Brazil before 1585. The world’s total production of chilli is approximately around 3.47million tonnes. India is the world’s largest producer, consumer and exporter of chillies in the world. Other major chillies producing countries are China, Bangladesh, Peru, etc. Chilli is also an important cash crop of Pakistan. Approximately 0.2 million tonnes chilli are produced by Pakistan. Sindh province is the major chilli producing province and its share in the total domestic production is about 82%. According to 2007 Pakistan Agriculture Research Council (PARC), report Pakistan was the fifth largest exporter in the world but according to there is continuous decline in the production of chillies in Pakistan. The reasons of this reduction are various and many but the major threat in chilli production are various pests and pathogens which cause considerable losses every year. Major insects which attack on chilli plant are Aphids, Mites, Thrips etc beside pests, different pathogens also cause various diseases in chilli crop and reduce yield of the plant e.g. fungi, viruses, bacteria and nematodes. Among other pathogens the fungal diseases are more destructive than diseases cause by other pathogens. Common fungal diseases are Damping off, Phytophthora root rot, Powdery mildew, Fusarium wilt, Anthracnose etc.
 
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