INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BIOLOGY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY
INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 10 (2): 151-152, 2013.
The soul of Dr. Mustafa Shameel, a renowned phycologist, phycochemist, developer of a new classification of algae, founder and patron of International Journal of Phycology and Phycochemistry (IJPP), mutely departed in the afternoon of Monday, the 13th May 2013 at 2:30 p.m. at his residence in Karachi, Pakistan. May Allah the Almighty rest his soul in eternal peace in heaven. Ameen! Meritorious Prof. Dr. Mustafa Shameel was born on Thursday the 3rd July, 1941 at Rudauli (UP, British India) as the younger son of (Late) Mr. Syed Amirul Hasan Quadri. He obtained his M. Sc. degree in Botany from the University of Karachi and Ph. D. degree in Marine Botany in 1972 from the University of Kiel, Germany Dr. Shameel joined the Department of Botany, University of Karachi on 3rd September, 1962 as a Lecturer and retired as Professor in 2001. During his service tenure he worked in in the Institute of Marine Biology, in the Centre of Excellence in Marine Biology (CEMB). While remaining abroad he worked in the Institute of Marine Science, University of Kiel, Germany and in the Department of Biological Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, Canada and in the Department of Botany, El-Fateh University, Tripoli, Libya. He rendered his services as Honorary Professor in the Department of Botany, Federal Government Urdu Science College now upgraded as Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science & Technology (FUUAST), Karachi. He acted as President of Pakistan Botanical Society during 2001-2003. He was elected as Fellow of Pakistan Academy of Sciences (FPAS) in 2005 and as Fellow of Third World Academy of Sciences (TWAS), Trieste, Italy in 2008.
INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 10 (2): 153-154, 2013.
Department of Zoology, Jamia Millia Govt. Degree College, Malir, Karachi, Pakistan.
During a field visit to Manora at Karachi coast of Pakistan some zoanthid colonies were noticed on the intertidal rocks. The close examination of the colonies and the polyps revealed that, they belong to the genus Zoanthus Lamarck, 1801 (order Zoantharia: suborder Brachycnemina: family Zoanthidae).The taxonomic study of zoanthids is neglected in Pakistan. This preliminary investigation suggests that, these colonies are morphologically close to Zoanthus sansibaricus Carlgren, 1900, however, molecular analysis is necessary.
INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 10 (2): 155-166, 2013.
Sumera Sohail1 and Zahir Hussain1,2*
1Department of Physiology, University of Karachi, Pakistan
Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases which result from defects in insulin secretion, or action, or both. Three main forms of diabetes are: type 1 diabetes mellitus, type 2 diabetes mellitus and type 3 or gestational diabetes mellitus. Endothelial dysfunction has been demonstrated in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. In type 1 diabetes, this alteration appears temporally linked to vascular disease and is more likely a consequence of the metabolic alterations. In type 2 diabetes, endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction is detectable very early in the course of the disease, even before overt hyperglycemia ensues, and may play a key role in the etiopathology of the vasculopathy associated with this disease. The hypothesis that endothelial dysfunction may be causative of some of the features of the syndrome of insulin resistance, however, deserves further research. Recent studies have provided evidence that adipose tissue may play a crucial role in the development of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and their complications through the secretion of a variety of biologically active molecules (adipocytokines). Leptin affects insulin sensitivity and may participate in the development of hypertension. These adipocytokines may cause the atherosclerotic vascular disease in type 2 diabetes directly or through the development of insulin resistance. Therefore, the leptin-to-adiponectin ratio might serve as an atherogenic index superior to leptin or adiponectin alone. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are reduced in macrovascular diabetes complications. Hence, it might be interesting to study the effect of adipokines mainly leptin on EPCs from healthy individuals and patients with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. This might provide opportunity to understand the cellular and intracellular changes in EPCs collected from patients with diabetes, and better knowledge of the molecular basis of diabetic disorders.
INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 10 (2): 167-177, 2013.
Kagnew Hailesellasse Sene and Belayneh Admassu
Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research, Holetta Agricultural Research Center, Holetta Agricultural Biotechnology Laboratory, P.O.Box 2003 code 31 Holetta, Ethiopia.
In the present study, two DNA extraction methods, namely, promega kit and CTAB method were utilized to optimize Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocol to amplify microsatellite of Coffea arabica based ona standardized PCR experiment. The experiment was conducted using explant of a newly released variety of coffee named Aba buna and tissue culture derived lines propagated from Aba buna. Primarily, the hybrid coffee, Aba buna was studied using 7 primer pairs that amplified microsatellite with genbank accession number AJ308755, AJ308779, AJ308782, CFGA91, CFGA92, AJ250251 and AJ250253. And for further experiments, three individuals of the coffee explant and the other two, tissue culture derived individuals micropropagated from Aba buna were studied at molecular level using 11 primer pairs, which amplified 11 microsatellites known to be with genbank accession number AJ308755, AJ308779, AJ308782, AJ308790, AJ308837, CFGA91, CFGA92, CFGA69, CFGA100, CFGA465 and CFGA502. The PCR amplicons were analyzed in horizontal agarose gel electrophoresis. Microsatellite allele separation was investigated using vertical polyacryl amide gel electrophoresis. PCR amplification failed using a highly colourful template DNA extracted by the promega kit. However, the PCR experiments resulted in high yield of microsatellite amplicon when a template DNA extracted by the Doyle & Doyle CTAB method was used. The present finding suggests that diverse secondary metabolites occurring in coffee leaf might have acted as PCR inhibitor though the exact mechanism of inhibition is unclear. The present research gave insight in promotion of the Doyle & Doyle CTAB method for isolating coffee DNA and recommends the need of modifying the promega kit to extract a coffee genomic DNA free of impurities. In a nutshell, the Doyle & Doyle CTAB method seems the most promising method to purify clean DNA, which is an ideal template to amplify SSR of C.arabica for genotyping coffee cultivars.
INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 10 (2): 179-186, 2013.
G. Sarwar, *M. Hassan, M.B. Chaudhry and S.S. Alam
Plant Breeding and Genetics Division, Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology (NIAB) Faisalabad Pakistan. PO Box 128
This research work was performed at Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology (NIAB) Faisalabad Pakistan and castor mutants under study were obtained after treating three castor varieties viz. DS 30, C 176 and DC 15 with gamma rays ranging from 100-500 Grey during Kharif 2003. The selection was performed in M2 generation and confirmation of characters in the subsequent generations. Vigorous selections remained in progress during each succeeding generation for desirable yield and yield components. Then afterward these elite selected mutant lines were evaluated from 2007 to 2010 in randomized complete block design (RCBD) in three repeats. Combined analysis of variance indicated that genotypes (A), environment (B) and interaction between A x B was highly significant. Overall mean performance of castor mutants showed significant differences with maximum seed yield (2776 kg ha-1) estimated in mutant M 7-35-12-1 and minimum in standard check DS 30 (1825 kg ha-1). M 7-35-12-1 produced 52.10% higher seed yield followed by L 57-32-784 (39.78%) and M 7-35-1-2 (35.34%). Regarding regression coefficient (b), mutant line L 36-24-124 was more near to unity followed by M 7-35-12-1. Standard check DS 30 not only produced poorest seed yield but had very less regression coefficient value (0.585) which indicated that variety is most suited to special type of environment. The maximum value of regression coefficient was estimated in mutant DC 1525421 (b=1.299) which showed that the line is most suited for rich environment. Standard deviations to regression (Sd2) values were not higher and less than unity and ranged from 0.107 to 0.390. Mutant line M 7-35-12-1 had minimum value and standard check DS 30 with highest value. Moreover, mutant line M 7-35-12-1 had less maturity period (125 days) as compared to 200 days of DS30 and it can easily be harvested in one cutting operation before cultivation of wheat and can be best fitted in wheat-castor rotation. Development of this early mutant has created the chances of adaptation of economically potential castor as major a crop that will contribute in meeting the increasing demands of castor oil.
INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 10 (2): 187-192, 2013.
Tahmineh Bakhshandeh1 and Rezvan Pourahmad*2
1Department of Food Science and Technology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
Kefir is fermented milk that has a unique flavor and aroma. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of incubation temperature and storage period on flavor and aroma compounds of kefir. Kefir starter was added into pasteurized and homogenized milk with 2.5% fat and the samples were incubated at 30, 33 and 35ºC. Flavor and aroma compounds (acetaldehyde,diacetyl, acetoin and ethanol) and microbial counts of kefir samples were determined on days 1, 7 and 14 during cold storage. Levels of acetaldehyde, diacetyl, acetoin and ethanol increased with raising of temperature and decreased significantly (p<0.05) during cold storage from first day to 14th day. Microbial population (Yeasts, lactobacilli and lactococci) increased significantly (p<0.05) with raising of temperature and decreased significantly (p<0.05) during 14 days of cold storage.
INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 10 (2): 193-202, 2013.
Zulfiqar Ali, D. Khan and Naeem Ahmed
Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi - 75270, Pakistan.
Three sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.] cultivars namely Mr. Buster, Honey Graze and Extra Sweet of Australian origin were tested for their salinity tolerance. Their germination was assayed against a series of NaCl concentrations (0, 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 mM NaCl) in Petri plates. Seedling growth was tested in a sand culture experiment in pots under saline irrigation with 50, 100, and 150 mM NaCl prepared in half strength Hoagland solution. Germination of all cultivars was inhibited as a direct function of salinity. Salinity reduced the germination velocity relatively in higher magnitude in case of CV. Honey Graze. Fifty per cent reduction in final germination corresponded with 421.57, 335.57 and 327.46 mM NaCl in CV Mr. Buster, CV Extra Sweet and CV Honey Graze., respectively. The parameters like seedling phytomass, number of leaves per plant and total leaf area per plant declined with salinity. Fifty per cent reduction in growth, in terms of dry weight of seedling phytomass, corresponded with 82.9, 82.1, and 72.7 mM NaCl in CV Extra Sweet, CV Honey Graze and CV Mr. Buster, respectively. Obviously, sorghum appeared to be more tolerant at germination phase. Growth phase is more susceptible to the salinity in the root zone. Salt tolerance sequence, on the basis of 50 % germination loss over control, of the cultivars in hand was –
Cv. Mr. Buster > CV Extra Sweet > CV. Honey Graze.
Salt tolerance sequence, on the basis of 50 % loss of seedling phytomass over control, of the cultivars in hand was- Cv. Honey Graze ≈ CV Extra Sweet > CV. Mr. Buster
INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 10 (2): 203-208, 2013.
Muhammad Anis, M. Javed Zaki* and M. Waseem Abbasi
Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan
The main emphasis of this research was to evaluate ability of Trichoderma species in field conditions to improve sunflower growth and reduce the disease severity cause by Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid. Conidia of four different Trichoderma species namely, T. pseudokoningii, T. longibrachiatum, T. harzianum and T. viridi were coated on the seeds of sunflower before sowing in soil; soil was naturally infested with M. phaseolina (6-9 sclerotia per g of soil). The data of plant growth and M. phaseolina infection was recorded at 30 and 60 days of sowing. It was recorded that T. viridi treatment on sunflower elicited better growth of plant in terms of germination, plant length, plant weight, vigor index, petiole of the smallest and the largest leaf, area of small and the large leaf and stem diameter after 60 days of treatment. It was followed by T. longibrachiatum. The colonization of Macrophomina phaseolina was greatly reduced after 30 days of seed treatment with T. harzianum.
INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 10 (2): 209-212, 2013.
Abdul Wahab Khan, Abdul Rehman, Abdul Majid, M. Yousuf and M. Umair
Rice Programme, Crop Sciences Institute, NARC, Islamabad, Pakistan
Studies were carried out for two years to determine the effect of different levels of major (NPK) and trace (Zn, B) nutrient elements on the growth and yield of direct seeded rice on farmer’s field in village Dhallah, Dera Ismail Khan (KPK) Pakistan. The experiments were laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. The net plot size was 2.5 x 5m (12.5m-2) with 10 rows. IR-6 was used as test variety of rice. The combination of fertilizer levels comprised of eight treatments. The fertilizer rates included T1 = 100% recommended fertilizer dose (RFD) without micronutrients, T2 = 100% RFD + 5.0 Kg Zn + 1.0 Kg B ha-1 , T3 = 100% RFD + 5.0 Kg Zn ha-1 , T4 = 100% RFD + 7.5 Kg Zn ha-1 , T5 = 100% RFD + 0.5 Kg B ha-1 , T6 = 100% RFD + 1.0 Kg B ha-1 , T7 = 75% RFD + 5.0 Kg Zn + 1.0 Kg B ha-1 and T8 = 50% RFD + 5.0 Kg Zn + 1.0 Kg B ha-1 . Application of various doses of macro along with minor nutrient fertilizers significantly influenced the final plant height (cm), productive tillers m-2, panicle length (cm), number of grains panicle-1, 1000-grain weight (gm), biomass (t ha-1)and paddy yield (t ha-1). The data showed that the paddy yield was significantly higher in the plot of T2 than that of all other treatments.
INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 10 (2): 213-215, 2013.
Muhammad Ameen1, Asif Saeed*2, Javaid Akhtar3, Asif Ali Khan1 and Nadeem Saeed4
1Department of Plant Breeding & Genetics, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan
The understanding of association of traits is very important in developing an efficient breeding program. The study was carried out in order to find out the genetic variation, interrelationships among different characters and the direct and indirect contributions of these characters towards yield. The germplasm of pea containing 30 genotypes were analyzed to estimate the correlations and path coefficients for yield and yield related traits. Inter-relationship of various quantitative traits like days to flowering, branches per plant, pods per plant, pod length, pod width, pod weight per plant and seed yield per plant were ascertained. Correlation studies indicated that for improvement in pea yield, the intensive selection should be made for days to flowering, pods per plant, and pod weight as these traits showed significantly positive correlation with seed yield and also among themselves. Pod length and pod width also showed positive but non significant correlation with yield so these can also be used for improvement of yield. Partitioning through path coefficient analysis revealed that number of branches per plant played an important role for the improvement of grain yield in peas.
INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 10 (2): 217-220, 2013.
Muhammad Mazhar Hussain1, Asif Saeed*1, Javaid Akhtar2, Amir Shakeel1 and M. M. Farrukh Saleem3
1*Department of Cell and Systems Biology, University of Toronto, Canada
A set of 12 F1s developed by line × tester mating design were studied during 2008-2009 to investigate the nature and relative contribution of general combining ability, specific combing ability and simple correlation of selected tomato cultivars for yield and yield related traits in tomato. Data recorded for different traits (plant height, fruit length, fruit width, fruit weight, number of fruits per cluster, number of flowers per cluster, days to first picking, number of branches per plant, fruit setting percentage) showed that variability among crosses was mainly due to contribution of lines and line × tester interaction. Correlation studies showed that fruit yield per plant has strong positive correlation and significant values (p≤0.01) for branches per plant and fruit setting percentage while plant height has negative significant correlation for number of flowers per cluster. For specific combing ability, crosses CLN-2001 × BL-1175, BL-1173 × BL-1175, CLN-2001A × BL-1176 and cross BL-1173 × BL-1176 has shown good positive specific combining ability effects for fruit yield per plant while lines CLN-2001A and BL-1174 are good general combiners in term of fruit yield per plant while in males, BL-1176 and 17895 has shown good general combining ability for fruit yield per plant. So these lines may be used in a breeding program for local varieties development.
INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 10 (2): 221-228, 2013.
Aiman Hina1, Zahid Akram2 and Taj Naseeb Khan3
1,3, Vegetable program, horticulture research institute, National Agriculture research center, Islamabad.
The present study was conducted in the Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi and National Agricultural Research Center (NARC) Islamabad during the years 2010-2011. The experimental material consisted of thirty promising wheat genotypes obtained from various research Institutes of Pakistan. The research material was planted at NARC during Rabi 2010-11 and was then subjected to molecular characterization for estimation of genetic diversity. DNA extraction was done from wheat seeds of all genotypes and PCR reaction using SSR primers was carried out. The SSR primers generated 21 alleles with number of alleles per locus varying from 1 to 4. The highest number of scorable bands (4) was obtained with the primer XGBSS-4A while the lowest number (1) was produced by the primers XGDM33- 1D, XGLU-D1 and XPINa-1D. Maximum genotypes (25) were amplified by the primer XPINb (wild)-1D and minimum (8) by the primers XGBSS-4A and XGDM33-1D. Dendrogram was developed on the basis of the scorable banding patterns of the thirty wheat varieties using ten SSR primers by grouping the genotypes on the basis of similarities and differences. During the present investigation, genetic similarity ranged from 0.6-0.9%. This showed the presence of wide range of genetic diversity for quality traits among all genotypes studied.
INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 10 (2): 229-235, 2013.
Sheeba Afsar and Sumaiya Bano
Department of Geography, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan
Satellite Remote Sensing has become an important tool for monitoring of protected areas. Fortunately Remote Sensing technology is a promising solution to the problem of accessibility. Using satellite remote sensing coupled with geographic information systems technologies have provided the capabilities to develop a database of information that permits systematic monitoring of national parks (protected areas) and an effective means of protecting National Parks from the anthropogenic activities. The Hazarganji-Chiltan National Park is one of the 25 declared national parks of Pakistan, which falls in IUCN Category V. According to the latest research available data, nine species of large mammals while 21 species of small mammals were recorded, Avifauna comprises of 36 Resident and 84 Migratory species, among reptiles, 15 lizards and 9 species of snakes and only one testudine was recorded. The Chiltan Markhor (Capra aegagrus chialtanensis) is endemic in Pakistan and is listed as critically endangered in the IUCN Red Data book, found in this area. The Hazar Ganji National Park was established in 1980 for the protection of this endemic species. From that day to now mostly population of this endemic species is gradually increasing. The only threat is the unstable political situation in that area.
INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 10 (2): 237-246, 2013.
Sheeba Afsar, Hina Masood and Sumaiya Bano
Department of Geography, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan
The present study used remote sensing images and GIS to identify and measure shoreline changes and its impact on Mangroves in Karachi coast. It has been observed that shoreline change in the study area results from both erosion and accretion processes. The accretion occurred at the southern part of Clifton beach as well as on the northern part of the bundal island. Their distribution throughout the world is affected by climate, salinity of the water, fluctuation of the tides, type of soil in the area and, more recently, by development of tidal wetlands for residential use as well as industrial, i.e. shrimp farms.
INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 10 (2): 247-253, 2013.
Syed Adnan Hasan*, Farhat Shaheen, Moazzam Ali Khan and Omm-e-Hany
Institute of Environmental Studies, University of Karachi, Karachi 75270, Pakistan
Degradation of azo dyes by pure and mixed bacterial strains of Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Staphylococcus and Micrococcus strain was studied. These strains grew in nutrient broth supplemented with Indosole Yellow BG, Indosole Black G and Indosole Brilliant Red BAwith specific growth rates of 0.28 h-1, 0.31 h-1and 0.44 h-1, respectively. Very low percentage (i.e. < 5%) of azo dyes was removed in mineral salts medium (MM) by pure bacterial strains. Mixed culture degraded azo dyes not more than 20% in MM medium. The degradation was enhanced when a cosubstrate (i.e. glucose) was supplemented in the MM medium containing azo dyes with bacterial consortia. Decolorisation of over 95% of azo dyes with mixed culture was observed when glucose was added with azo dyes in MM medium. Different concentrations of azo dyes (i.e. 10 mg/L and 20 mg/L) were degraded in MM medium supplemented with the same concentration of glucose with almost similar degradation rates.
INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 10 (2): 255-259, 2013.
Farzana Usman1*, S. Shahid Shaukat2, Muhammad Abid1 and Faisal Hussain1
1Dr. A.G. Aerobiology and Plant Pathology Lab., Department of Botany,
The yield of vegetables is reducing gradually every year due to the soil-borne pathogens (fungi and nematodes). Soil borne plant diseases cause significant damage to almost all crops particularly to the vegetables. Important plant soil-borne fungi which cause significant losses are Pythium spp., Phytophthora blight, Fusarium oxysporium, Leveillula taurica, Macrophomina phaseolina, Rhizoctonia solani, Alternaria spp. and some important nematodes were recorded for losses. During our survey conducted during July 2010 to December 2012 it was observed that in the vegetable crops of different areas of Sindh Province including Karachi (Malir, Sharafi Goth, Memon Goth and Gadap Town), Kunri, Mirpurkhas, Ghotaki, Tando Allahayar and Digri show heavy losses and several symptoms including wilting, stunted growth, chlorosis and blotch on vegetables crops. Diseased plant specimens were collected and brought to laboratory. The soil borne fungi Rhizoctonia solani, Macrophomina phaseolina and Fusarium oxysporum were isolated from the roots of brinjal and spinach plants collected from these areas. In antagonistic activity, four antagonistic fungi Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, Penicillium commune and Trichoderma harzianum isolated from the roots of vegetables were used against the above mentioned plant pathogenic fungi which successfully suppressed the activity of pathogenic fungi. In addition, it disclosed that Aspergillus niger was highly antagonistic towards R. solani, M. phaseolina and F. oxysporum as it showed a strong inhibitory effect on the growth and mycelial development.
INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 10 (2): 261-269, 2013.
Abid Raza Zaidi and Rukhsana Perveen
Department of Zoology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan
The collection of marine invertebrate’s representatives of class Anthozoa present in the Zoological Museum, since 1952, lacked faunstic studies as well as species of the Scleractinian present in Geological Museums of the University of Karachi. The present work is a comprehensive checklist of subclasses Octocorallia and Hexacorallia, order Scleractinia of the class Anthozoa belonging to the Phylum Cnidaria. The present checklist contains 8 families and belongs to the subclass octocorallia and 13 families belonging to the subclass Hexacorallia in the order Scleractinia. The specimens were identified through fauna of British India and pertinent literature.
INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 10 (2): 271-274, 2013.
Habibullah Rana1 ,Muhammad Farhanullah Khan1, Muhammad Fahim1 and Syeda Azra Tariq2
1Department of Zoology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.
It is appeared that Paederus littoralis and paederus fuscipes are homogeneously distributed throughout the selected area. Population studies of Paederus littoralis and paederus fuscipes were started to determined in March, 2007 and continued until October, 2008. Over 8,000 specimens were collected from different parts of Sind province. Collections were made by hand picking method. In daylight hours, beetles were detected visually among vegetation and collected by hand picking and using an exhauster. Collections were randomly made from various host plants, mainly alfalfa and rice crops including associated weeds. The collection method also included digging to observe for the presence of the beetles in the soil cracks with a digging apparatus. Paederus littoralis was observed on its maximum abundance in shiny hot weathers i.e. May to July whilst Paederus fuscipes was abundant in comparatively less hot weathers i.e. July to September, when the Paederus littoralis was showing a declining tendency. Both larval and adult stages of rove beetles are voracious insect eaters and rely mainly on sucking pest complex. It is therefore; postulated that if, through conservation and manipulation strategies, both species would be encouraged to maintain a good biological control on the alfalfa and rice crops field over the year.
INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 10 (2): 275-278, 2013.
Anjum. A.S., M.R. Chattha, M. Ali Khan, M. Imran and M. Imran Kasana
National Institute of Organic Agriculture, NARC, Park Road, Islamabad-Pakistan
A field trial was conducted at National Institute of Organic Agriculture (NIOA), NARC, Islamabad, Pakistan during Kharif 2011, which was aimed at managing organically sown vegetables under walk-in tunnels and open field situation. Vegetables i.e. long gourd, bitter gourd, sponge gourd and farash beans under walk-in tunnels and open field. Enriched compost @ 100 kg per acre was used in furrows in the plots in two split doses. The results revealed that long gourd, bitter gourd, sponge gourd and farash beans remained 77.0, 13.6, 18.4 and 39.4 kg under walk in tunnels as compared to the vegetables in open field 54.5, 5.85, 4.55 and 34.9 kg respectively.
INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 10 (2): 279-282, 2013.
Naeemuddin Arain1* and Abdul Rauf2
1Department of Zoology, Federal Urdu University for Arts, Science & Technology, Gulshan-e-Iqbal campus, Karachi, Pakistan.
The effect of different water pH environments on hematological parameters of juvenile Tilapia mossambicus was investigated after three weeks of exposure to different acidic (pH5.5 and 6.5) and alkaline (pH 8.5 and 9.5) enviroments. The results obtained indicated a significant decrease (P<0.05) in the erythrocyte count, hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, lymphocyte count and significant increase (P<0.05) in total leukocyte count, monocytes and neutrophils of fish exposed to acidic pH 5.5 and alkaline pH of 9.5. The values of mean corpuscular volume decreased significantly in fish exposed to pH level of 5.5 only, whereas the values of mean corpuscular hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentrations were not significantly different in all exposed fish groups when compared with controls. On the other hand, the variations in hematological parameters of fish exposed to pH levels of 6.5 and 8.5 were not significantly different from controls. These hematological alterations indicated that change in water pH might have caused physiological stress to the fish that can affect the growth and survival of fish in natural environment.
INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 10 (2): 283-288, 2013.
Mahmood Khalid Qamar1 and Masood Ahmed Akhtar Quraishi2
1Planning and Development Department, Government of the Punjab, Lahore
GIS and field studies of Indus delta were conducted during 2005-08 to determine the influence of frequent flooding by river Indus, rare / no flooding as well as frequent oceanic storms on dynamics of mangrove vegetation during 49 years period from 1953 to 2001. Integrated dense mangrove forests which proportionally incorporate dense, medium as well as poor/ sparse mangroves showed the net loss of 30.6% in site exposed to most river water flooding as compared to insignificant loss of 1% in the site with least river water flooding but with daily tidal inundations as well as gain of 18.4% in site exposed to daily high sea waves without any trace of river water flooding.
INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 10 (2): 289-298, 2013.
Syed Aijazuddin and Sohail Barkati
Deparment of Zoology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan
The intertidal faunal assemblages of the Light house -Keamari Sea wall of Manora channel was studied during the period May 2006 to August 2008. Animal species belonging to following phyla were found: Porifera (1 species), Cnidaria (1 species), Annelida (3 species), Arthopoda (16 species), Mollusca (41 species), Echinodermata (2 species) and Chordata (1 species). Molluscs were the main components of the lagoon studied. Ten most abundant species were Euchelus asper, Nerita dombyi, Thais rudolphi, Thais tissoti, Morula tuberculata, Chiton oceanica, Onchidium daemelli, Megabalanus tintinabulum, Canthrus spirilis and Cellana radiata respectively. More animals were collected in summer months compared to other seasons.
INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 10 (2): 299-301, 2013.
Rubina Perween1*, Hina Zafar2, S. S.Shaukat3, Faisal Hussain2 and Nida Afroz 4
1Department of Chemistry, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, Karachi
Tea is an instant energy providing national drink of Pakistan and consumed by the people of all social classes. In our culture dairy milk or milk analogue (tea whitener) is added in black tea to enhance its taste, color and aroma. The present study is designed to investigate the physical characteristics and hygienic level of the different brands of tea whitener either in liquid (TWL) or powder (TWP) form that are commonly available in Karachi city. Six species (Aspergillus candidus, A. flavus, A. niger, A. nidulans, Neurospora cressa and Penicillium notatum) were recovered in summer season, while a total four species (Aspergillus niger, Mucor mucedo, Neurospora cressa and Penicillium notatum) were isolated in winter season. In this regard hygiene of samples was checked by applying culture plate technique for fungal growth and isolation.
INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 10 (2): 303-306, 2013.
Hina Zafar1, S. Shahid Shaukat2 and Abdul Hakeem Sheikh1
1Department of Botany, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, Gulshan-e-Iqbal, Karachi-75300, Pakistan
Fungi are vital components of nearly all ecosystems and affect human health and our economy in many ways. Monitoring fungal biodiversity from various systems including phylloplane is essential. The occurrence of phylloplane fungi on leaf surface of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum ) was investigated. A total number of 19 fungal species were isolated from surface sterilized leaf segments using dilution plating technique. Among these Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus terreus, Curvularia, Fusarium oxysporum, F. moniliformis, Macrophomina phaseolina, Dreschlera, Penicillium citrinum, Penicillium chrysogenium, Rhizopus stolonifer, Trichoderma harizianum, Trichoderma viride , White sterile mycelium, yellow sterile mycelium Diversity of phylloplane assemblages were also measured. The colony interaction between the Alternaria solani and the phylloplane fungi of tomato were assessed following the model of proposed by Dickinson. Alternaria solani overgrew the colony of Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, A. fumigatus and showed type A interaction while Trichoderma harizianum, T. viride inhibited the growth of A. solani and produced coiling around the A. solani ( type B interaction). Fusarium oxysporam, Fusarium moniliforme, Aspergillus terrus, Penicillium citrinum, and Peneicillium chrysogenum inhibited the growthof A. solani but did not produce coiling ( type C). Rhizopus sp and Macrophomina phaseolina met with A. solani colony.
INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 10 (2): 307-313, 2013.
Basit Ansari1, Masood A Qureshi2, Sitwat Zehra3, Humayun Imran Azeemi1
1Department of Health & Physical Education, University Of Karachi,
To observe and record the progressive and successive daily improvement in HR and BP in some of post-CABG patients. A few selected cases of the total population studied for their cardiac responses (HR and BP) before, during and after the completion of exercise sessions daily/alternate day’s basis showed significantly increasing differences both in the mean. In these patients there were significantly increasing difference of mean treadmill time (min) and distance (Km), mean Recumbent Bike time (min) over different visit. The progressive and successive daily improvement in HR and BP in some of post-CABG patients. The exercise training program is helpful for improving exercise competency linked with recovery cardiac function in Pakistani CABG patients.
INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 10 (2): 315-318, 2013.
THE ROLE OF GENDER IN SPORTS TO EVALUATE THE TRAIT SPORTS CONFIDENCE OF PAKISTANI ELITE ATHLETES
1Comsats Institute of Information Technology Attock Campus, Pakistan.
The main purpose of the study was to observe the role of gender in sports to evaluate the trait sports confidence of Pakistani elite athletes. Another purpose of the study was to examine and find out whether one psychosocial (self confidence) dimension exerted a stronger influence on gender. The analysis was administered to a sample of 300 (150 males and 150 females) athletes aged 17 to 24 who usually take part in the university/national level sports. Trait Sports Confidence Inventory TSCI. Vealey (1986) has been selected. For data analysis Anova, Post Hoc, Correlations and Regression has been carried out. The values are significant at 0.00 alpha levels. An analysis of the results illustrated that significant difference existed between male and female player's trait sports confidence in Pakistan due to the socioeconomic and socio cultural attitudes and conditions.
INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 10 (2): 319-325, 2013.
D. Khan1, Zulfiqar Ali Sahito1 and Imtiaz Ahmad2
1Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi - 75270, Pakistan.
Ten white grub larvae (third instar) were found in the sandy rhizospheres of Acacia nilotica ssp. nilotica seedlings irrigated with saline water of EC: 9.23 and 12.81dS.m-1 for more than two months in Biosalinity Experimental Field, department of Botany, University of Karachi.These larvae were incubated in laboratory. The soil was once sprinkled with tap water to maintain moisture level. After eight days the eight of the larvae died but two turned up into pupa which after around six to eight days gave rise to adult leaf chafer beetle. This organism on the basis of external morphology and genitalia was identified as Adoretus versutus Harold, 1869) - a serious pest on rose and several other plants. The grubs appeared to be tolerant to moderate level of salinity
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