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Abstract July 2007

Abstract 2007
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GERMPLASM CONSERVATION OF MULTIPURPOSE PLANTS FOR FARMING SYSTEM IN PAKISTAN: A Review

M.B.Baig1 and M. Ahmed2

1Agriculture Science Department, Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad.
2Department of Botany, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, Gulshan-e-Iqbal Campus, Karachi, Pakistan.
ABSTRACT
With increase in human and livestock population, worldwide increasing in deforestation and land degradation has become the matter of global importance. Particularly in developing countries, productive forests and fertile lands are shrinking at an alarming rate developing imbalance in demand and supply relationship imbalanced. Another concern is the depletion of genetic resource of potentially important species either as a result of indiscriminate devegetation or insufficient efforts to preserve and maintain germplasm collections. Agro forestry (AF), as a complete farming system, has recently received attention and MPTS (multipurpose trees and shrubs) are considered as its integral component. They occupy prime importance for having potential and vital role in sustainable agricultural development. The importance of MPTS in meeting human needs for wood and its products and sustaining soil productivity is being increasingly recognized. Some hundreds of species have been considered to have multiple uses. MPTS extremely vary for their natural distribution and variation, methods of exploration, collection and evaluation of their germplasm. In this paper, an attempt has been made to explore the role of MPTS in sustainable agricultural development and the strategies for germplasm acquisition, evaluation and preservation.

NEW STATUS AND REDESCRIPTION OF DYSDERCUS PAPUENSIS DISTANT (HEMIPTERA: PYRRHOCORIDAE) WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO ITS UNKNOWM FEMALE GENITALIA AND PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIP

Imtiaz Ahmad1 and Syed Salahuddin Qadri2

1Department of Zoology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan. iahmad3141@yahoo.com
2Department of Zoology, Jamia Millia Government Degree College, Malir, Karachi, Pakistan. ssqadri@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

Dysdercus papuensis Distant is redescribed in detail with special reference to its metathoracic scent auricle and female genitalia including spermatheca. In this light the species is compared with its closest allies and its phylogenetic relationship is also briefly discussed.

CHECK LIST OF MOTHS (LEPIDOPTERA:HETEROCERA) OF PAKISTAN

S. Kamaluddin, S. Nargis Viqar, K.A.B. Saeed Khan and Aliza Ali.

Department of Zoology, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, Gulshan-e-Iqbal Campus, Karachi (SK, KABSK). Department of Zoology, Government Degree College for Women, Block-M, North Nazimabad, Karachi (SNV,AA).

ABSTRACT

A check-list of moths of Pakistan with species and families name and distribution with their host association is given.

POLLEN MORPHOLOGY OF THE TRIBE ANTHEMIDAE: COMPOSITAE FROM PAKISTAN AND KASHMIR

Anjum Perveen

Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

Pollen morphology of 45 species representing 11 genera of the tribe Anthemidae: Compositae from Pakistan and Kashmir have been examined by light and scanning microscopes. The Anthemideae:Compositae is more or less stenopalynous tribe. However, Pollen morphology of the tribe is significantly helpful at the specific level. Pollen grains are generally radially symmetrical, isopolar, Oblate – spheroidal to prolate-spheroidal, rarely prolate to sub-prolate.Aperture tricolporate. Tectum commonly spinulose few species have non-echinate pollen On the basis of tectum two distinct pollen type are recoginized . Type –I: spinulose pollen and Type – II. Non spinulose pollen.

EFFECTS OF CADMIUM ON GERMINATION AND SEEDLING GROWTH OF PROSOPIS JULIFLORA (SWARTZ) DC. – A POTENTIAL METALLOPHYTE

D. Khan

Department of Botany, Government National College, Karachi, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

Germination and seedling growth of Prosopis juliflora (Swartz) DC. is investigated against cadmium toxicity. Cadmium concentration up to 400 ppm, in vitro, showed no detrimental effect on germination of abraded seeds, germination velocity was, of course impeded. Cotyledonary area per seedling (CAS) remained more or less unaffected (r = - 0.0025, NS) but radicle growth was inhibited drastically above 25 ppm. Compared to radicle, reduction in growth of hypocotyl was relatively of lower order. In Cd concentrations higher than 50 ppm, radicle appeared somewhat dehydrated, turned brown and almost burnt gradually in higher concentrations. TL50 values for Hypocotyl and radicle growth were 288 and 36 ppm of Cd, respectively. Such values calculated on the basis of regression for hypocotylar growth turned out to be 300 ppm. Radicle length related with Cd curvilinearly indicating 50 % reduction at 45.4 ppm of cadmium.
Seedling emergence and their growth, for a period of 50 days, were also evaluated in pot containing soil contaminated with 10 – 100 mg cadmium per kg soil. Soil appeared to provide protection to the seedlings against cadmium in comparison to their, in vitro, vulnerability to cadmium. There was delay in emergence velocity but (CAS) remained more or less unaffected up till 15th day of growth – CAS declined at later stage. Cadmium had no significant effect on hypocotylar growth. There was delay in primary leaf development. Fifty per cent reduction in growth of radicle, epicotyl, shoot (hypocotyl + epicotyl), number of leaves, number of leaflets per seedling and seedling biomass corresponded with 129.5, 136, 249.8, 169.2, 104.9, and 180 mg of cadmium per kg soil, respectively. Cadmium inhibited internodal elongation significantly. One individual each in 80 and 100 mg Cd per kg soil treatments died after 24 days of growth. The results are discussed in eco-physiological context.

EFFECTS OF IRRIGATION WITH AMENDED DILUTIONS OF SEAWATER ON GERMINATION, GROWTH AND CATIONS DISTRIBUTION IN PANICUM TURGIDUM FORSK. - A DESERT FODDER GRAMINOID

D. Khan1 and R. Ahmad2

1Department of Botany, Govt. National College, Karachi-46000, Pakistan.
2Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

Germination, growth and mineral distribution in Panicum turgidum Forsk. were investigated using 10-30% amended seawater (ECiw: 4.5-14.0 dS.m-1 ) for irrigation . Fifty percent reduction in germination (in Petri-plates) corresponded with ECiw: 6.72 dS.m-1 and threshold ECiw corresponding with 50% reduction in growth (in drum pot culture) was around 13.46 ± 0.51 dS.m-1.The plant showed good regeneration after bi-monthly clipping around the year except that growth was extremely reduced during winter season. The cumulative forage biomass harvested per annum with 30 % amended seawater (ECiw: 14.0 dS.m-1) was 1279.79 ±16.59 g.drum-1 (FW). It was 2851.85 ± 57.83 g.drum-1 (FW) in control (1.2 dS.m-1); reduction being c. 55%. The reduction in forage production in 10 and 20% seawater was c.23 and c.34% of the control, respectively. The plant showed flowering throughout the year.
The plant irrigated with saline water showed decrease in chlorophyll and sugar contents and increase in proline level whereas moisture and protein concentration remained quite unaffected. The uptake of cations was selective. Sodium increased in the roots and shoots with almost equal magnitude and potassium declined in concentration with the salinity. There was, however, rapid translocation of potassium from roots to the shoots. The divalent cations like calcium and magnesium accumulated in greater concentration in the shoot.

EFFECTS OF QUETTA CITY WASTEWATER ON GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF SPINACH (SPINACEA OLERACEA L.)

A. K. K. Achakzai and Z. A. Bazai

Department of Botany, University of Balochistan, Quetta-Pakistan; e-mail:profakk@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted to assess the effect of 5 concentrations of polluted water of three different localities of Quetta city (viz., Chiltan Ghee Mill, Chiltan Town and Zarghoon Town) on the growth and development of spinach (Spinacea oleracea L.). Results showed that number of leaves and biomass contents are significantly (P < 0.05) influenced both by source and concentration of applied effluents whereas leaf length and moisture content did not exhibit any significant response. Results also revealed that number of leaves and biomass contents are significantly reduced when provided with the effluents from Chiltan ghee mill and Zarghoon town, respectively. Results also indicated that highest concentration of wastewater (T5) significantly reduced the number of leaves, whereas reverse was found in case of biomass contents.

INVASION OF EXOTIC WEED PARTHENIUM HYSTEROPHORUS L. IN DISTRICT SHEIKHUPURA, PAKISTAN

Tariq Riaz and Arshad Javaid

Department of Mycology and Plant Pathology, University of the Punjab, Quaid-e-Azam Campus Lahore, Pakistan
*E-mail: tariq_pathologist@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

A survey of district Sheikhupura, Punjab, Pakistan was carried out during September-October 2006 after the rainy season, to study the distribution of an alien weed Parthenium hysterophorus L. in comparison with the native flora. Eleven sites, each of about 1 hectare area, were selected in different regions of the district. Sampling was done with the help of a 1 m2 quadrate. Data regarding prevalence, frequency and density of P. hysterophorus and other weed species were recorded. P. hysterophorus was found to be present at all the 11 studied sites exhibiting 100% prevalence. P. hysterophorus exhibited an absolute frequency (AF) of 76% and relative frequency (RF) of 3.52. Only 8 out of 37 local weed species namely Achyranthes aspera L., Amaranthus viridis L., Calotropis procera Br., Malvestrum tricuspidatum A. Gray, Cypreus rotundus L., Cenchrus biflorus Roxb., Cynodon dactylon Pers. and Dactyloctenium aegyptium Beauv. showed higher AF and RF than this alien weed species. P. hysterophorus was found eighth most densely populated weed in the studied area exhibiting an absolute density of 3.37 and relative density of 4.45. An urgent integrated management strategy is the need of the hour to limit the rapid spread of this noxious alien weed in the area.

SCREENING OF CULTIVARS OF BRASSICA NAPUS AND B. COMPESTRIS FOR SALT TOLERANCE GROWN UNDER CONTROLLED CONDITION

Parvez Khan, Muhammad Imtiaz, Muhammad Aslam, Syed Khursheed Hussain Shah, Muhammad Yousuf Memon, Saleem-ul-Haq Siddiqui and Nizamuddin

Soil Science Division, Nuclear Institute of Agriculture, Tando Jam-70060, Pakistan.
Email: parvez_08@yahoo.com; niatjam@hyd.paknet.com.pk

ABSTRACT

Six Brassica napus genotypes Salam, Altex, Ganyou-5, PR-7, Marnoo, NARC-82, and four Brassica Compestris genotypes Desi, Tobin, Torch and Span were screened for salt tolerance under glasshouse conditions at maturity stages. Two levels of salinity i.e; 7.5 and 15 dS.m-1 were induced in soil under test along with control (EC 1.2 dS.m-1). Root zone salinity reduced plant height, stem diameter, biological and grain yield significantly over control. Cumulative varietal means showed that relative yield was higher in NARC-82 and Desi as compared with other cultivars. K+/Na+ ratio decreased with increasing root zone salinity. Relatively, salt tolerant cultivars appeared to exclude Na+ and maintain K+ and K+/Na+ ratio higher than the sensitive cultivars.

SALINITY TOLERANCE IN CULTIVARS OF BRASSICA NAPUS AND B. COMPESTRIS AT GERMINATION

Parvez Khan*, Muhammad Aslam, Muhammad Imtiaz, Muhammad Yousuf Memon, Syed Khursheed Hussain Shah and Saleem-ul-Haq Siddiqui

Soil Science Division, Nuclear Institute of Agriculture, Tando Jam-70060, Pakistan.
Email: parvez_08@yahoo.com ; niatjam@hyd.paknet.com.pk

ABSTRACT

Six Brassica napus genotypes Salam, Altex, Ganyou-5, PR-7, Marnoo, NARC-82, and four genotypes of Brassica compestris Desi, Tobin, Torch and Span were screened for salt tolerance under glasshouse conditions at germination and seedling stages. Two levels of salinity i.e.,; 7.5 and 15 dS m-1 were induced in soil under test along with control (ECe 1.2 dS m-1). Germination percentage was reduced significantly by the addition of salt and mean reduction in cultivars was 37 and 77 % at ECe 7.5 and 15 dS m-1, respectively, as compared to control. Salam, Marnoo, Torch and Altex are sensitive while NARC-82, Desi and ganyou-5 are comparatively salt tolerant at germination and seedling stage. Brassica napus and B. compestris) were sensitive to salinity during germination and seedling stage. Salinity should be kept at minimum as possible.

EFFECTS OF CONTINUOUS APPLICATION OF SALINE WATER ON GROWTH AND FODDER YIELD OF SORGHUM BICOLOR L. CV. SAROKARTUHO

M. Suleman Memon1, I. Rajpar1, N.B. Sial1 and M.I. Keerio2

1Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Crop Production, Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam.
2Department of Plant Physiology & Biochemistry, Faculty of Crop Production, Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam-70060 Pakistan

ABSTRACT

Sorghum is well adapted to semiarid and arid tropics where salinity is the major problem due to limited water supply. Sarokartuho variety of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L) was continuously irrigated with fresh (control) and marginally to slightly saline ECiw 2, 3, 4 and 5 dSm-1) waters in a pot experiment conducted on silty clay loam soil at Sindh Agriculture University, Tando Jam, Pakistan. Increasing water salinity progressively decreased plant height and fodder yield (fresh and dry weight) per plant. AS compared to the control, the depression in dry fodder yield per plant was 78% at 5 ECiw. Reduction in dry fodder yield in ECiw: 2, 3 and 4 (dSm-1) was 26, 42 and 58% of the control, respectively. Saline water treated plants contained more Na+, less K+ and showed lower leaf K+/ Na+ ratio.

ANTINOCICEPTION AND LOCOMOTOR IMPAIRMENT INDUCTION BY METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF URTICA DIOICA

M. Mahmoudi 1, M. A. Ebrahimzadeh 2, F. Pourmorad 2*, S. Yasini 3

1Department of Physiology/Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Medical Sciences University of Mazandaran, Sari, Iran
2Pharmaceutical Sciences Research center, Sari School of Pharmacy, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.
3 Student research development committee, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

ABSTRACT

Urtica dioica (UD), as anti-inflammatory and analgesic, has been used by people in Iran since long. The aerial parts of plant containing active materials have been utilized in the prostate proliferative disease. In the present studies Methanolic extracts of Urtica dioica were prepared by maceration. Antinociceptive activity of the extract was determined by hot plate and writhing tests in mice. Methanolic extract of UD at 50 and 100 mg/ kg could produce 59% and 98% writhing inhibition respectively. Morphine (5 mg/kg) with 91% writhing inhibition showed less analgesic activity than UD (100 mg/kg). Number of writhings was decreased by diclofenac (50 mg/kg) in magnitude of 78% that was less than UD at 100 mg/kg (p < 0.05). Methanolic extract, in all test doses (25-100 mg/kg) showed a dose dependent increase in pain threshold in hot plate thermal test which were significantly higher than control. LD50 of UD was obtained 300 mg/kg. UD extract at 150 mg/ kg showed significant impairment in mouse coordination in the rota rod test.

IN VITRO DISTRIUBITON OF SULFADIAZINE IN WHOLE AND SKIMMED MILK OF GOAT

Sumaira Kanwal and Rakshanda Nawaz

University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

The present study shows that sulfadiazine (SDZ) has greater capacity to bound with protein present in milk of goat. From this we calculated the percentage of drug in whole and skimmed milk. We also determined the amount of drug present in bound and free form. We also calculated the percentage of fat present in the milk samples. As the samples were collected from different rural areas of Faisalabad. We also determined the quality of the milk in these areas. The milk samples containing greater percentage of protein, showed the greater percentage of bound drug.

INVESTIGATION OF FREE RADICAL SCAVENGING ACTIVITY BY ESR FOR COUMARINS ISOLATED FROM TECOMA RADICANS

F.A. HASHEM

Pharmacognosy Department, National Research Centre, Tahrir Street, Dokki, Cairo , Egypt.

ABSTARCT

Chemical investigation of the aerial parts of Tecoma radicans, family Bignoniaceae indicates the presence of four coumarins, 2`, 3`-epoxide alloimperatorin (8-methoxy furanocoumarin), pabulenone (5-alkoxy–furanocoumarin), pereflorin B and 17–methylbothrioclinin. One chromone was also isolated peucenin-7-methyl ether (7,5 dioxygenated chromone). Biological screening of this fraction showed no antitumoral effects but antioxidant activity. The method of assaying free radical is modified to make combination between the stable DPPH radical and its determination by ESR instead of determining it by colourimetric method. When the coumarin fraction and isolated compounds were examined for free radical scavenging activity, using the stable DPPH free radical and recorded by ESR, it was found that the whole coumarin fraction was the most active (89. 06% inhibition of DPPH free radical ), and the isolated components are 0, 25.9, 8.45, 13.85 and 50%, respectively.

EVALUATION OF SETARIA ANCEPS AS AFFECTED BY SUMMER LEGUMES IN THE POTHOWAR PLATEAU OF PAKISTAN

M. Arshad Ullah1, Maqsood Anwar1, A. Razzaq1, S. A. R Zaidi2, S. Bano2 and K.H. Abbasi2

Rangeland Research Program, National Agricultural Research Centre, Park Road, Islamabad, P.O. N.I.H
2Agency for Barani Area Development, Murree Road, Rawalpindi; E-mail: arshad_pak786@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

Leguminous forages are rich in proteins, minerals and vitamins. Legumes do not only increase soil fertility but also more helpful controlling soil erosion. Increasing leguminous portion in animal diet increases protein content that enhances voluntary intake and digestibility of entire animal diet. Setaria grass (Setaria anceps) was grown with warm season legumes; i.e. Cow peas (Vigna ungiculata var. P-518) and Rice bean (Vigna umbellata) in different ratios to evaluate fresh biomass, dry matter yield and moisture contents at the National Agricultural Research Centre under the sub-tropical, sub-humid conditions of the Pothowar Plateau during 2004. The combination of 50% Cow peas and 50% Rice bean showed maximum fresh biomass (1406gm-2), dry matter yield (376gm-2) and moisture contents (73.5%) followed by the combination of 50% Setaria anceps (grass) with two summer legumes (25% Cowpeas and 25% Rice bean) having fresh biomass (1047 gm-2), dry matter yield (359 gm-2) and moisture contents (67%). This revealed that alone Setaria anceps had the poorest results than the grass legumes mixture and binary legumes mixture.

RESPONSE OF ISPAGHOL (PLANTAGO OVATA) TO DIFFERENT LEVELS OF PHOSPHORUS FERTILIZER UNDER THE AGRO-CLIMATIC CONDITIONS OF CHOLISTAN, PAKISTAN

Mumtaz Hussain, Amir Ahmad, Rukhsana Anjum, M. Jahangir Shah, Malik M.Yousaf and Bashir Ahmad

Arid Zone Research Institute (AZRI), Bahawalpur, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted at the Cholistan Farm of Arid Zone Research Institute, Bahawalpur during Rabi 2005-2006, to observe the effect of different levels of Phosphorus on the growth and yield of Ispaghol. Five different levels of Phosphorus (Tripple Super Phosphate, TSP) i.e. 25, 50, 75, 100 kg ha-1 and Control were tried. Seed yield varied significantly in the concentration of phosphorus applied. Out of all the treatments applied, 100 kg ha-1 ‘P’ showed excellent results with the seed yield of 915.5 kg ha-1 and statistically the lowest seed yield of 591.0 kg ha-1 was obtained in case of control (in which ‘P’ fertilizer was not applied). It is believed that such an increase in the yield was mainly due to the factors like an increase in the tillers per plant, capsules per plant and seed weight.

HEMATOBIOCHEMICAL CHANGES IN A KINDLING MODEL OF EPILEPSY

Zahir Hussain

Department of Physiology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

There are many experimental methods of influencing the neuronal excitability and eliciting the convulsions in humans and animals. One of the major procedure or technique for inducing seizures in animals is kindling. In kindling the afterdischarges are elicited that later progress to generalized convulsions in an animal. There are a variety of reports documenting either low or high levels of blood sodium, potassium, calcium, glucose, cholesterol, total protein, blood hemoglobin etc. Blood calcium levels, however, are considered as important in the biochemical fluctuations occurring in epilepsy in humans and experimental animals. But no precise studies have yet been carried out to predict the pathophysiologic role of these factors in epilepsy. In the present work, changes in blood sodium, potassium, cholesterol, total protein, glucose, hemoglobin and other parameters were carried out in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) induced kindled rabbit. The fluctuations are not significant when compared with the normal controls. But significant decrease in blood calcium levels in PTZ kindled male and female rabbit is evident in the present study. Hence, hypocalcemia might be considered as contributory factor for epilepsy. The results obtained in the present work provide a biochemical and hematological basis of control over the epileptogenic influences/ effects of the biomedical/ environmental agents. Conclusively, the present investigation in the hematobiochemical changes in a kindling model of epilepsy emphasizes to search through different angles the multifaceted role of calcium in epilepsy and other hyperexcitability conditions.

A HYDROPHILIC AND HALOPHILIC BIOPOLYMER PRODUCED BY SOIL BACTERIUM CMG1447mp

Muhammadi, Nazia Jamil and Nuzhat Ahmed*

Centre for Molecular Genetics, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.
* Prof, Dr. N. Ahmed. Tel/Fax: +92-21-4966045. e-mail: a_nuzhat@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

The extracellular polymeric substance produced by dry soil isolate Pseudomonas putida CMG1447mp was characterized for hydrophilic and halophilic activities. CMG1447mp was found to produce a similar polymer from either fructose or glucose or sucrose and polymer from each carbon source was an anionic heteropolysaccharide containing glucuronic acid, D-glucose with higher concentration, D-mannose and L-rhamnose. The polymer produced from different carbon sources was found to express high hydrophilic and halophilic activities in both hot and cold environments. Bacterial origin polymer was hygroscopic, heat stable and can function as water reservoir.

QUALITATIVE ASSESSMENT OF BACTERIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF DRINKING WATER IN NEW CAMPUS, PUNJAB UNIVERSITY, LAHORE, PAKISTAN

Ruqia Suliman, Rukhsana Bajwa and Ghazala Nasim

Department of Mycology and Plant Pathology, University of the Punjab New Campus, Lahore. Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

The present work was designed to analyze the quality of drinking water of new campus Punjab University, Lahore. This site was further divided into three areas such as residential/colony area, hostels and departmental areas for sampling purpose. Bacteriological quality of drinking water was assessed through microbiological techniques and biochemical testing by MICROBACT TM GNB 12A/B/E, 24E Identification kit. It was noticed that drinking water was fully contaminated with enumerable species of Enterobacteriaceae. Some of which are faecal coliform i.e. Enterobacter. cloacae, Enterobacter. Sakazakii, Hafnia. alvei, Citrobacter sp10 A, Citrobacter sp10 B ,Enterobacter agglomerans A, Enterobacter agglomerans B, Enterobacter agglomerans C and non faecal human pathogenic bacteria i.e. Enteric Gp59 ,Escherchia coli-inactive, Yersinia ruckeri, Yersinia. pestis, Serratia rubidaea, Serratia. liquefaciens, Serratia. plymuthica , Serratia. marcescens biogp1 A, Serratia. marcescens biogp1B, , Acinetobacter haemolyticus, and Acinetobacter. baumannii A, Acinetobacter. baumannii B. All of these are opportunistic human pathogens. The presence of E.coli ensure poor quality of water because it is considered to be a universal indicator of contamination in water and water resources.

EVALUATION OF NEW COTTON (GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L) LINES FOR SEED COTTON YIELD AND LEAF CURL VIRUS INFECTION

Mahmood-ul-Hassan1, M. A. Haq, M. Aslam,2 M. Maqsood and S. S. Alam

1Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology (NIAB), Faisalabad, Pakistan
2Department of Agronomy University of Agriculture, Faisalabad

ABSTRACT

New candidate varieties/strains of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum different research stations/institutes were tested for their yield performance. NIAB-111, NIAB-98 and NIAB-999 were significantly higher fruit bearing varieties at 90 days by completing 59.5, 48.3 and 46.0% fruiting, respectively. Seed cotton yield of VH-142 was the highest with 5417 kgha-1 having 52.1 bolls per plant with maximum value as compared to other lines. DNH-57 and NIAB-999 remained second and third with 5234 and 5095 kg ha-1 seed cotton yield, respectively. BH-160 and CRIS-467 were found to be second and third highest boll bearing varieties with an average of 51.0 and 40.2 bolls plant-1, respectively. NIAB-98 gave the highest yield among short stature varieties. In case of cotton leaf curl virus (ClCuV), highest infection was recorded in two lines CRIS-168 and CRIS-467 with 9.77 and 6.03% damage respectively.

PHENOTYPIC AFFECTS OF TROPONIN-T MUTATION UP1 ON DROSOPHILA
MELANOGASTER BEHAVIOUR

M. A. Ansari 1, Upendra Nongthomba2 and John Sparrow2

 

SOURCES OF MULTIPLE RESISTANCES IN CHICKPEA GERMPLASM AGAINST ASCOCHYTA BLIGHT, FUSARIUM WILT AND STUNT VIRUS DISEASES

M.B. Ilyas , M. A. Shakoor , N. Javed and M.U.Ghazanfar

Department of Plant Pathology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

Ascochyta blight, Fusarium wilt and stunt virus disease, being the three major diseases of chickpea in Pakistan, cause appreciable yield losses and now and then upset the production statistics of the crop in the country. The screening of 63 chickpea lines in Ascochyta blight, Fusarium wilt and stunt virus disease nurseries revealed the expression of multiple resistance. A test line 14177 was found to be moderately resistant to Ascochyta blight but immune to wilt and stunt virus disease. One line 14133 was resistant to blight but immune to wilt infection. Four chickpea lines 662-1, 816, 914, 985 were moderately resistant to wilt and stunt virus disease; one line 936 was moderately resistant to wilt but immune to stunt virus infection. Three chickpea lines 113-1, 1435, C-44 were moderately resistant to both stunt virus and Ascochyta blight disease; one line 984, was immune to stunt virus but moderately resistant to Ascochyta blight disease while two lines 270, 14144 were resistant to stunt virus but moderately resistant to Ascochyta blight disease.

EFFICACY OF FERTINEMAKIL AND CARBOFURAN AGAINST NEMATODE POPULATIONS AND GROWTH AND YIELD PARAMETERS OF TWO WHEAT VARIETIES

Aly Khan1, M.S. Solangi2, Bushra Nawab2, Mian Sayed1 and Mudassir-uddin3

1Crop Diseases Research Institute, PARC, Karachi University Campus, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.
2PCSIR Laboratories Complex, Karachi, Pakistan.
3Department of Statistics, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

The effect of Fertinemakil (a pesticide combination of neem cake and a fungicide) and Carbofuran on the control of nematode populations and yield of two wheat varieties TD-1 and Inquilab was investigated in microplots. Nematode populations were reduced in both the varieties, while only in var. Inquilab root-length was significantly increased in both the treatments as compared to control (P < 0.05).

HISTOPATHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF ORNITHODOROS LAHORANSIS BITE ON RAT

E. Tavassoli1, S Zare2, F. Gadrei Pakdel3, A. A Tehrani4 and M Tavassoli4

1 Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran. P o.Box:1177.
2 Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran.
3 Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Urmia Medical Science University, Urmia, Iran.
4Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran.

ABSTRACT

This experiment was done to determine histopathological features of adult Ornithodorous lahoransis bite on rat. In this investigation adult male rats were infested with O. lahoransis ticks. Animals were divided into two groups and euthanized two days and two weeks after infestation. The skin samples were fixed in 10% buffer formal saline and processed and sections were stained with hematoxylin & eosin. The lesions reflected the clinical and gross findings, with hyperemia, edema and vacoulation in the early stages, cellular infiltrations, principally lymphocyte accompanied vascular changes. Newly formed fibrous tissue with large number of hyperemic capillaries and active inflammatory process in which lymphocytes and eosinophiles were the predominant cells were seen after two weeks. Foci of necrosis in the epithelium with remnant of infiltration of polymorphonucular cells with sever hemorrhages were also evident. Vascular changes included prevascular infiltration of lymphocyte and fibrinoied necrosis on the vessel walls.

EFFECTS OF TREMATODE INFECTION ON THE INTESTINAL EPITHELIUM OF POMADASYS OLIVACEUM (DAY, 1875)

Nasira Khatoon1, A.K. Nazia1, F. M. Bilqees2 and A.G. Rizwana1

1Department of Zoology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.
2Department of Zoology, Jinnah University for Women, Karachi-74600, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

Observations were made on the infected intestine of Pomadasys olivaceum by trematodes. Standard techniques were used for microanatomical preparations. Histopathological sections revealed excess mucous secretion due to this infection, foci of necrosis and inflammatory reactions were prominent. Hypertrophy of lamina propria is an important finding with keratinized serosal region. In severely effected area where parasite was physically present whole morphological architecture deviated from the normal.

MEDICINAL PLANTS OF TIMERGARA VALLEY DIR, PAKISTAN

Ali Hazrat1, Jehandar Shah1 and Nasrullah Khan2

1Research Center Campus-II at Sheringal and Department of Botany, University of Malakand.
2Department of Botany Federal Urdu University Gulshan-e-Iqbal Campus Karach, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

Timergara valley has diverse habitats. A total of 44 species were documented in Timergara valley, out of which 13 plants are used as diuretic, 14 astringent, 4 tonic, 2 expectorant, 10 stimulant, 6 anthalmintic, 9 antispasmodic, 7 purgative, 5 emollients, 6 laxative, 3 antidyspepsia, 8 antidiarrheal and 2 carminative. The present study reports the ethno medicinal details of the selected plants.

DETERMINATION OF MONOVALENT COPPER IN DIFFERENT HERBS AND THEIR MIXTURE USING DIFFERENTIAL PULSE POLAROGRAPHY

Humera Anwer and Iffat Abdul Tawab Khan

Department of Chemistry, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan
e-mail: iffku@yahoo.com; e-mail: firstyearchemistry@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

Monovalent copper is determined in different herbs and their mixture using differential pulse polarography (DPP) and standard addition method is employed. Selected herbs are Nigella sativa (Kalonji), Trigonella foenum-graceum (Fenugreek) and Linseeds (Alsi), in the form of mixture they are taken in ratio 2:1:1 respectively. For the extraction of samples aqueous as well as acidic media were used. In the acidic medium the average values of concentrations for individual herbs and also in the mixture are greater as compare to the aqueous medium. The average value of copper in the mixture is found to be moderate in both media as compare to the individual herbs. These values also comparable to the reported tolerance limit. Polarograms were recorded in the differential pulse mode with multimode electrode system of Metrohm A. G. model 746 VA Trace analyzer connected with data based software. Copper is required to the body in very little amount but this little quantity is very important and essential. The quantitation is made by standard addition method and linearity is calculated by linear regression line. Linearity of differential pulse polarography is checked by the calibration curves.

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF ESSENTIAL OIL OF ORIGANUM VULGARE L.

Majid Saeedi1 and K. Morteza-Semnani2

1Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran
2Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences,Sari, Iran

ABSTRACT

The essential oil of the dried flowering aerial parts of Origanum vulgare L (Labiatae) collected from the suburb of Nour, Mazandaran Province (North of Iran) was isolated by hydrodistillation and analyzed by means of GC and GC/MS. The major components of O. vulgare oil were elemol (9.3%), sabinene (8.7%), ?-eudesmol (7.7%), terpinen-4-ol (7.6%), and ?-caryophyllene (6.7%). The O. vulgare oil exhibited a pronounced antibacterial effect on some bacteria tested. The essential oil did not show antifungal activity.

SEED VARIABILITY IN CALLUS REGENERATED PLANTS OF LENTIL (LENS CULINARIS MEDIK.)

Nafees Altaf

Nuclear Institute for Agriculture & Biology, P.O. Box. 128 Faisalabad, Pakistan
E.mail: nafeesdcs@yahoo.com Tel: 92 -41-2650316, Fax: 92-41-2654213

ABSTRACT

Microsperma lentil is an important grain legume of Pakistan. This detailed study tells the seed variability in size and color from callus regenerated plants of lentil cv. Masoor-85. Cotyledonary nodes with cotyledons from germinating seedlings were promising explants especially with scrapping of axillary portions of basal nodes that considerably enhanced callus and regenerations in MS medium. These developed callus and shoot primordia in the presence of BA (5 mg l-1) and 3% fructose. Cotyledonary nodes from germinating seeds produced healthy calli in dark conditions in K (10 mg l-1) + GA (1 mg l-1). The maximum callus mass gave maximum regenerations in light in the same medium. The number of elongated shoots were very low as compared to the green dots that appear on the callus surface. Bud dormancy was a problem. Auxins had stimulatory effects on rooting. However, auxins were removed for root elongation. Four days exposure of auxins IBA 0.008% + NAA 0.002% in simple talc dusted to shoot bases seemed optimum for rooting. Rooting speeded up by high humidity. There was no or poor rooting in continuous dark. General health of shoots also influenced rooting. Removal of leaves had adverse effects and active shoot growth promoted rooting. Basal stem in regenerated shoot had maximum rooting potential. Polarity requirement were necessary. The survival rate of callus regenerated plants (R0) in the field was 12.1%. Variability was observed in R0, R1, R2, R3 and R4 as compared to control Masoor-85 in vegetative and yield characteristics. A plant was selected in R2 for large seed size with lighter seed color as compared to control and the stability of seed characters was observed till R4. It was the most important seed clone of callus regeneration. This study clearly indicated the importance of somaclonal variation for improvement of lentil cultivar.

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF CLOZAPINE, ELECTROSHOCK (ECT), AND THE COMBINATION OF ECT WITH CLOZAPINE IN TREATMENT-RESISTANT SCHIZOPHRENIC PATIENTS

A.R. Khalilian1*, A. Masoudzadeh2 and M.A. Mohseni Bandpei3

1Department of Community Medicine, Mazandaran university of medical sciences, PC 48168-95475, Sari, Iran
2Department of psychiatry, Research center of Psychiatric and Behavior Science, Sari, Iran
3Department of Biochemistry, Mazandaran university of medical sciences, PC 48168-95475, Sari, Iran

ABSTRACT

Eighteen treatment-resistant schizophrenic patients were assigned to three equal groups: one group was given clozapine; one group was treated with ECT; and one group was treated with the combination of clozapine and ECT. The treatment response was evaluated using the PANSS criteria, and the data were analyzed with ANOVA. Combination therapy was superior to single modality therapy. The reduction of PANSS scores was 46% in the clozapine group, 40% in the ECT groups, and 71% in the combination group; the difference between the combination group and the other groups was statistically significant (P<0.05). Patients had a quick response to combination treatment, which resulted in a higher cure rate of positive and negative symptoms and improved the patients’ general performance. There were no significant adverse effects with combination treatment. Combination treatment with clozapine and ECT was safe and effective in treatment-resistant schizophrenic patients. It should be considered for the treatment of treatment-resistant schizophrenic patients.

SOME PHYSICOCHEMICAL TRAITS OF SEVEN SPRING WHEAT CULTIVARS GROWN IN SOUTHERN-ZONE OF PAKISTAN

Saqib Arif 1, Mubarik Ahmed1, M. Abbas Bhutto1, Mahmood Azam2 and Haider Abbas3

1Grain Quality Testing Laboratory, Pakistan Agricultural Research Council, Karachi, University Campus, Karachi
2 Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Karachi, Karachi.
3 Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.

ABSTRACT

Some physicochemical traits were analyzed to assess the bread making quality of seven indigenous spring wheat cultivars viz. Anmol, Sarsabz, Mehran, Kiran, Sindh, T.J-83 and Moomal obtained from the Nuclear Institute for Agriculture, Tandojam, Pakistan. The protein content of all cultivars was found in a range of 12.3-15.4 % with a minor variation of moisture content i.e. 10.3–10.5 %. Wet Gluten, Dry Gluten and Gluten Index were found in the range of 26.8-29.4 %, 8.7-9.5% and 28-92.5% respectively. Moomal with Falling Number of 590 seconds showed least a-amylase activity. Anmol and TJ-83 with a Hardness Score of 59 and 55 offered highest and limited formation of damaged starch during milling process respectively. Anmol with a high content of Protein (15.4%), Wet Gluten (29.4%) and Gluten Index (92.5 %) was found to be most preferable for hard wheat products (Bread) while Sarsabz due to a lesser content of the same physicochemical parameters i.e. Protein (12.3 %), Wet Gluten (26.8 %) and Gluten Index (28 %) was found to be suitable for soft wheat products like cookies.

SHORT REPORT: STABILITY AND STORAGE CONDITIONS OF PROTEIN

A. Taravati and A.G. Ebadi

Department of Biology and Medicinal Plants, Islamic Azad University, Jouybar Branch, Jouybar 47715-195, IRAN. E.mail: taravati_a@yahoo.com

Proteins comprise an extremely heterogeneous class of biological macromolecules. Proteins are multifunctional in the sense that their specific amino acid sequence simultaneously determines folding, function and degradation. Regarding stability, proteins, due to their delicate balance of attractive and repulsive weak interactions, are only marginally stable if physiological conditions are considered as standard state. Therefore, it seems appropriate to briefly summarize some of the relevant methods that are available to study the stability and folding of proteins.



 
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