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Abstract January 2005

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BIODIVERSITY IN STINK BUG CAYSTRUS NIGRIVENTRIS GERMAR (PENTATOMIDAE: PENTATOMINAE: CAYSTRINI)

Imtiaz Ahmad1, M. Zahid2 and S. Kamaluddin2

1Department of Zoology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270
2Department of Zoology, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Sciences & Technology, Gulshan-e-Iqbal Campus, University Road, Karachi, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

Distant (1910) while transferring Caystrus nigriventris Germar for the first time in its appropriate genus Caystrus Stål synonymized marginiventris Stål with it and Linnavuori (1982) speculated that another species C. trivalis might only be a race of S. marginiventris. Presently not only C. nigriventris is redescribed but the above three species/forms are compared in table I and the genitalial characters of C. marginiventris and C. trivalis are compared in table II (in the male holotype of nigriventris the pygophore is missing).


AMAZING LONG TAILED HINDWINGS BIG MOTH, ACTIAS SELENE (HUBNER) (LEPIDOPTERA: SATURNIIDAE) DISCOVERED FROM PAKISTAN

S. N. Viqar1, S. Kamaluddin2, A. S. Siddiqui2 and K. A. B. S. Khan2

1Government Degree College for Women, Block-M, North Nazimabad, Karachi, Pakistan
2Department of Zoology, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, Gulshan-e-Iqbal Campus, Karachi, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

Actias selene Hubner is described in detail with special reference to its larva, head appendages, venations of fore and hind wings, male and female genitalia. The life cycle, economic importance, control, systematic position and its cladistic relationship is also briefly discussed.

INFORMATION ABOUT CYBISTER LATERALIMARGINALIS (DE GEER) (COLEOPTERA: DYTISCIDAE) FROM PAKISTAN WITH REFERENCE TO ITS GENITALIA AND CLADISTIC RELATIONSHIP

T. Attique and S. Kamaluddin

Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, Gulshan-e-Iqbal Campus, Karachi

ABSTRACT

The water beetle Cybister lateralimarginalis (De Geer) of the family Dytiscidae first time described from Pakistan with special reference to its genitalia. The systematic postion and cladistic relationship is also briefly discussed in the light of its apomorphic characters.

ETHNOECOLOGICAL PROFILE OF PLANTS OF HARBOI RANGELAND, KALAT,
PAKISTAN

M. Jan Durranil and Farrukh Hussain 2

lDepartment of Botany, University of Balochistan, Quetta, Pakistan
2Department of Botany, University of Peshawar, Peshawar, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

Ethnoecological studies carried over three years in Harboi rangeland, Kalat revealed that of the total 202 recorded species 145 species (72%) had various local uses. The major utilization of plants was as a fodder that included 129 (65%) species, which was followed by medicinal plants contributing 50 (25%) species. There were 12 species used as vegetable or fruits, 7 species as fuel wood and 3 species as herbal tea. The rangeland is highly degraded and needs restoration of palatable vegetation cover to improve the biodiversity.

IN VITRO REGENERATION OF MONOEMRBYONIC MANGO CULTIVARS

*M. Usman1, M. J. Jaskani1, M. Y. Rehman1, B. Fatima1 and I. A. Khan2

1Plant Tissue Culture Cell, Institute of Horticultural Sciences, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad-Pakistan
2Department of Crop Sciences, Sultan Al-Qaboos University, Muscat-Oman

ABSTRACT

Different explants of mango cultivars were explored for in vitro plantlet regeneration on Murashige and Skoog (MS) and Gamborg (B5) medium. Only zygotic embryos of Chaunsa cultivar initiated callus formation and successful plant regeneration with highest percentage on MS medium supplemented with 2,4-D 1mgL-1. Calli were also observed from zygotic embryos of cv. Anwar Rataul but could not regenerate into plantlets. Nucellus and shoot tip explants of both cultivars showed no callus induction because of excessive phenolic exudation from explant in the medium. The plantlets generated through embryo culture were transplanted to green house after acclimatization. Further studies are suggested, however, to optimize somatic embryogenesis from nucellar explants of mango for clonal propagation and biotechnology applications.

THE FIRST THREE ZOEAL STAGES OF THE CRAB METOPOGRAPSUS MESSOR (FORSKÅL, 1775) [CRUSTACEA:BRACHYURA: GRAPSIDAE]

A. M. AI-Aidaroos

Faculty of Marine Sciences, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80207, Jeddah - 21589, Saudi Arabia.

ABSTRACT

Three zoeal stages of the crab Metopograpsus messor are described and illustrated from laboratory reared material. The description of the first zoea in the present study is compared with previous descriptions of four species of Metopograpsus. It is distinguished by the absence of carapace lateral spines.

SOME ASPECTS OF REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY AND ALLOMETRIC GROWTH OF TWO SPECIES OF NERITA (GASTROPODA: MOLLUSCA) FROM NORTHERN ARABIAN SEA

Sohail Barkati1 and Solaha Rahman2

1Department of Zoology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan; e-mail: sohailbarkati@yahoo.com
2M.A.H. Qadri, Biological Research Centre, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

Egg masses of two species of Nerita; viz., N. albicilla and N. textilis, are reported for the first time from the coast of Karachi, northern Arabian sea. The egg capsules of N. textilis are similar to those of N. albicilla but larger in size. The dimensions of the egg capsules and larvae of these species are also presented. Allometric studies of N. albicilla and N. textilis showed that shell height increased faster than width in all the populations. Relative growth of the shell width decreased with increasing shell height in all populations of N. albicilla. Coefficient of variation for shell height and shell width of N. albicilla varied with seasonal changes.

SURVEY AND MEASUREMENT OF RESIDUES OF DIELDRIN AND ENDOSULPHAN IN FOUR SPECIES OF FISHES IN CASPIAN SEA, IRAN

M. Shokrzadeh1. A.G. Ebadi2. R. Heidari3, S. Zaree3 and M. Pourhosseini1

1Department of Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran
2Department of Experiential sciences. Islamic Azad University of Sari. Sari. Iran
3Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Urmia University s. Urmia. Iran
ABSRACT

Pesticides are compounds that used by human being, especially farmers for controlling biotical factors for a long time and bring a lot of environmental problems. Among these compounds clorine insecticide sprays have high half-life, the property of maintaining for a long time and high lipophilicity characteristic. Due to having chronic consequences, it is necessary to evaluate and analysis in environment especially in foods and also in fishes which have high fat and may carry this kind of insecticides. In the present studies we have investigated the residues of chloride organo-insecticides such as Dieldrin and Endosulphan in the four kinds of fishes in the Caspian sea. In this investigation we have selected 4 different kinds of fishes, i.e., sefid - koli- kilca - kafal and 4 different hunting region i.e., Chalous, Babolsar city, Khazarabad and Miankaleh region in 2004. After cleaning, we prepared hun muscle of the fished. Then. after the process of extraction, we distilled them in vacuum by means of organic solvent and determined residues of insecticide by Gas Chromatography(GC) with ECD detector. The results of insecticides analyzed in four kinds of fishes showed that Sefid in the hunting region of Babolsar had an amount of 0.03 ppm. Kilca from Chalousand, Kafal from Babolsar and Khazarabad had the highest amount of Dieldrin (0.017 ppm), Kafal from Khazarabad region with 0.057 ppm had the highest amount of Endosulphan (P<0.05).

INVESTIGATING AND MEASUREMENT OF RESIDUES OF D.D.T AND D.D.E IN FOUR SPECIES OF FISHES IN CASPIAN SEA, IRAN

M. Shokrzadeh1 and A. G.Ebadi2

1Department of Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran
2Department of Experiential sciences, Islamic Azad University of Sari, Sari, Iran

ABSRACT

Pesticides are compounds that used by human being, especially farmers for controlling biotic factors for a long time and bring a lot of environmental problems. Among these compounds chlorine incecticide sprays have high half-life, and high lipophilicity characteristic. Due to having chloronic consequences, it is necessary to evaluate and analyse in the environment especially in foods and also in fishes which have high fat and may carry this kind of insecticides . In the present study we have investigated the residues of chloride organoinsecticides such as D.D.T, D.D.E in the four kinds of fishes in the Caspian Sea. In this investigation we have selected four different kinds of fishes, which are highly used, and available in the Caspian Sea viz., Sefid - koli- kilca – kefal from four different hunting region viz., Chalous and Babolsar city and Khazar Abad and Miankaleh in 2004. After cleaning, we prepared hun muscle of the fished. Then, after the process of extraction, we distilled them in vacuum by means of organic solvent and determined the residues by Gas Chromatography (GC) with ECD detector. The results of insecticides analysis in four kinds of fishes been showed that the kafal in the Babolsar had the highest amount of D.D.T (0.031 ppm) followed by sefid in Babolsar (0.03ppm) (P<0.05).

STUDIES ON THE FECUNDITY AND SEX RATIO OF SARDINELLA LONGICEPS (FAMILY:CLUPEIDAE) FROM KARACHI COAST

M.A. Khan, M.U.A. Hashmi and K. Yousuf

Marine Reference Collection and Resource Centre, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

The fecundity and sex ratio of Sardinella longiceps has been described. The occurrence of mature specimen of S. Longiceps was found in different size group. The minimum and maximum size of maturity was found 191 m.m. and 206 m.m. in length which is supported by the results obtained from the study of mature ovaries. The size of fish, weight and length were directly related to the size of ovary. The frequency distribution of ova suggests that the spawning periodis January to December 2000. The number of males and females was determined.

EFFECT OF FORMULATED DIET ON WEIGHT GAIN AND DIFFRENCE WEIGHT OF JUVENILES OF OREOCHROMIS MOSSAMBICUS

M. Shoaib1 and F. Ameer2

1Department of Zoology, University of Karachi,Karachi-75270,
2Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research(PCSIR), Laboratories Complex Karachi, Karachi-75270

ABSTRACT

A seventy five days feeding experiment was conducted on juveniles of Oreochromis mossambicus having the initial weight of 0.9267±0.1464 g. The ingredients were fish meal @200g/kg, rice protein @530g/kg, boiled rice @100 g/kg, squid @ 20g/kg, shrimp @ 100g/kg, fish oil @ 4 ml/kg, salt @ 025g/kg, minerals @ 0.05g/kg and vitamins @ 10g/kg mixed and fed to juveniles twice a day at 5% of average body weight. The weight gain % and differences between initial and final weights were increased with respect to 0.2833±0.1080 and 21.90 ±11.68 (P > 0.05). Food conversion ratio (FCR), protein efficiency ratio (PER) and specific growth rate (SGR) were significantly different from the specimens reared in extensive cultural system.

DIGESTIBILITY OF LIPIDS, CARBOHYDRATES, PROTEIN AND ASH IN FORMULATED DIET BY JUVENILES OF OREOCHROMIS MOSSAMBICUS

M. Shoaib1*, K. Jamil2 and F. Ameer2

1Department of Zoology, University of Karachi,Karachi-75270, Pakistan
2Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research(PCSIR), Laboratories Complex, Karachi, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

The digestibility of locally available ingredients namely fish meal, rice protein, squid, shrimps, fish oil, minerals, vitamins and salt by juveniles of Oreochromis mossambicus was evaluated for period of seventy five days. The juveniles were fed with formulated diet twice a day at average body weight and their excreta was siphoned out fort nightly. The proximate analyses of feed and fecal matter were carried out just after the collection of samples. The result indicated that digestibility coefficient of lipids was highest (80.56%) followed by carbohydrates (76.71%), protein (67.23%) and ash (43.76%).

SOME FRESHWATER ALGAE FOUND IN VARIOUS LOCALITIES OF PESHAWAR VALLEY

A. Zaman and F. M. Sarim

Department of Botany, University of Peshawar, Peshawar

ABSTRACT

A total of 47 species belonging to 14 genera of Chlorophyceae, Cyanophyceae, Bacillaerophyceae and Xanthophyceae viz, Spirogyra, Mougeotia, Stigeoclonium, Rhizoclonium, Ulothrix, Cladophora, Vaucheria, Microspora, Pithophora, Achanthes, Closterium, Oscillatoria and Phormidium were recorded from various localities of Peshawar valley.

FLORAL BIODIVERSITY OF THE WETLANDS OF INDUS DELTA AREA, SOUTHERN SINDH

M. Imran and S. Khatoon

Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

Specimens of aquatic and wetland species were collected and identified during the year of 2001. The voucher specimens were submitted in the Karachi University Herbarium (KUH). The present study has recognized twenty-three new records of aquatic, semi-aquatic and wetland plant species during this period.

ABOVEGROUND STANDING PHYTOMASS OF SOME GRASS-DOMINATED COMMUNITIES OF KARACHI: WINTER ASPECT

D. Khan1 and S. S. Shaukat2

1Department of Botany, Government National College, Karachi, Pakistan
2Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

Some 78 species (23 grasses, 2 sedges. and 53 dicotyledons including 9 legumes) were seen to compose winter aspect growth of 14 grass-dominated communities of Karachi, Pakistan. The mean number of species per site was 10.71 ± 1.25 (range: 3 – 20, CV= 44.1%). Sixty-one species occurred in one or two sites only. Cenchrus setigerus, C pennisetiformis, Dichanthium. annulatum, Sporobolus arabicus, Cynodon dactylon and Tephrosia strigosa were relatively more frequently occurring species.
Legumes were present invariably in all sites except Urochondra setulosa and Sporobolus havolus dominated communities. The number of species per site varied with the species dominating the site and the salinity status of the site. Halophytic communities were composed of lesser number of species as compared to the glycophytic communities. The aboveground standing phytomass (AGSP) varied from 37.6 g-2 for one of the Cyanodon dactylon community to 694.0 g-2 for Desmostachya bipinnata dominated site. Litter related with AGSP positively (r = + 0.5577; p < 0.01) as Litter (g-2) = 15.37 + 0.0657 AGSP (g-2) ± 18.96. Percent proportion of legumes biomass (PPLB) related inversely with proportion of grasses’ biomass (r = - 0.5757; p < 0.03) as PPLB = 39.483 – 0.4088 PPGB ± 7.362.
The communities in hand, with respect to their AGSP, were found to have an order: D. bipinnata > U. setulosa > D. scindicum > S. arabicus > C. dactylon = S. halvolus > D. annulatum >C. pennisetiformis = C. aucherii = C. setigerus > S. verticillata. AGSP of waterlogged and semi-moist halophytic sites was substantially higher than that of dry glycophytic sites. The biomass distribution amongst the constituent species of each site was geometric. Edaphic characteristics of these communities have also been described.

THE IMPACT OF AUTO EMISSION ON THE BIOMASS PRODUCTION OF SOME ROADSIDE PLANTS

M. Shafiq and M. Z. Iqbal

Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan
shafiqeco@yahoo.com; mziqbalbotuokpk@yahoo.com

ABTSRACT

The biomass of Alstonia scholaris, Pongamia pinnata, Cassia siamea and Peltophorum pterocarpum in the term of leaf dry weight was significantly (p<0.05) affected in Karachi city. Plants were more affected to pollutants at Gulshan-e-Iqbal, Nazimabad, Shahrah-e-Faisal and M.A. Jinnah road as compared to Karachi University Campus. In periodical studies, the leaves dry weight of all tested species were found lowest at M.A. Jinnah road as compared to Shahrah-e-Faisal, Nazimabad, Gulshan-e-Iqbal and Karachi University Campus, respectively. Leaf dry weight of A. scholaris, P.pinnata and C. siamea were significantly (p<0.05) reduced in September-November at the highly polluted sites of M.A. Jinnah road as compared to Karachi University Campus. Whereas, leaf dry weight of P. pterocarpum was found significantly (p<0.05) reduced at M.A. Jinnah road in June-July as compared to other less polluted sites of the city. In this study, P. pterocarpum was found less affected to automobile pollution of the city as compared to other species.

EFFECT OF SOME ORGANIC NITRATES ON GERMINATION OF CENCHRUS BIFLORUS ROXB SEEDS

S. S. Shuakat and Z. S. Siddiqui

Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi- 75270. Pakistan

ABSTRACT

Effect of some organic nitrates on seed germination of Cenchrus biflorus was investigated. Of the three organic nitrates nitroglycerine and isosorbide mono-nitrate stimulated seed germination in the dark. Nitroglycerine significantly (P at most 0.05) enhanced the final germination percentage at 0.1mM to 100mM, isosorbide mono-nitrate elevated the final germination percentage only at 10 and 100mM while isosorbide di-nitrate did not significantly alter the total germination percentage over the controls.Potassium nitrates stimulated germination only at high concentration. Results are discussed in relation to the effect of organic and inorganic nitrates and nitrites and their possible mode of action.

SEED CHARACTERISTICS, GERMINATION AND PHENOTYPIC PLASTICITY OF TEPHROSIA UNIFLORA POPULATIONS IN SOUTHERN SINDH

A. Zarina , I.A. Siddiqui, S. S. Shaukat and R. Shaukat

Department of Botany, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology
Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

Three populations of Tephrosia uniflora Pers. were studied in various habitats of the southern Sindh, namely: (i) rocky soil (ii) calcareous sandy loam soil and (iii) saline sandy soil. The populations differed considerably with regard to number of flowers and fruits per plant. The mean seed weight of Tephrosia uniflora for the saline soil population was 0.0214g ? 0.00076, for calcareous soil 0.0276g ? 0.00081 and for the rocky soil population it was .0184g? 0.0074.
Seed weight variation within pods showed that seeds at distal end of 5-seeded pods of Tephrosia uniflora had lower weight in saline habitat. In calcareous sandy loam soil, seeds at distal end of 4,5 and 7-seeded pods had lower weight. In rocky soil distal end seeds of 4,6,7,8 and 9-seeded pods had lower weights than the rest of the seeds though such differences were non-significant..
Tephrosia uniflora exhibited external seed dormancy owing to hard seed coat which could be broken by physical scarification or puncturing the seed coat. Large seeds of Tephrosia uniflora invariably produced larger seedlings than those produced by smaller seeds.
The crude reproductive effort of Tephrosia uniflora was high and it was highest for the population associated with saline soil.

CHARACTERIZATION OF SOME R-PLASMIDS OF GRAM NEGATIVE BACTERIA

F. A. Ansari*, Aqeel Ahmad and Hajra Khatoon

Department of Microbiology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

Six R-plasmids of Gram negative bacteria isolated from poultry in Karachi region designated as pFK-2, pFK-6, pFK-7, pFK-8a, pFK-13 and pFK-20 were studied for various genetic properties such as fi' character, phage restriction and phage propagation in order to characterize them. Regarding their fi character, two (pFK-2 and pFK-7) were found to fi' and four (pFK-6, pFK-8a, pFK-13 and pFK-20) were found to be fi+. None of the R plasmids tested neither restrcited phages T6, Plkc, Mucts, ?X174 and ? of E. coli and P22 of Salmonella nor propagated the phages MS2, M13, f2, If1 and IKe. Frequency of transmission between E. coli strains of these R plasmids was also calculated and was found to be quite high during HFT state.

A STUDY OF ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE OF ESCHERICHIA COLI ISOLATED FROM POULTRY IN KARACHI

F.A. Ansari*, Aqeel Ahmad and Hajra Khatoon

Department of Microbiology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

Studies were carried out to investigate the incidence of multiple antibiotic resistance among Escherichia coli (total 152) isolated from poultry in Karachi to eight commonly used antibiotics: ampicillin (A), chloramphenicol (C), gentamycin (G), kanamycin (K), neomycin (N), polymyxin B (P), streptomycin (S) and tetracycline (T) at the levels of 50, 100 and 500 µg/ml. Results are showing the number of resistance strains with different patterns of antibiotic resistance at different levels. A comparison of antibiotic resistance to different number of antibiotics and the frequency of resistance to individual antibiotic at different levels is also reported. The highest frequency of resistance was found against tetracycline whereas the lowest frequency of resisatnce was against gentamycin. Thirty R plasmids were isolated from the resistance starins and will be reported elsewhere.

OPTIMISATION OF pH AND NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS FOR THE BIOLOGICAL DEGRADATION OF PHARMACEUTICAL WASTEWATER

*S. Yousaf1 and Z.M. Khalid2

1PPD, NIAB, P. O. Box # 128, Faisalabad, Pakistan
2EBD, NIBGE, P. O. Box # 577, Faisalabad, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

The pH conditions were optimised for the biodegradation of pharmaceutical wastewater. Wastewater treatment in the presence and absence of added nutrients of nitrogen and phosphorous was also checked at various pH levels. Different ratios of nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) were employed to optimise nutrient requirement. Almost all treatments resulted in 90 to 98% decrease in COD. The results of decrease of COD with the passage of time were almost similar for both nutrient supplemented or non-supplemented samples. Thus there is no need of adding nitrogen and phosphorous as nutrient supplement. The influence of acidic, basic, and neutral pH conditions on biodegradation was also checked; acidic pH, which is the actual pH of the samples, was proved to be the best than at basic and neutral pH conditions. At basic pH solubilization of COD occurs.

THE EFFECTS OF ISONIAZID ON THE DIFFERENTIAL LEUCOCYTE CELLULARITY OF LACERTILIAN BLOOD

M. Ahmad1, R. Hasan1 , M.Ahmad2, A. Qureshi2 and S. Masroor1

1Department of Physiology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270. Pakistan
2Department of Physiology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, New York, U.S.A.

ABSTRACT

Administration of 0.06 mg isoniazid (INH) per day for 5 days to Uromastix hardwickii showed adverse effects on the blood cellularity. It resulted in elevated number of neutrophils and eosinophils with very low count of lymphocytes. However, monocytes were less affected.

HEXAVALANT CHROMIUM IN DRINKING WATER INDUCED DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY IN THE RAT

A. T. Farag1, A. M. El – Okazy2 and S. I. Saleh2

1Department of Pesticide Chemistry and Toxicology, Faculty of Agriculture, Alexandria University
2Central Laboratory for Food and Feed, Agriculture Research Center, Alexandria, Egypt.

ABSTRACT

This study examines the developmental toxicity of hexavalant chromium (Cr (VI)) in rats following oral exposure to Cr (VI) in drinking water. Pregnant Fischer 344 rats ingested deionized water containing concentration levels of 100, 300 and 500 ppm Cr (VI) during the organogenesis period ( days 6 through 15 of gestation ). Maternal effects in the 500 ppm Cr (VI) treatment group included decreased body weight, water consumption, feed consumption, and absolute organ weights. No maternal toxicity was apparent in the 100, and 300 ppm Cr (VI) treatment groups. Maternal exposure to Cr (VI) during organogenesis significantly affected the number of live fetuses, number of early and late resorptions, number of dead fetuses, mean fetal weight, and incidence of skeletal abnormalities in the 500 ppm Cr (VI) treatment group. No external and visceral malformations were observed in any of the treated groups. On the basis of the present results hexavalant chromium showed maternal and developmental toxicity at 500 ppm Cr (VI) treatment group compared to the control and the other treated groups. Neither maternal toxicity nor embryo toxicity was apparent at the treatment groups of 100 and 300 ppm Cr (VI).

EVALUATION OF THE DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF ALDICARB IN THE RAT

A. T. Farag1, A. M. El – Okazy2 and A. H. Radwan1

1Department of Pesticide Chemistry and Toxicology, Faculty of Agriculture, Alexandria University, Egypt.
2Central Laboratory for Food and Feed, Agriculture Research Center**, Alexandria, Egypt.

ABSTRACT

Aldicarb, 2-methyl -2-(methylthio)- propionaldehyde O- methylcarbamoyloxime, is currently manufactured in the US by Rhone- Poulenc Company and sold under the trade name Temik. In the present study, aldicarb was evaluated for potential developmental toxicity. Groups of 30 bred females Fischer 344 rats were given 0, 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5 mg/kg per day by gavage on gestation days 6-15; the fetuses were evaluated on gestational day 21. Clinical signs of toxicity attributed to aldicarb were noted in dams receiving 0.3 and 0.5 mg/kg per day. Maternal and fetal brain acetylcholinesterase activities were reduced in treated groups of 0.3 and 0.5 mg/kg per day. Maternal effects in the treated group of 0.5 mg/kg per day included depressed body weight. Fetal weight and viability were decreased, and fetal death, early, and late resorption were increased at the 0.5 mg/kg per day maternal dose. Skeletal abnormalities were also increased in this group. Aldicarb showed fetotoxic effects at a maternal dose of 0.5 mg/kg per day, a dose that also produced maternal toxicity.

FREQUENCY OF GALL BLADDER CARCINOMA ON ROUTINE HISTOPATHOLOGY AFTER CHOLECYSTECTOMY

S. M. Hasan1, F. Imtiaz2, S. M. Hasan3 and S.A.H. Zaidi1

1Department of Pathology, Hamdard College of Medicine and Dentistry, Karachi, Pakistan.
2Department of Pathology and Microbiology, The Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan.
3Department of Medicine Unit II Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Center, Karachi, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

A retrospective study was conducted to find the incidence of carcinoma of gall bladder. Data were collected from the patients admitted with cholelithiasis in surgical units of different hospitals of Karachi during the year July 2002 to June 2004. All of them underwent Cholecystectomies. Out of 153 patients, 62 (40.5 %) were male and 91 (59.5 %) were females with mean age of 40 and 54 years respectively.
The patients were admitted with commonest clinical presentation of upper abdominal pain, dyspepsia and palpable gall bladder. Liver function tests were altered in most of the cases (72.5 %). Ultrasonography was carried out on all patients. Results showed cholelithiasis in 87.6 % cases, wall thickening 90.2 %, wall irregularity 32.7 % and CBD dilatation in 39.2 % with and without stones. Histopathology of most of the above cases revealed inflammatory changes and patients were diagnosed with adenocarcinoma of gall bladder. Follow up was not possible due to lack of coordination between surgical unit and pathology department.
The incidence of neoplasia on routine histopathology after cholecystectomy for cholelithiasis was found to be as 8.5 %.

TOXIC EFFECTS OF ERGOTAMINE ON THE KIDNEY TISSUES AND BLOOD OF ALBINO RATS

N. M. Ghanem¹*, Aly Khan², F. M. Bilqees³ and Y. M. Rizki4

¹Dept. of Microbiology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270.
²Crop Disease Research Institute, P. A. R. C; University of Karachi, Karachi-75270.
³Dept. of Parasitology, Faculty of Health Science, Baqai Medical University, Karachi.
4B-24/12. Gulberg, F. B Area-Karachi.

ABSTRACT

Ergotamine tends to produce a pattern of subjective effects that varies as a function of dose. Male albino rats were employed in this study as animal model and three different drug dosages of ergotamine were orally administrated. The higher dose of ergotamine caused severe damage to the kidney tissue. When treated with a dose of 0.03 mg/0.5 ml of ergotamine slight changes in the interstitium and glomeruli and inflammation with increased in the cellularity of the glomeruli was obvious. At an acute dose (1.25 mg/3 ml), destruction of the glomerular structure and Bowman's capsule was seen. Slight changes on haematological parameter were observed, no bacteremia was detected and faecal samples were also normal. In vitro studies, ergotamine slowly induces well-sustained vasoconstriction that can not be eliminated with drug washout.

DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE OF PLANT PARASITIC NEMATODES IN BALOCHISTAN

M.Q. Khan

Federal Seed Certification and Registration Department, Karachi, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

During an extensive survey of Cereals, Vegetables and Cash crops in Balochistan province 32 known species of plant parasitic nematodes were recorded for the first time on a number of crops at different locations. The important nematode species found during the survey were Anguina tritici, Ditylenchus dipsaci, Helicotylenchus digonicus, H. indicus, Longidorus elongatus, Meloidogyne hapla, M. incognita, M. .javanica, Merlinius brevidens, Pratylenchus brachyurus, P. penetrans, P. thornei, P. zeae, Scutylenchus quettensis,Tylenchorhynchus annulatus, T.brassicae and T.mashhoodi.

BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF ACHILLEA BIEBERSTEINII AND A. MILLEFOLIUM FROM IRAN

A. R. Gohari and S. Saeidnia*

1Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical Sciences University of Mazandaran, Sari, Iran

ABSTRACT

In this study, biological activity of some fractions for Achillea biebersteinii and A.millefolium (Compositae) was evaluated in vitro against the epimastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi, the parasitic agent of Chagas disease. Diethyl ether fractions of both plants were the most active fraction (MLC= 12.5 µMl). The trypanocidal activity seems to be decrease by fractionation using MeOH and water as solvents. The results obtained from biological assay revealed that Achillea could be a source of active trypanocidal compounds. In addition, the preliminary phytochemical studies showed that the active fractions were rich of terpenoids and flavonoids.

Na+ DISTRIBUTION AND RATE OF TRANSPORT IN COTTON CULTIVARS UNDER SALINE CONDITIONS

A. N. Khan1, R.H.Qureshi2 and N. Ahmad2

1Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan
2Department of Soil Science, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

Four cotton cultivars were studied at seedling stage in salinized nutrient growth medium having 0, 75,150 and 250 mol m-3 NaCI salinity. After salinization, the seedlings were harvested after day 3 and the 2nd batch after 17 day. The plant parts were analyzed for Na+ contents. The tolerant cultivar NIAB 78 accumulated significantly higher Na+ concentration in stem than the sensitive D 9 and Ravi. NIAB 78 maintained lower Na+ concentration in leaf than the sensitive ones. The reason of tolerance in NIAB 78 may be the maintenance of lower Na+ accumulation in leaves than stem. Sodium transport (JNa+) of NIAB 78 was higher than D 9 and Ravi. Such a trend was related to the demand for solutes set up by the growing plants for osmoregulation.

INDUCING SALT TOLERANCE IN WHEAT BY SEED VIGOR ENHANCEMENT TECHNIQUES

S. M. A. Basra1, Irfan Afzal1*, A. Hameed2 and R. A. Rashid1

1Department of crop physiology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan-38040
2Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology (NIAB), P.O. Box, 128, Jhang road Faisalabad, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

The study was conducted to determine whether salt tolerance could be induced in wheat at emergence stage by seed priming. Different seed priming techniques used were, soaking of seeds for 24h in distilled water, hardening for 12h (one cycle), matriconditioning with pressmud for 24h and halopriming with 100 mol m-3 CaCl2, 50 mol m-3 NaCl, 25 mol m-3 Ca(NO3)2 for 24h. Both primed and non-primed seeds were subjected to 15dS/cm salinity under controlled conditions. Although all priming agents were effective in decreasing the adverse effects of salt stress on wheat at emergence stage. Hydropriming and halopriming with NaCl treatments proved to be more effective since the seed primed with these treatments had significantly lower mean emergence time, higher shoot and root length, dry weight of seedlings and E50 than those treated with other salts or hardening or matriconditioning. Except halopriming (CaCl2) all pre-sowing seed treatments cause a decrease in electrolyte leakage as compared to that in non-primed seeds even after 24 hours of soaking period. Hardening induced maximum decrease in electrolyte leakage while an increase in electrolyte leakage was observed by 50 mol m-3 CaCl2 treatment. It is concluded that priming of seed with distilled water or NaCl induces physiological changes in the seed against salt stress conditions and can be used to induce salinity tolerance in wheat.

EFFECT OF SOP, FYM AND WHEAT STRAW ON LEAF AND SOIL MOISTURE CONTENTS UNDER KHARIF MAIZE, Zea mays

Z. I. Ahmed1, Khalid Mehmood1, C. A. Rauf2, and F. Zahoor1

1Department of Agronomy, University of Arid Agriculture, Rawalpindi, Pakistan.
2Department of Plant Pathology, University of Arid Agriculture, Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

The efficiency of SOP, FYM (farmyard manure) and wheat straw was studied on two maize varieties viz., EV-1098 and EV-3001 at Agronomic Research Farm of University of Arid Agriculture, Rawalpindi in 2003. All the organic and inorganic constituents were thoroughly mixed in the soil 15 days before sowing. The treatments comprised, control, FYM (3 t ha-1), wheat straw (3 t ha-1), SOP (60 kg ha-1), FYM + wheat straw (1.5 t each ha-1), FYM (1.5 t)+ SOP (30 kg ha-1 ), wheat straw (1.5 t)+ SOP (30 kg ha-1), FYM + wheat straw (1 teach) + SOP (20 kg ha-1). The statistical analysis of data for soil moisture content and leaf moisture content at three different stages showed significant differences among different manuring treatments. However, the highest soil moisture in both the varieties was observed in treatment having high doses of FYM followed by the FYM mixed with other fertilizers.

SEASONAL VARIATION OF CALCIUM IN SOIL – PLANT – ANIMAL SYSTEM AT SHEEP RANCH, PUNJAB, PAKISTAN

Z. I. Khan, A. Hussain, E. E. Valeem2*, M. Ashraf1 and L.R. McDowell3

1Department of Botany, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan.
2Department of Botany, Govt. Degree Sci. & Com. College Gulshan-e-Iqbal, Karachi, Pakistan.
3Animal Science Department University of Florida P.O. Box 110910 Gainesville, F.L. 32611-0691

ABSTARCT
A study was conducted to determine the calcium nutrition status of different classes of grazing sheep during two different seasons on a farm located in southern Punjab (Pakistan). A complete free-choice supplement was available to all animals throughout the year. Soil, forage, feed, water, and animal samples like plasma, milk, faeces, and urine from lactating, plasma, faeces, and urine from non-lactating, and that of plasma and faeces from male animals were taken eight times during the year (four times in each season). The calcium concentrations of forage, feed and plasma in all classes of sheep, and milk in lactating sheep were affected by the seasonal fluctuations. While the marginal deficient levels of calcium in lactating sheep in summer and moderately deficient plasma calcium level in winter was found. While in non-lactating sheep plasma calcium was in moderate deficient level in winter and marginally deficient level in summer. In male sheep, plasma calcium level in summer was marginally deficient while plasma calcium during winter was moderately deficient. Plasma calcium in all animals was not affected by the physiological state and gender, as it was overwhelmingly deficient in all classes of sheep.
Soil and forage calcium concentrations were above the critical level during both seasons and showed a positive association between them. The feed and forage calcium collectively was sufficiently above the required range for ruminants, but was found ineffective in elevating the plasma calcium levels in all classes of animals showing the low bioavailability in spite of high concentration in the diet. From these analyses, it would suggest that the calcium status of grazing sheep in this specific region needs supplementation with specifically tailored mixture containing calcium with high bioavailability rather than high calcium contents showing antagonism.

SEASONAL VARIATION IN CALCIUM AND MAGNESIUM STATUS OF SOIL, DIETARY SOURCES AND SMALL GRAZING RUMINANTS IN THE SEMI-ARID REGION OF PAKISTAN

Z. I. Khan1, E. E. Valeem2*, A. Hussain1, M. Ashraf1 and L.R. McDowell3

1Department of Botany, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan.
2Department of Botany, Govt. Degree Sci. & Com. College Gulshan-e-Iqbal, Karachi, Pakistan.
3Animal Science Department University of Florida P.O. Box 110910 Gainesville, F.L. 32611-0691

ABSTARCT

Investigations were conducted in the southern part of Punjab, Pakistan to evaluate the mineral status of goats, to determine the classes of animals which are most susceptible to specific mineral deficiencies or toxicities, as reflected by low tissue fluids mineral concentrations in animals, and to study the effect of season of the year on the mineral availability to animals. During both the winter and summer season, soil, forage, feed, water from pasture and blood, milk, faeces, and urine samples from lactating, non-lactating, and male goats were collected fortnightly and analyzed for macro- and micro mineral concentrations. Soil samples taken from the pasture grazed by goats had adequate levels of both calcium and magnesium during winter and summer. While forage contained marginal deficient Ca2+, Mg2+. Feed Ca2+ concentrations were moderately deficient during both seasons. The effects of feed supplement at goat ranch in raising the plasma mineral level was different in different groups of animals in different seasons. The moderate deficient level of plasma Ca2+ and marginal deficient level of Mg2+ during winter and summer in lactating goats, while in non-lactating goats in plasma, moderate levels of Ca2+ and marginal deficient levels of Mg2+ during both seasons were found. Plasma of male goats contained marginal deficient levels of Ca2+ during winter, and Mg2+ during summer, while moderate deficient levels of Ca2+ were found in summer. The fecal Ca2+ in non-lactating animals were high in summer, and Mg2+ high in winter. Urine mineral concentrations of lactating animals were above optimum level during winter, and in non-lactating animals both the urine minerals were high during the winter. Concentrations of milk minerals such as Ca2+, and Mg2+ were lower in winter than those in summer. Ca2+ in lactating goats, and Mg2+ in male goats were excreted more during winter when comparison was made among different classes of goats because animal had low absorption for these minerals or for their body requirements. Urine mineral concentrations such as Ca2+ in lactating goats, Mg2+ in non-lactating goats were higher in winter than that in summer. The minerals which had more absorptive capacity through intestinal tract had been excreted more in urine and translocated to plasma of the animals. Ca2+, and Mg2+ contents of milk in lactating goats was found to be lower during winter showing less availability and absorption of these minerals in this season. The findings of this work showed that the distribution of nutrients in different parts of the animal body was dependent on the rate of absorption through gastrointestinal tract of the animals. Despite the adequate levels of certain minerals found in forage and feed in particular season, the animals showed deficiency of these elements. So further study to eliminate unnecessary minerals in the supplement showing antagonism and thus responsible for reducing the bioavailability of certain essential minerals in a particular season, is needed. On the basis of these results both minerals in soil were adequate for the normal growth of plant. But were deficient in forage on goat ranch particularly during summer season. However, the supplementation of feed containing minerals seemed to have contributed much to the well being of the animals.

SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS AND DEMAND OF VARIOUS FERTILIZERS IN DISTRICT PESHAWAR

Yousaf Hayat1 and Salahuddin2

1Department of Mathematics/Statistics/Computer Science, NWFP Agricultural University Peshawar, Pakistan
2Department of Statistics, University of Peshawar, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

Pakistan is an agricultural country and its increased agricultural productions depend on the consumption of chemical fertilizers. In this paper an effort has been made to highlight the socio-economic factors affecting fertilizer use in district Peshawar. Regression analysis revealed that the educational status, farmers tenurial status, prices of fertilizers, farm income and the annual credit significantly (p < 0.05) affect the demand of various fertilizers. While the acreage under crops and the farmer’s age do not play a pivotal role in the consumption of N, P and K-fertilizers.

ECONOMICAL USE OF LAND AND AGRICULTURAL RESOURCES UNDER DIFFERENT CROPPING SYSTEM

Y. Ali*, Z. Aslam, T. Rafique and F. Hussain

Nuclear institute for Agriculture and Biology, P. O. Box 128, Faisalabad, Pakistan
*E-mail: Yousaf_sem@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

Response of cotton and cowpea intercropping with different doses of NPK fertilizers was investigated. Cotton, cowpea (sole) and cotton + cowpea produced best result at maximum (150, 70, 70) fertilizer level but Land Equivalent Ratio was maximum (1.28) at 75, 70, 70 NPK level followed by 1.27 at no fertilizer, suggesting that low fertilizer level with intercropping of cotton + cowpea is more economical than sole crop and high fertilizer level.

FLOCK STATISTICS AND EGG PRODUCTION TRAITS OF IN AND OUT-SEASON BROILER BREEDING CHICKENS

K. Sarbiland1, M. Farooq1, F. R. Durrani1, B. Tahir1, Ahsan-ul-Haq2 and Z. Durrani1

1Department of Poultry Science, NWFP, Agricultural University, Peshawar, Pakistan
2Department of Poultry Husbandry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

A study was undertaken on 53 farms during the year 2002 to investigate flock size, egg production traits and various factors affecting egg production performance of broiler breeder chickens in Mansehra and Abbotabad, Pakistan. Farm location and system of rearing didn't effect egg production traits. Average number of day-old chicks started'at the farm (20989.60±1808.75) represented 18165.14±1562.22 and 2824.36±255.47 number of female and male broiler-breeding chickens, respectively. Mean number of hen-housed, male to female ratio in a laying house, sex error in both male and female chickens and proportion of eggs suitable for hatching was 16976.67±1460.43 birds, 1: 7.69±0.32:1 and 4.27±0.16%, 97.47±0.12%, respectively. Average age at point and peak-of-lay, peak percent lay, percent lay, hen-housed egg production and egg laying period was 159.02±0.85 days, 224.75±0.71 days, 82.25±0.32%, 56.86±0.36%, 168.27±1.10 eggs and 295.98+0.85 days, respectively. In-season flocks had smaller age at point and peak-of-lay but longer egg laying period and higher percent lay and hen-housed egg production as compared to out-season flocks. Arboracre chicken was found to have better hen-housed egg production, higher percent lay and longer egg laying period than Shaver chickens. Rearing of Arboracre strain of chicken and Pullet's development during in-season shall be encouraged for obtaining better productivity.

GROWING STOCK EVALUATION OF SUB-TROPICAL CHIR PINE FORESTS OF PAKISTAN

S. M. Nizami, S. N. Mirza , M. A. Quraishi and I. A. Khan

Department of Range Management and Forestry, University of Arid Agriculture, Rawalpindi, Pakistani.

ABSTRACT

The study was conducted to compare the present growing stock of sub-tropical pine forests of Murree hills in Pakistan with the standard values of growing stock of a Normal Forest. Stand table was prepared for the major timber species of the area (Pinus roxburghii Sargent) using fixed area plot method of sampling in entire area of 4323 hectares.
Comparison was made on the basis of the values for each tree diameter class given by Ahmed and Bashir (1959). The study revealed that in sub-tropical pine forest of Ghoragali, pole crop (24-36cm diameter) is in excess number and very few are present in mature ages (132-150cm diameter class). This means that growing stock of Ghoragali forest is quite deviated from the normal values in different diameter classes probably because of poor implementation of previous management plans and also due to mismanagement resulting from the ban on “Green Felling” imposed by the government earlier.

EFFICACY OF TRICHODERMA HARZIANUM AFTER MUTIPLICATION ON DIFFERENT SUBSTRATES IN THE CONTROL OF ROOT ROT FUNGI.

G. Malik1, S. Dawar1, A. Sattar1 and A. Dawar2

1Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.
2Department of Mathematics, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, Gulshan-e-Iqbal, Karachi

ABSTRACT

Population of T.harzianum after multiplication on different substrates viz., rice grain, sorghum grain, millet grain and saw dust was determined at 0 day and after 15, 30, 60,90 and 180 days of storage. Growth of T.harzinum increased with the increase in time on sorghum grain, rice and millet grains, while saw dust was not suitable substrate for the multiplication of T. harzianum. The inoculum multiplied and stored in plastic bags remained viable for up to 180 days at room temperature. Soil amendment with T. harzianum after multiplication on rice, millet and sorghum showed significant increase in height and weight of mash bean and chick pea plants, and significantly reduced the infection of Macrophomina phaseolina, Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium spp. at different storage intervals on chick pea and mash bean. T.harzianum after multiplication on sorghum grain reduced the infection of M.phaseolina whereas inoculum on rice grain reduced the infection of Fusarium spp. R.solani infection was completely inhibited by T.harzianum multiplied on rice, sorghum and millet after 15, 30, 60 and 90 days of storage.

STUDY OF PARAMETERS OF INTRINSIC UNIFORMITY QUALITY CONTROL TEST FOR SINGLE HEAD GAMMA CAMERA

A. A. Rao1, H. Butt1, A. Manan1, S. Bashir2, S.A. Akbar2, A. Ghaffar1 and M.A. Khan2

1Dept of Physics University of Agriculture, Faisalabad; rao_annie@yahoo.com
2Punjab Institute of Nuclear Medicine (PINUM), Jail Road Faisalabad

ABSTRACT

The aim of the study was to determine the best parameters for rapid performance of daily quality control testing of intrinsic uniformity for the single-head gamma- camera, by changing one parameter while keeping all other parameter constant. A set of parameters for rapid performance of daily gamma-camera intrinsic uniformity was determined. The intrinsic uniformity improved as the number of counts increased, source strength increased, distance decreased and degrades as volume increased. The best optimized set of values were found to be the collection of 50 millions counts from a source of 50µCi per 50?l placed at a distance of 4.5 feet from the camera head. With our recommended parameters, the intrinsic uniformity quality control testing can be performed in 30-40 min with quite good results.



 
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