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Abstract January 2006

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REDESCRIPTION OF THE CAYSTRINE GENUS PRAETEXTATUS DISTANT ALONG WITH ITS TYPE SPECIES P. TYPICUS DISTANT (HEMIPTERA: PENTATOMIDAE) WITH REFERANCE TO THEIR UNKNOWN CHARACTERS OF METATHORACIC SCENT AURICLE AND GENITALIA AND KEY TO ITS KNOWN SPECIES AND THEIR RELATIONSHIPS

Imtiaz Ahmad1 and Muhammad Zahid2

1Department of Zoology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan
2Department of Zoology, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Sciences & Technology, Gulshan-e-Iqbal campus, University Road, Karachi, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

The caystrine stink bug genus Praetextatus Distant along with its type species P. typicus Distant is redescribed with reference to its unknown characters of metathoracic scent auricles and genitalia with a key to its known species and in this light and in the light of their Zoogeography the relationships of the included taxa are also briefly discussed.

REDESCRIPTION OF SQUASH BUG GONOCERINE GENUS BRUNSELLIUS DISTANT ALONGWITH ITS TYPE SPECIES B.SMECTICUS DISTANT (HEMIPTERA :COREIDAE) WITH REFERENCE TO METATHORACIC SCENT AURICLES AND GENITALIA, KEY TO ITS KNOWN SPECIES AND THEIR RELATIONSHIPS.

Imtiaz Ahmad1 and Navaid Rab2

1Department of Zoology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan
2Department of Zoology, Govt. Degree Girls College PIB Colony Karachi, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

The Gonocerine squash bug genus Brunsellius Distant alongwith its type species B.smecticus Distant is redescribed with special reference to its unknown characters i.e. metaethoracic scent auricles and genitalia, a key is given to its known species and in the light of the above characters the relationships of the included taxa are also briefly discussed.

STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF DISC INVOLVED IN CLOSING MECHANISM OF VALVULAR APPARATUS IN BERRY BUG HALYS SPECIES: (HEMIPTERA: PENTATOMIDAE)

Tahir Anwar1, Imtiaz Ahmad2 and Seema Tahir1

1Pesticide Research Institute, Southern zone Agricultural Research Center, PARC, University Campus, Karachi, Pakistan.
2Department of Zoology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

The valvular apparatus of metathoracic scent gland including its structure and function describing the operation of muscles involved are highlighted. The closing mechanism of the disc is for the first time correctly described involving the elasticity of the disc.

NEW INFORMATION OF GENITALIA OF CICINDELA FABRICII W. HORN (COLEOPTERA: CICINDELIDAE) FROM PAKISTAN

Syed Kamaluddin1, S. Anser Rizvi2 and N. Yasmeen2

1Department of Zoology, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, Karachi Pakistan.
2Department of Zoology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.
.
ABSTRACT

The species Cicindela fabricii W.Horn., is newly redescribed with male genital characters from Pakistan.

A NEW SPECIES OF TANYMECUS GERMAR (COLEOPTERA: CURCULIONIDAE: TANYMECINI) FROM PAKISTAN

Zubair Ahmed1, S. Anser Rizvi 2, M.A. Akhter2 and I. Yasir1

1Department of Zoology, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, Karachi Pakistan.
2Department of Zoology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

Tanymecus Germar is one of the well known genus of Indian sub-continent, in which 47 species redescribed from India and adjacent countries (Supare et al 1990). The present taxa compares with its close allies by their superficial and male genitalia characters.

REDESCRIPTION OF TWO SPECIES OF LANELATER ARNETT (COLEOPTERA, ELATERIDAE) FROM PAKISTAN WITH THEIR MALE AND FEMALE GENITALIA

M. A. Akhter1 , Zubair Ahmed2 and S. Anser Rizvi1

1 Department of Zoology, University of Karachi, Karach-75270, Pakistan.
2Department of Zoology, Federal Urdu University of Arts , Science and Technology, Karachi, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

The species of genus Lanelater (Arnett) are well known in warm regions of the world. In Pakistan, two species of the genus Lanelater from Dader, (NWFP) and Dhabeji, Thatta, Tandojam, Karachi, Sindh. This taxa is redescribed and its male and female genitalia described extensively.

OCCURRENCE OF PALLISENTIS SINDENSIS KHAN & BILQEES, 1987 FROM THE COMMON EDIBLE FISH CHANNA. (O) STRIATUS IN SINDH

R. Rehana Ghazi1, S.M.H. Mehdi Naqvi2 and Aly Khan3

1Vertebrate Pest Control Institute, SARC,P.O Box. 8401 Karachi University Campus, Karachi-75270.
2Livestock and Fisheries Research Unit, SARC, PARC. Jinnah Avenue, Malir Halt Karachi-75001.
3Crop Diseases Research Institute, SARC, PARC. University of Karachi, Karachi-75270.

ABSTRACT

Male and female Channa. (O) striatus (Bl.) were examined monthly for Pallisentis sindensis Khan and Bilqees, 1987 for a period of over two years (May, 1997 – August, 1999). Channa. O striatus showed greater proportion of infection during September to December. Infection was mostly absent from January to March both in male and female fishes. Percentage of infection was 13.7 and 12.3 and ratio of occurrence of male and female parasites was 01:01.2 and 01:01.9 in male and female fish respectively.

A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF POPULATION STRUCTURE AND CONDITION INDEX OF TWO SPECIES OF GASTROPOD MOLLUSCS FROM EXPLOITED AND NON-EXPLOITED SITES OF KARACHI COAST

Solaha Rahman1 and Sohail Barkati 2

1M.A.H. Qadri, Biological Research Centre, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan
2Department of Zoology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan; e-mail: sohailbarkati@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

The condition index of two abundant gastropod species of Turbo (T. coronatus and T. intercostalis) from exploited and non-exploited sites of Karachi was studied on monthly basis, for a period of one year from October 2004 to September 2005. A significant difference in condition index of two species from exploited and non-exploited sites was demonstrated. Condition index values were relatively higher and less varied throughout the year in both the species of Turbo at less polluted and non-exploited site (Nathiagali) as compared to polluted and exploited site (Buleji). The two sites also differed in the period of highest and lowest condition index values of standard size snails of both species of Turbo. An inverse relationship between condition index and shell height of snails was noted for most of the year in both the species. The results are discussed with reference to their presence under different environmental conditions.

HEALTH CONDITION PROFILE (HCP) OF OREOCHROMIS MOSSSAMBICUS IN ASSESSING THE GROWTH RESPONSE UNDER INTENSIVE CULTURE SYSTEM

Mohammad Shoaib1, Faisal Ameer2, Tanveer Ahsan3, Mohammad Nasir2 and Mohsna Ali1

1Department of Zoology, University of Karachi-75270-Pakistan
2Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (PCSIR), Laboratories Complexi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan
3Government Islamia Science College, Karachi, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

Three groups of Oreochromis mossambicus with the initial weight (W) of 0.9260.1464 g. average total length (TL) 3.800 ± 0.308 cm, standard length (SL) 2.83 ± 0.280 cm, fork length (FL) 0.93 ± 0.1542 cm and body depth (BD) 1.16 ± 0.152 cm were kept in 1.5x 2.5x 1.5 feet glass aquarium for a period of seventy five days. All the specimens were fed with an experimental diet twice a day and measured fortnightly. It was noticed that the pattern of increasing in W, TL, SL, FL, and BD were negatively correlated while variations among all the growth variables were from 38-67%. This result indicates that the pattern of increase in body profile was significantly different than that of control.

STUDY OF ANTHROPOGENIC INFLUENCED RECREATIONAL LAKES OF KARACHI-PAKISTAN WITH SPECIAL EMPHASIS ON SEASONAL CHANGES IN BIOLOGICAL COMMUNITIES

Mohammad Shoaib1, Faisal Ameer2, Tanweer Ahsan3, Mohammad Nasir1 and Mohsna Ali1

1Department of zoology, University of Karachi-75270
2Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (PCSIR), Laboratories Complex Karachi, Karachi-75270
3Government Islamia Science College Karachi Author’s E-mail: mushoaibku@hotmail.com

ABSTRACT

The Physico-chemical, plankton (Phyto and Zooplankton) and biological characteristics of Safari park lake (SPL) and Quaid-e-Azam park lake (QPL) provided indirect clue of water quality of recent pollution after analyzing various parameters. It was recorded that the levels of turbidity was relatively high at QPL (216.17 ?166.54 NTU) but the other physical parameter (Temperature and pH) approximately uniform. Seasonal occurrence of biological communities were significantly higher in SPL than QPL (phytoplankton density, 1298.17?945.862 U/L; zooplankton density, 112.66?80.864 U/L and macro-invertebrates, 726.58?109.203 U/L). The presence of Nephthys oligobranchia, Chaetogaster sp., Viviparous bengenlsis and Physa fontinalis clearly reflect the low pollution at SPL. Tubifex tubifex and Limnodrillus sp. are well known for organic pollution indicator. In view of the occurrence of these organisms in QPL water (1 each in number) may be concluded that there was little bit high organic pollution. The monitoring of biological communities can easily indicate the response of any chemical and biological changes by the anthropogenic activities. Periodical assessment of water and soil should be carried out to maintain and develop pleasant environment in our recreational lakes.

EFFECT OF LIVE FEEDS ON GROWTH OF POECILIA LATIPINNA

Mohammad Shoaib1, Nazia Mahmood1, Faisal Ameer2, Mohammad Nasirm2, Mohsna Ali1 and Saadia Kazmi1 1Department of Zoology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270-Pakistan. 2Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (PCSIR), Laboratories Complex, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

Gravid, diseased free and active feeder of Poecilla latipinna, were kept in laboratory for obtaining juveniles. All were divided into four groups and stocked @ 40 juveniles per aquarium. The initial weights of control (0.595?0.244g), Artemia treatment (AT) (0.811?0.416g), mosquito larvae treatment (MLT) (0.780?0.350g) and Drosophila larvae treatment (DLT) (0.780?0.350g) were taken. Prior to feeding all live feeds were cultured separately and fed to experimental juveniles @ 3% of average body weight twice a day. The % mortality was found to be lest 2.139?2.959 in control. % Weight gain was significantly high (44.34?34.17g) in DLT followed by 36.48?20.09 g in AT and MLT. The coefficient of correlation of daily feed allowance (DFA) to % weight gain was negative (-0.095) in MLT while negative correlation of % length gain to SGR, ADG, K, and FCR were negative compared to control, MLT, and DLT. Among chemical features of experimental water ammonia is found (0.12?0.207 mg/l) when baby pellets were supplied as food for juveniles in control.

PHYTOTOXIC POTENTIAL OF ACHYRANTHES ASPERA L. - A TROPICAL MEDICINAL WEED OF PAKISTAN

D. Khan1 and S. Shahid Shaukat2

1Department of Botany, Govt. National College, Karachi, Pakistan
2Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

Bioassays with Achyranthes aspera L. demonstrated that aqueous root and shoot extracts against Triticum aestivum, a cultivated species and four field associates viz. Cenchrus pennisetiformis, C. setigerus, Chloris barbata, and Peristrophe bicalyculata impeded or reduced germination of test species. The suppression of germination in shoot extract was in the order: C. barabata < T. aestivum < C. setigerus < C. pennisetiformis < P. bicalyculata and root extract suppressed germination in order: C. barbata < T. aestivum < C. setigerus, P. bicalyculata < C. pennisetiformis. Shoot extract was inhibitorier than root extract. Reduction in seedling growth was species specific. In general, inhibition was a function of the extract concentration. The suppression of seedling growth in test species was in the order: C. barbata < C.pennisetiformis < = C. setigerus < P. bicalyculata i.e., C. barbata being more resistant and P. bicalyculata most susceptible to Achyranthes toxicity - C. pennisetiformis and C. setigerus being moderately susceptible. Decaying A. aspera root and shoot were pernicious to germination and growth of T. aestivum. Artificial rain-drip arrested lettuce seedling growth at higher concentration only. Root and shoot extracts were autotoxic to A. aspera at higher concentrations only. Phytotoxic principles of A. aspera were thermostable or thermo-convertible to secondary inhibitors. The physico-chemical nature of soil and the soil microorganisms provided limited protection to lettuce seedling growth against toxicity of the extracts. Coleoptile bioassay of ether fraction of aqueous extract indicated at least two Phenolic inhibitors in the shoot and three in the root. Radicle growth bioassay of Brassica compestris indicated at least two saponins/glycosides in shoot and two in the root. The toxic effects of the extracts facilitated explanation to the observed field behaviour of the test species in terms of their sociological peculiarities in A. aspera dominated stands.

TREE DIEBACK INCIDENCE IN NATHIAGALI AND SURROUNDING HILLS

Arshad Javaid, Rukhsana Bajwa, Sobiya Shafique and Shazia Shafique

Department of Mycology and Plant Pathology, University of the Punjab, Quaid-e-Azam Campus, Lahore, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

Surveys of Nathiagali, Dongagali, Ayubia and Mukshpuri, conducted during July-August 2005, revealed the presence of tree dieback at these hill stations. The two most commonly occurring gymnospermic plant species viz., Abies pindrow Roxb. and Pinus wallichiana A. B. Jackson exhibited 5 and 2% dieback, respectively. The less frequently occurring species Taxus baccata Linn showed only 1% dieback while Cedrus deodara (Roxb.) Loud and rarely occurring species Picea smithiana (Wall.) Boiss did not show any signs of dieback. Among the broad-leaved angiospermic plant species, Populus ciliata Boenm, Quercus incana W. Bartram and Aesculus indica Colehr. showed the highest dieback incidence of 4% each followed by Ulmus wallichiana Planch. (2%) and Acer pictum Thunb. ex Murroy (2%). Root infecting fungi, frost winds, aging and human activities could be the possible causes of dieback in these hill stations.

COMPLIMENTARY EFFECT OF TRICHODERMA HARZIANUM AND SOME ALLELOPATHIC PLANT EXTRACTS ON FUSARIUM SOLANI

Irum Mukhtar, Rukhsana Bajwa, Asma Ashraf, Arshad Javaid and M. B. Mehmood Shah

Department of Mycology and Plant Pathology University of the Punjab Quaid-e-Azam Campus Lahore, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

In vitro bioassays were carried out to evaluate the antagonistic potential of Trichoderma harzianum Rifai against Fusarium solani, individually as well as in combination with aqueous leaf extracts of Terminalia arjuna (Roxb.) W. & A., Mangifera indica L. and Azadirchta indica (L.) A. Juss. T. harzianum exhibited significant antifungal activity against F. solani resulting in a significant reduction of 70% in radial growth. Among the three test plant species, aqueous extract of T. aurjuna showed the maximum antifungal activity resulting in 74% reduction in colony diameter of F. solani followed by M. indica that induced 67% decline. Lowest affectivity i.e. 54% was observed in case of A. indica. Any of the three test plant species failed to enhance the efficacy of the T. harzianum in suppressing the mycelia growth of F. solani as compared to its individual competence.

TOXICITY OF VARIOUS FRACTIONS AND SUBFRACTIONS FROM FRUIT COATS OF NEEM (AZADIRACHTA INDICA A. JUSS.) AGAINST ANOPHELES STEPHENSI LISTON

R.M. Tariq1, S.N.H. Naqvi2, B.S. Siddiqui3, M. Rasheed3, M. Aslam4 and S.M.N. Zafar1

1Department of Zoology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.
2Baqai Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Baqai Medical University, Deh Tor, P.O. Box 2407, Karachi, Karachi-74600, Pakistan.
3HEJ Research Institute of Chemistry, International Centre for Chemical Sciences, W.H.O. Collaborating Centre, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.
4Department of Statistics, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.
ABSTRACT

The extract of fruit coats (RB-b) and its various fractions i.e. EtOAc phase of RB-b, RB-b ‘A’ (Acidic fraction of EtOAc phase), RB-b ‘N’ (Neutral fraction of EtOAc phase), PE ‘S’ (petrol-ether soluble fraction of RB-b ‘N’), PE ‘I’ (petrol-ether insoluble fraction of RB-b ‘N’), ‘ES’ (Ether soluble fraction of PE ’S’) and ‘EI’ [Ether insoluble fraction of PE ‘I’, (Exclusively consisted of azadiradione (pure compound)] of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) were tested against the 4th-instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi Liston. The results of these were compared with permethrin (25 EC). The LC50 value of the extract and its various fractions was found 290, 165, 142, 43, 159, 154, 106 and 15 ppm, respectively. The fraction ‘ES’ was further subfractionated into 13 VLC-fractions (A-M) and LC50 values of these VLC-fractions were 100(A), 200(B), 150(C), 215(H), 107(I), 136(J), 212(K), 66(L) and 182(M) ppm, while that of permethrin used as standard, it was 0.120 ppm.

CYTOTOXICITY OF ACHILLEA TALAGONICA BOISS. AND A. TENUIFOLIA LAM.

Soodabeh Saeidnia1, Ahmad R. Gohari1*, Abbas Hadjiakhoondi2 , Mahmood R. Gohari3, Fahimeh M. Afrapoli4

1 Medicinal Plants Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2 Department of Pharmacognosy and Medicinal Plants Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences,Tehran, Iran
3 Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistic, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical sciences,Tehran, Iran
4 Faculty of Pharmacy, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran

ABSTRACT

In this study, we examined the cytotoxic activity of the ethyl acetate, methanol and aqueous methanol extracts of the aerial parts of two species of Achillea using Brine Shrimp Cytotoxicity Assay. Results showed that ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of A. talagonica and A. tenuifolia had a cytotoxic effect against the larva of A. salina. The minimum lethal concentrations of aqueous methanol extracts of both plants were more than 1000 µM. EtOAc extract of A. talagonica was the most effective extract (LC50 = 413 µM) among all fractions.

HYPERICINS CONTENT, ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF IRANIAN HYPERICUM PERFORA TUM

M. Mahmoudi1, K. Morteza-Semnani2'*, M. Saeedi3 and A. Javanmardi2

1Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran
2Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mazandaran University of MedicalSciences,
P.O. Box: 48175-861, Sari, Iran
3Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences,Sari, Iran

ABSTRACT

Hypericum perforatum is a medicinal plant which has been known in traditional medicine as anti-inflammatory and healing agent. The total content of hypericins was determined 0.101% in Iranian H. perforatum. The anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of H. perforatum extract, a native plant of Iran, were studied using carrageenan induced edema, formalin, hot plate and writhing tests. 3h after carrageenan injection, similar activity against carrageenan-induced rat paw edema was observed with H. perforatum extract (100 and 150 mg/kg) and indomethacin (4 mg/kg). In the formalin test, the extract (25-250 mg/kg, i.p.) caused graded inhibition of both phases of formalin-induced pain (P<0.001).- In the hot plate test, the i.p. administration of the extract at the doses of 25- 250 mg/kg significantly raised the pain threshold at an observation time of 30 min in comparison with the control group (P<0.001). In the writhing test, the extract at doses of 25 mg/kg (P<0.05), 50, 75, 100 and 150mg/kg (P<0.001) produced a significant decrease in the number of writhing in comparison with the control group. The extract, at antinociceptive doses, did not affect motor coordination of animals when assesed in the rotarod model.

FORMATION OF URINARY CALCULI IN PAKISTANI PATIENTS FROM DIFFERENT AREAS

F. S. Rehmani1 and Aaliya Malik2

1Department of Chemistry, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan
2Instituite of Biochemistry, University of Balochistan, Quetta, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

A survey reveals that urinary tract calculi formation is very common in different areas of Pakistan. This may be due to many factors related to water mineral contents, diet composition and environmental factors. The aim of present study is to determine the chemical composition of urinary calculi in patients of different area of Pakistan of both sexes. The quantitative analyses were carried out by spectrophotometric method. The majority of stones were found to be calcium oxalate type stones with an overall male to female ratio 6:1.

LOCATION OF FUNGI ON DIFFERENT PARTS OF SOYBEAN SEED

Marium Tariq, Shahnaz Dawar and Fatima S. Mehdi

Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

Component plating of soybean seed by using ISTA technique showed that greater number of fungi were isolated by blotter method on different parts of seeds followed by agar plate and deep freezing method. Greater number of fungi were observed on seed coat, cotyledon followed by axis. Fusarium solani (Mart.)sacc., and Macrophomina Phaseolina (Tassi) Goid., were recorded from Cotelydon and axis. Reduced number of fungal species showed that greater number of fungi were located on seed coat. In seedling symptoms test on plain water agar showed that F.solani and M.phaseolina caused pre and post emergence infection of seedling.

HISTOPATHOLOGICAL STUDIES OF SUNFLOWER SEEDLINGS INFECTED WITH MACROPHOMINA PHASEOLINA

Farah Naz1 and M. Ashraf 2

1Department of Plant Pathology University of Arid Agriculture, Rawalpindi, Pakistan
2Department of Biological Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

The mode of infection of charcoal rot Macrophomina phaseolina was studied employing light and transmission electron microscopy. When this pathogen was inoculated in sunflower seedlings, it changed the color of root tips. Staining of semi thin section of roots with methylene blue separated fungal mycelium from plant tissue. Initially, infection was restricted to root epidermal cells but in later stages the infection was also observed in cortical cells. At this stage cell configuration including organelles became distorted. Micrographs also revealed sclerotia and development of appressoria. Intercellular spaces were occupied by the fungal hyphae, which appeared amorphous, with intracellular invasion occurring later. It is envisaged that the development of fungus within the host plant is accompanied by the production of certain exudes, which helps fungus in penetration and destruction of the host.

CORRELATION OF MULTIPLE STRESS TOLERANCE IN INDIGENOUS BACTERIA

Erum Shoeb and Nuzhat Ahmed

Centre For Molecular Genetics, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan; a_nuzhat@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

Forty three strains were isolated from metal contaminated sites close to the residential areas of Karachi, Pakistan. These strains were found to tolerate heavy metals and antibiotics. In case of heavy metals 62.8% of the strains have shown tolerance against chromate and copper, and 51.2% against nickel. Eight antibiotics were checked, 97.7% of the strains have shown tolerance against streptomycin, 44.2% against neomycin, 27.9% against ampicillin, 25.6% against tetracycline, 13.9% against chloramphenicol, 9.3% of the strains have shown tolerance against kanamycin and novobiocin, and 2.3% against rifampicin. Attempt was made to find out correlation between heavy metal tolerance and antibiotic tolerance of these strains with the assumption of multiple stress tolerance of bacteria. Statistical analysis has shown positive correlation between heavy metal tolerance and antibiotic tolerance of these strains, t-test has been conducted to test the null hypothesis of no correlation which has been rejected at t.05 level of significance. Omegon-transposon containing kanamycin tolerance gene did not hybridize with the strain CMG2K8 which has shown tolerance upto 1500 µg/ml of kanamycin, when colony hybridization was performed through DIG labelled probe, this result has indicated that mechanism of tolerance to kanamycin of the strain CMG2K8 is different from the one found in Omegon-transposon.

EVALUATION OF ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF DECOCTION, INFUSION AND ESSENTIAL OIL OF ORIGANUM VULGARE ON METHICILLIN RESISTANT AND METHICILLIN SENSITIVE STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS

Asma Naim and Perween Tariq

Department of Microbiology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

Methicillin resistance of 163 strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from nasal cavity was determined by disc diffusion method. The incidence of methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was noted as 128 (78.5%) and 35 (21.5%) respectively. The inhibition efficacy of decoction, infusion and essential oil of Origanum vulgare (oregano) was assayed against all isolates, using well diffusion assay. All the isolates were found resistant to decoction and infusion whereas the essential oil of oregano exhibited antibacterial activity against 124 (96.88%) MSSA and 28 (80%) MRSA isolates. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of oregano oil against MSSA and MRSA was same. It was noted as 0.31-2.5%,(v/v).

EFFECT OF OIL (CRUDE PETROLEUM) ON THE SURVIVAL AND GROWTH OF SOIL FUNGI

Rabia Ashraf and Tasneem A. Ali

Department of Microbiology, University of Karachi; Karachi 75270, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

Oil (crude petroleum) is the most common pollutant that adversely affects and deteriorates the soil environment. Our study is based on the assessment of the effects of various concentrations of oil on the survival and growth of soil fungi. The research carried out in this regard included, the selection of oil, sampling of oil- polluted soils, characterization of soil, simulated oil pollution of the soil, isolation, identification, characterization and screening of the fungal isolates. Viability tests were performed to check the survival of the fungi exposed to various concentrations of oil. Assessment of oil biodegradation was carried out by modified brown paper assay. The growth pattern and resistance potential of these isolates in varying concentrations of oil, benomyl (fungicide) and at increasing temperatures were also determined. Majority of the isolated fungi showed their growth in oil, utilizing it as a sole source of carbon. Changes in the growth pattern of these fungal isolates were also observed. It clearly indicates the potential of these fungi to be used for the bioremediation of the oil-contaminated sites without any nutrient amendment. These fungi also showed resistance against heavy metals, benomyl and high temperatures. This insinuates the importance of these stress resistant isolates in multipurpose biotechnological studies as well as in the remediation of the environment, polluted with toxicants other than oil i.e. pesticides and heavy metals etc.

ANTICANDIDAL ACTIVITY OF SOME CULINARY HERBS

Sabahat Saeed, Nazia Masood and Perween Tariq

Department of Microbiology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan;
e-mail:sabahatsaeed2003@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

Twenty six (26) isolates belonging to 4 different species of Candida; C.albicans (16), C.tropicalis (6), C.parapsilosis (3) and C.krusei (1); isolated from clinical specimens were used for screening of anticandidal activities of aqueous infusions, decoctions and oils of cinnamon (Cinnamonium zeylanicum), clove (Eugenia caryophyllata), oregano (Oreganum sativum), kalonji (Nigella sativa) and poppy seed (Papaver somniferum) by standard disc diffusion method. Oil of cinnamon exhibited highest activity against all Candida species with maximum zone of inhibition 49.50mm against C. albicans. Decoction and infusion of cinnamon also exhibited good effect with 15.19mm and 11.15mm, respectively. Clove, oregano and kalonji oils were also effective against all isolates with 12.46mm, 13.31mm and 13.04mm, respectively while poppy seed oil had no effect on Candida species. In case of decoctions, only decoction of clove showed weak activity with 8.42mm while decoctions of oregano, kalonji and poppy seed did not inhibit the growth of Candida. Besides, all isolates were found resistant to aqueous infusions of clove, oregano, kalonji and poppy seed.

A PTEROCARPAN COMPOUND FROM CULTURE FILTRATE OF FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM F.SP.CICERIS AND WILT RESISTANCE IN CHICKPEA

S. S. Alam1, I. A. Khan1, M. Iqbal Choudhary2, M. Ashraf 2 and Atta-ur-Rahman2

1Phytopathological Chemistry Laboratory, Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology, Jhang Road, Faisalabad, Pakistan (drssalam@yahoo.com)
2Intertnational Center for Chemical Sciences, H.E.J. Research Institute of Chemistry, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

A new pterocarpan derivative (1), a phytotoxin, has been isolated from the culture filtrate of Fusarium oxysporum that caused leaves and wilting to chickpea seedlings. The structure of the compound 1 was elucidated based on modern one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopic techniques.

COMPUTER AIDED CONFORMATIONAL ANALYSIS OF DIAZEPAM (7-CHLORO-1, 3-DIHYDRO-1-METHYL –5-PHENYL-2H-4-BENZODIZAPINE-2-ONE)

Farhat Bano, Afshan Naz, Sadaf Naeem, Naheed Akhtar and M.A. Haleem

Biophysics Unit, Department of Biochemistry, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan

ABSTARACT

Structure based drug design is based on a firm understanding of molecular recognition between active site group and interacting molecules and is a strategy that has become as integral part of modern drug discovery. Potential energy has been calculated to refine the structure of diazepam by using kaitagorodsky function. The most feasible position for the drug to interact with receptor would be at ?1=220o and ?2= 260o.Where the potential energy was found to be -0.957744 K.cal/mol.

BLACK SEEDS (NIGELLA SATIVA)- A SOURCE OF IRON AND ANTIOXIDANTS

Iffat A. Tawab1 and Nasreen Fatima2

1Pakistan Agricultural Research Council, Karachi University Campus,Karachi-75270, Pakistan
2Department of Chemistry, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

Iron is determined in the seeds of Nigella sativa spectrophotometrically and iron-opt complexation is selected. Calibration curve method is employed for this study. From this curve molar absorptivity (e) was calculated to determine the concentration of metal in different samples, molar absorptivity (e) was found to be 10,000M-1. cm-1 at 515nm. Average values of concentrations for the five ´amples were found to be 110.4239ppm, 139.7700ppm, 138.0647ppm, 141.6273ppm and 139.2660ppm.respectively. Fe(III) solution was treated with extract of N. sativa as well as two other active biological reductants, hydroquinone and hydroxyl ammonium chloride. It has been found that N. sativa is stronger reducing agent than hydroxyl ammonium chloride and weaker then hydroquinone.

EFFECTS OF WHOLE-BODY MAGNETIC FIELD ON CHANGES OF GLUCOSE AND CORTISOL HORMONE IN GUINEA PIGS

S. Zare1, H. Hayatgeibi1, S. Alivandi1 and A.G. Ebadi2

1Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran
2Department of Biology,Islamic Azad University of Sari,Sari branch 48164-194, Iran

ABSTRACT

The main goal of this study was to evaluate the possible effect of whole-body magnetic field (MF) exposure on the variations of glucose and cortisol hormone levels on 36 adult male Guinea pigs. in four separate experiments, male Guinea pigs, were exposed to sinusoidal 5Hz ,0.013 µT and 50 Hz – 0.207µT MF. Duration of exposure was 2 and 4 h/day over a period of 5 days. At the end of the exposure, blood samples were isolated and level of glucose hormone measured by Auto analyzer. cortisol content of blood sera was measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). We found significant decreases in the levels of glucose and cortisol hormone in 50 Hz – 0.207µT MF after 2 h exposure (p < 0.05). This condition was seen only for Glucose hormone after 4 h exposure (p < 0.05). in all test sample, exposure after 2 or 4 h in 50 Hz – 0.207µT , showed greater decrease compared to 5Hz ,0.013 µT MF. Our results indicated that a presumably direct effect of whole – body MF exposure on levels of glucose and cortisol hormones.

QUALITY OF DRINKING WATER IN HUB RIVER CATCHMENT AREA, SINDH PAKISTAN

M. Ali Khan1*, S. Raheel Zafar1, Sarah Arif1, Imran Hashmi2

1Institute of Environmental Studies, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.
2National University of Science and Technology, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

This cross sectional study investigates the drinking water quality of Hub river catchment area. The quality of water was examined through bacteriological, chemical and heavy metal analysis. Water from all the samples failed to meet standards for the bacteriological parameters of drinking water, however chemical quality was acceptable. The presence of “lead” indicates the heavy metal contamination which could be potentially dangerous from the public health point of view. This would mean that this important water resource is grossly polluted and could be a potential threat to the people who consume water from the storage.

HYDROGEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION OF MALIR RIVER AND ITS ADJACENT AREA

S. K. Alvi1, Gulraiz Hamid2, Sadia Khaleeq3 and T. H. Usmani1

1Center for Environmental Studies, PCSIR Laboratories Complex, 75280, Karachi, Pakistan.
2Department of Geology, University of Karachi 75270 Karachi, Pakistan.
3Department of Geology, Federal Urdu University of Arts Science and Technology Karachi Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

A study on the contamination of groundwater around Malir River Karachi was conducted. Samples were analyzed for their different chemical constituents. The mean concentration of all the major chemical constituents like calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride and sulfate were found to be high in the analyzed groundwater samples. In the light of this study, groundwater samples of Malir River Karachi have been characterized as hard water. Nitrate contents were found to be higher than the permissible guidelines limits of WHO. No significant correlation has been found to exist between nitrate contents and other physicochemical parameters determined in this study. High levels of TDS may be attributed to percolation of industrial wastes.

STRUCTURE, COMPOSITION, PHYTOMASS AND NET PRIMARY PRODUCTIVITY IN A LASIURUS SCINDICUS HENR. DOMINATED SEMI-MOIST SITE OF KARACHI, PAKISTAN

D. Khan1, S. Shahid Shaukat2, M. M. Alam1 and M. Faheemuddin1

1Department of Botany, Government National College, Karachi, Pakistan.
2 Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

The variation in composition, structure, phytomass and net primary productivity was analyzed in a Lasiurus scindicus Henr. dominated community in a semi-moist site of Karachi, Pakistan. Phyto-ecological parameters of vegetation were studied at monthly interval for a year. Fifty Nine species in all were encountered from this site. On the basis of phytomass, Lasiurus scindicum was the leading dominant throughout the year except in rainy season when Cenchrus setigerus dominated the community. The Maximum density in this site occurred in August when it reached to 588.4 plants.m-2. The highest density at this point of time was exhibited by Tragus roxburghii (382 plants. m-2). The density of L. scindicus remained more or less unchanged.
The changes in the aboveground live plant biomass (LB), standing dead (SD), litter (L) and belowground biomass were studied. LB was maximum (694.7 g.m -2) in September and minimum (196.5 g.m-2) in June- averaging to 341.3 ± 42.9 g.m-2. LB proportion of legumes varied from 0.9 to 8.65%. The effects of rainfall remained noticeable for not more than up to 50- 60 days. SD was maximum in December (564.6m-2). Litter was maximum in January (249.9g.m-2) and minimum in August (115.8m-2). Above- ground net primary productivity (ANP), as evaluated by various methods, varied from 674.7 to 947.1g.m-2.year-1 (average = 805.3 ± 50.76g.m-2. year-1; CV = 13.8%). Belowground net productivity (BNP) was 814.9 g.m-2.year-1.
Annual efficiency of energy capture by the primary producers was estimated to be 0.68% on the basis of half total solar radiation. Annual energy flow diagram through primary producer compartments is presented.

RESPONSE OF MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L.) GENOTYPES TO INOCULATION OF TWO ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL SPECIES

M. B. Mahmood Shah, Rukhsana Bajwa and Arshad Javaid

Department of Mycology and Plant Pathology, University of the Punjab, Quaid-e-Azam Campus Lahore, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

Growth and mycorrhizal colonization of maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes in response to two arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) species viz. Glomus mosseae Nic. & Gerd.and G. monosporum Gerd. & Trap. was tested in pot trials under normal environmental and soil conditions. Four maize varieties viz. 3025-W, 3012-DS, 2002-SP and 2002-Sadaf were used in the experiment. A variable plant growth and mycorrhizal colonization response was exhibited by different varieties to the two introduced AM species. In general, G. mosseae inoculation induced higher mycorrhizal colonization as compared to G. monosporum. Consequently parallel plant growth response to G. mosseae inculcation was recorded. Various plant growth and mycorrhizal parameters exhibited positive correlation in G. mosseae inoculated plants. Among the four test varieties, 3025-W was found to be superior with respect to its response to mycorrhizal inoculation with G. mosseae.

RESPONSE OF SPLIT APPLICATION OF NITROGEN FERTILIZER ON YIELD OF POTATO CROP (SOLANUM TUBEROSUM L.)

Nasir Mahmood1, C.M. Ayub2 and Shehnaz Zakia3

1Pakistan Science Foundation, Islamabad*; nmkhokhar@gmail.com
2University of Agriculture, Faisalabad**
3Pakistan Museum of Natural History, Islamabad, zakia_shehnaz@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted to observe nitrogen efficacy for split application to potato crop. Urea (N 46%) was applied @ 250 kg per hectare in split doses to potato cultivar named PARS-70. Data regarding various growth and yield characteristics like germination, number of stems/ plant, plant height, number of compound leaves per plant, number of tuber per plant, mortality percentage, weight of tubers per plant (g), and per plot (kg), tuber yield per acre (tons) and per hectare (Tons), total Biomass per plant (g), foliage fresh weight per plant (g), foliage dry weight per plant (g), tuber dry weight per plant (g) were recorded and analyzed statistically following standard procedure at 5% probability level. T6 which received the total amount of Nitrogen in 5 splited applications produced best results regarding all the studying parameters while T1, received only basil dose of Nitrogen, produced minimum of all the above parameters.

RESPONSE OF ROSE CUTTINGS AGAINST ROOT PROMOTING HORMONES DURING SPRING AND AUTUMN

Haider Abbas1, M. Jafar Jaskani2, Zahoor Hussain2 and Muhammad Asif 2

1Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi 75270, Pakistan.
2Institute of Horticultural Sciences, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad-38040, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted on rose varieties, Rosa damascena and R. centifolia, to assess the effect of growth hormones, Indole butyric acid (IBA) and Seradix-A, on root induction. The data on sprouting of first bud, number of shoots, length of shoots, number of roots, length of roots and survival rate was recorded in two seasons (spring and autumn). It was found that both varieties behaved differently in different seasons. Rosa centifolia produced maximum shoot length and number of roots in spring, whereas R. damascena produced maximum shoot length in autumn and maximum number of roots in spring when treated with Seradix-A. These results envisaged that autumn season is the best for planting R. damascena and spring for R. centifolia. Seradix-A showed better results as compared to IBA.

CROSS INOCULATION STUDIES 11: RESPONSE OF VIGNA RADIATA (L.) WILCZEK. TO INOCULATION WITH RHIZOBIA FROM TREE LEGUMES

A. Mahmood, Raiha Qadri and Rubina Iqbal

Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

Rhizobia from nodules of Acacai nilotica (L.) Delile., Albizia lebbeck (L) Benth., Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) deWet., Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth., Prosopis cineraria (L.) Druce., P. glandulosa Torr. and P. juliflora (Swartz.) DC. were tested for their ability to produce roots nodules on Vigna radiata host. Isolates from all the leguminous plants produced roots nodules on V. radiata. Isolates from L. leucocephala were found most effective in nitrogen fixation and induced substantial increase in dry weight, followed by isolates from P. juliflora and V. radiata.

EFFICACY OF HERBICIDES ON WEED DENSITY AND GRAIN YIELD OF NO TILL WHEAT

Gul Hassan1, Naqib Ullah Khan2 and Mohammad Munir3

Department of Weed Science, NWFP Agricultural University, Peshawar 25130, Pakistan E-mail: hassanpk_2000pk@yahoo.com
2Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, NWFP Agricultural University, Peshawar 25130, Pakistan.
3Crop Protection, Crop Sciences Division, Pakistan Agricultural Research Council, Islamabad, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

Studies were initiated on Zero tillage and integration of herbicides for wheat production in a rice-based cropping system of Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan. Zero Tillage vs. conventional tillage regimes were assigned to main-plots, while post em. herbicides (Buctril-M, Affinity and weedy check) were kept into sub-plots. For weed density, there were significant differences (P<0.05) for herbicides, while tillage regimes and their interaction with herbicides were non-significant statistically. The tillage plots showed numerically lesser weed infestation than no till plots. As far as the interaction is concerned, both the chemical treatments showed lower weed density as compared to weedy check under either tillage regime. Fleabane exceptionally grew in zero tilled plots. The herbicide Buctril-M outyielded (P<0.05) Affinity and weedy check, but Affinity was statistically at par with the weedy check. The highest net benefit (Rs.5965 ha-1) was achieved under the Zero tilled wheat covered with Buctril-M. The lowest marginal net benefit was attained in the Affinity + zero tillage. It is thus, recommended that zero tillage may be adopted for lucrative income and sustainability of the production system with the use of Buctril-M, in the light of our data set. Adoption of such a resource conservation technology has been a timely intervention to reduce production costs, improve efficiency of natural resource management practices, benefit the environment, and exploit potential of the rice-based system.


 
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