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Abstract January 2007

Abstract 2007
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TWO SPECIES OF A NEW TREMATODE GENUS THYNOTREMA (SPIRORCHIIDAE: COEURITREMATINAE) FROM THE FISH THYNNUS THUNNIA OF KARACHI COAST, PAKISTAN

F. M. Bilqees1, Nasira Khatoon2 and Muti-ur-Rehman2

1Department of Zoology, Jinnah University for Women, Nazimabad, Karachi-74600, Pakistan
2Department of Zoology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

A new trematode genus Thynotrema is described here to accommodate two new undescribed trematodes in the family Spirorchiidae Stunkard, 1921 and subfamily Coeuritrematinae Dwivedi, 1968. The trematodes belonging to the new genus have small, delicate, elongate body, acetabulum smaller than oral sucker, ceca reaching to posterior end of the body, flower-shaped lobed testes, tandem in position, situated near to posterior end of the body. Genital opening is anterolateral or posterolateral to acetabulum seminal vesicle free in parenchyma, tubular or elongated in shape, almost reaching to ovary, cirrus sac is also long terminating posterior to acetabulum or extending anterior to it, metraterm weakly developed or distinct, vitellaria consisting of small follicles, lateral in position, circumcecal posteriorly, between intestinal bifurcation and posterior end of the body. Excretory vesicle is a wide tube extending to level of ovary or posterior testis. The new species Thynotrema elongatum has genital opening posterolateral to acetabulum, seminal vesicle is tubular free in parenchyma and metraterm is weakly developed. Another new species reported here is Thynotrema thynotrema characterized by having genital opening anterolateral to acetabulum, seminal vesicle not tubular but large and elongate, and metraterm is distinct.


REDESCRIPTION OF DYSDERCUS CARDINALIS GERSTAECKER (HEMIPTERA: PYRRHOCORIDAE) WITH REFERENCE TO ITS PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIPS

S. Salahuddin Qadri 1 and Imtiaz Ahmad2

1Department of Zoology, Jamia Millia Government Degree College, Malir, Karachi, Pakistan
2Department of Zoology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

Dysdercus cardinalis Gerstaecker is redescribed in detail with special reference to its unknown metathoracic scent auricle, male genitalia including inflated aedeagus. In this light it is compared with its closest allies and its phylogenetic relationship in its subgenus is also briefly discussed.

A CLADISTIC ANALYSIS OF THE SPECIES OF THE GONOCERINE SQUASH BUG GENUS CLETOMORPHA MAYER (HEMIPTERA: COREIDAE) FROM INDO-PAKISTAN SUBCONTINENT

Imtiaz Ahmad 1 and Navaid Rab 2

1Department of Zoology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan
2Department of Zoology, Govt. Degree Girls College PIB Colony Karachi.

ABSTRACT

Cladistic analysis of the species of the genus Cletomorpha Mayer from Indo-Pakistan subcontinent is carried out with Cletus as its out group. A cladogram is constructed on the principle of parsimony. No homoplasies had to be invoked.


EXPLORING VERTICAL AND HORIZONTAL GENE TRANSFER IN PASTEURELLA MULTOCIDA PM70 BY COMPARATIVE GENOMICS STUDIES

Mushtaq Hussain M. Tanweer Khan and Abdul Wajid

Institute of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (KIBGE), University of Karachi-75270, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

The present study has been conducted to explore different patterns and modes of Pasteurella multocida evolution. Total protein of P.multocida Pm70 with genomic synteny were subjected to total best protein identity comparison to all sequenced microbes at cutoff value of identity 70%; similarity 70% and p-value 1. Proteome identity of test and closely matched organisms lies in the range of 23.9% to 0.72%. The findings were further analyzed by comparative 16srDNA sequence alignment. Entire nodal branch, leading to P.multocida was selected for further analysis. Closest relatives thus found belongs to the species of genera Mannheimia and Hemophilus which were compared for C-Level paradox, AT content, purine stretches, simple repeats, gene density, origin and terminal of replication etc. Fourier transformation was applied to transform entire DNA of test and phylogenetically related microbes into numerical values. From mentioned digitization, stacking energy, protein deformability, propeller twists were deduced; this provided conspicuous evidences of potential vertical and lateral gene transfer in P.multocida. Additionally, similarity in the pattern of pseudo 2D gel profile among the microbes present in targeted nodal branch distinguished between physico-chemical nature of horizontally and vertically transferred genes


RT-PCR BASED DIAGNOSIS OF FOOT AND MOUTH DISEASE IN PUNJAB, PAKISTAN

Usman Waheed, Sabir Farooq, Rashid Mahmood and Qaiser M. Khan*

Animal Virology Lab. National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (NIBGE), P.O Box # 577, Jhang Road, Faisalabad, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

Foot and mouth disease (FMD) - list-A disease - is the major constraint in international trade of livestock and dairy products. FMD virus exist in the nature as seven distinct serotypes i.e A, O, C, Asia-I, SAT 1-3. There is considerable heterogeneity within serotypes and there is no cross immunity between serotypes, Hence, diagnosis of this disease up to strain level is always a problem. The ultimate solution for this problem is Reverse-Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR). In the present study, 156 samples were collected from FMD suspected animals from seven different districts (Jhang, Faisalabad, Lahore, Hafizabad, Okara, Gujranwala and Arifwala) of the Punjab province of Pakistan. For this purpose, vesicles from mouth and hooves and tongue tissues of dead animals were collected and subjected to RT-PCR analysis. RNA was extracted using TRIzolTM reagent and subsequently subjected to cDNA synthesis. The cDNA was amplified through PCR using FMD virus (FMDV) specific universal primers P1 and P2, which correspond to highly conserved region of the viral genome i.e VP1, to achieve the required band size of 216 bp. Thirty-six (23%) samples were found positive following RT-PCR analysis. The optimization of this molecular biological technique (RT-PCR) will be of value for the accurate diagnosis and differential diagnosis of FMD.

GENETIC INSTABILITY OF SUGARCANE PLANTS REGENERATED THROUGH DIRECT REGENERATION METHOD

Imtiaz A. Khan1, M. U. Dahot2, Sajida Bibi1, Saboohi Raza1, Abdullah. Khatri1 and M. H. Naqvi1

1Agriculture Biotechnology Division,Nuclear Institute of Agriculture, Tando Jam, 70060, Sindh, Pakistan
2Institute of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Sindh University, Jamshoro, Sindh, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

Sugarcane probably represents the most complex genome being studied todate. Current cultivars are derived from complex interspecific hybridization and they are highly polyloid and aneuploid with 100 to 130 chromosomes. When cells having such high aneuploid and plant plantlets regenerated from these cells their genetic fidelity become under question. Therefore, RADP (Random amplified polymorphic DNA) technique was used to detect variations in the directly regenerated plants of sugarcane. Plants directly regenerated from tissue of NIA-98 were studied for existing genetic variability with in the tissue in the form of aneuploidy. The polymorphism were observed in 39 out of 42 bands (92.8%). Polymorhism of band confirms that direct regeneration cannot maintain genetic fidelity in sugarcane but can be considered as a good source of exploring existing aneuploidy.


GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF NEONATALS OF CIRRIHANA MRIGALA KEPT AT DIFFERENT STOCKING DENSITIES IN RECIRCULATING WATER SYSTEM

Mohammad Shoaib1, Mohammad Nasir1 and Faisal Ameer2

1Department of Zoology, University of Karachi-75270-Pakistan
2Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (PCSIR), Laboratories Complex Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

For evaluation of growth rate of any aquatic organism, weight is the most reliable variable along with number of organisms stocked in confined space. The present study was focused on the suitable ratio (organism/sq.feet) of Cirrhinus mrigala at which they were exhibit best growth. The neonatal of Cirrhinus mrigala (0.5±0.15 g.) were stocked under two different systems i.e. raceways (8’x55’= 440 sq.ft) 5 in numbers and glass aquaria (1’x3 = 3 sq.ft) also 5 in numbers. They were fed with a mixed diet containing rice protein 40%, rice polish 30%, rice bran 20% and rice flour 10 %. All raceways were stocked @ 2.27, 9.09, 33.36, 40.90 and 45.45 neonatal/ sq.ft and all aquaria were stocked @ 3.00, 9.09, 33.33, 41.00 and 45.33 neonatal/ sq.ft. The specific growth rate (SGR) was observed to be the best in raceway # 4 (17.0) compared to other raceways 7,8,14 & 15 with sequence of raceways # 1,2,3,5 as well as to the aquarium (5,3,2,2,1). The weight gain was also found to be significant in raceways 3,4 and 5 (4.6,5.3 and 4.3 g. respectively). The computed neonatal production per year was significantly increased from 84 to 204g when optimal ratio existed between space and stocking rate.

EFFECT OF WATER STRESS ON SEEDLING GROWTH OF MAIZE CULTIVARS: IN MANNITOL PLUS CULTURE SOLUTION

A. K. K. Achakzai and Z. A. Bazai

Department of Botany, University of Balochistan, Quetta, Pakistan.Email: profakk@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

A Laboratory experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of four level of water potential (?) viz., 0.00; -4.09; -8.18 and -12.28 bars on the seedling growth of six cultivar of maize (Zea mays L.). Mannitol was used as an osmoticum alongwith half strength Hoagland culture solution. Results depicted that in response to different levels of water stress all mentioned entries of seedling growth (except root dry weight) as well as different cultivars of maize in general responded significantly (P<0.05). Results also depicted that as water stress level increased, seedling growth decreased. Generally a maximum reduction in root length (4.75 cm plant-1), shoot length (5.46 cm plant-1), root moist weight (224.3 mg plant-1), shoot moist weight (354.5 mg plant-1) and shoot dry weight (234.8 mg plant-1) are recorded in highest water stress level (viz., -12.28 bars). Results further deciphered that based on cumulative drought tolerance index; maize cv. Yousafwala E.V. 1081 could be rated as drought tolerant and cv. Synthetic-551 as drought sensitive. While remaining cultivars viz., Agaithi-72, Composite-15, Azam and Ehsan could be rated as drought intermediate in response, respectively. Results also showed there is a total of 72.71% improvement in seedling growth when compared with the results of the same study using no Hoagland culture media. Present study also changed the drought tolerance arrangement of maize cultivars.

GROWTH OF CENCHRUS PENNISETIFORMIS HOCHST. & STEUD. UNDER AMENDED SEAWATER IRRIGATION IN POT CULTURE EXPERIMENT

D. Khan1 and R. Ahmad2

1 Department of Botany, Govt. National College, Karachi.- 74800, Pakistan.
2 Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

Growth of Cenchrus pennisetiformis Hochst. & Sterud. was investigated under 10-30% amended seawater (ECiw: 4.5-14.0 dS.m -1) irrigation in pot culture experiment. The data for monthly harvested phytomass around an year indicated extreme reduction of growth during dry and winter months. The salinity and seasonality interacted significantly. The cumulative forage biomass harvested per annum under 30% amended seawater (14.0 dS.m-1) irrigation was 281.4 ± 22.3 g.pot -1 ( FW ) as compared to 1025.2 ± 15.9 g.pot -1 (FW) in control (1.2 dS.m-1). Fifty per cent reduction in total harvested biomass corresponded with irrigation medium of ECiw : 7.04 dS.m-1. and SAR: 6.29. TL50 values for monthly harvests varied widely with season and were lowest for the month of May (TL50 ECiw : 3. 24 dS.m-1 , TL50 SAR: 3.51). The reduction in total forage production in 10 and 20 % seawater was c. 38.5 and c. 63.2% of the control, respectively. The plant showed flowering throughout the year.


EVALUATION OF EXOTIC GRASSES IN THE MESIC CLIMATE OF POTHWAR PLATEAU, PAKISTAN

Javed Afzal1, Muhammad Arshad Ullah1, Maqsood Anwar1 and Irshad Begum2

1Rangeland Research Program, INRES, NARC, Islamabad-45500, Pakistan
2Pulses Program, Crop Sciences Institute, NARC, Islamabad-45500, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

Continuous heavy grazing has reduced drastically the biomass productivity of rangelands in Pakistan. Therefore, to improve grazing potential of the rangelands, 10 promising exotic grass species along with an indigenous benchmark, Blue Panic Grass (Panicum antidotale) were tested in the Rainfed conditions of National Agricultural Research Center (NARC), Islamabad for biomass production comparison. Data on plant height, number of tillers, aboveground fresh and dry matter (DM) production were collected. Hybrid Bajra/Mott grass (Pennisetum purpureum var. Mott.), Green Panic (Panicum maximum var. Gatton), and Elephant/Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum var. elephant) gave significantly greater aboveground dry matter than that of indigenous benchmark (P<0.0I). Among these grasses, only Green Panic could be grown through seeding, whereas the other two grass species are grown through cutting or slip planting. Since cutting or slip planting is highly labor intensive, Green Panic is recommended for range seeding in the mesic areas of Pothowar plateau. However, establishment of on-farm forage reserves of Mott and Elephant grass through cutting/slip planting on the marginal lands of high rainfall areas of Pothwar could provide not only additional forage to the livestock for emergency use but will also help reduce grazing pressure on the overstocked rangelands of the Plateau.


AN EVALUATION STUDY OF IMPACT OF FUEL EFFICIENT STOVE ON JUNIPER (Juniperus excelsa) TRACT, BALOCHISTAN

M. Y. Musakhel, Abdul Jabbar2, R. B. Tareenl and Z. A. Bazail

lDepartment of Botany, University of Balochistan, Quetta, Pakistan.
2Balochistan Forest and Wildlife Department, Quetta, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

In the current evaluation study the impact assessment of Fuel Efficient Stove (FES) on the Juniper forest of Balochistan was investigated during the year 2003- 2004. Fuel-efficient stove technology was introduced in the area during 1999-2000 with an aim to conserve the national heritage (Juniper trees) from fire ash. Assessments were carried out with the forest users based on indicators identified by them. Substantial efficiency in fuel wood consumption decreased in all communities. The general findings revealed intra and inter diverse impacts are of FES user communities, but have been generally positive, in term of improved level and security of the forest and social life. Fuel efficient stove retaining better and smoke free heat and workload of fuel wood collection reduced its burden on women of these communities, the general health and hygienic conditions improved. Nevertheless, impacts to date are below their potential level and the needs of rural households require more investigation to determine what further opportunities exist and how policy could be prepared for conservation and sustainable use of natural resources.

ESSENTIAL OIL COMPOSITION OF DRACOCEPHALUM MOLDAVICA L. FROM IRAN

Katayoun Morteza-Semnani1*, Mohammad Akbarzadeh2 and Kamran Moshiri1

1Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences
Sari, Iran
2Research Center of Natural Resources of Mazandaran, Sari, Iran

ABSTRACT

The essential oil of Dracocephalum moldavica L. (Labiatae) collected from the suburb of Sari, North of Iran, was isolated by hydrodistillation and analyzed by means of GC and GC/MS. Ninety components were identified in the this oil. The major constituents of the essential oil were limonene (19.8%), ?-pinene (14.4%), methyl geranate (8.5%), geranyl acetate (7.9%), carvacrol (7.8%) and geranial (5.4%). The essential oil of D. moldavica is rich in monoterpenoids.

GERMINATION ECOLOGY OF SOME NEW HYBRIDS OF CORN AND SUNFLOWER

Muhammad Kashif 1, Muhammad Abdullah2 and Arshad Javaid1

1Department of Mycology and Plant Pathology, University of the Punjab, Quaid-e-Azam Campus Lahore, Pakistan
2Monsanto Pakistan AgriTech (Pvt) Ltd. Lahore, Pakistan, E-mail: kashpk92@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

Germinations of two new hybrids of each of two crop species namely corn (Zea mays L.) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) was studied. The test hybrid varieties of corn were Opener and 919, and that of sunflower were DK40404 and SF187. In both the test species there was a significant difference in percentage germination between the test varieties. Effect of temperature on germination was also significant for both the varieties of each of the two test crop species. In corn var. Opener germination ranged from 87–90.7% at alternating temperature of 10 and 25 ºC as compared to 91–96 % at constant temperature of 25 ºC while in var. 919 germination ranged from 88–93% at alternating temperature and 93–96 % at constant temperature of 25 ºC. Similarly in sunflower var. DK4040 germination ranged from 85–88% at alternating as compared to 87–92 % at constant temperature and in var. SF187 ranged from 87–90% at alternating and 89–95 % at constant temperature of 25 ºC.

PRELIMINARY OBSERVATIONS ON AUTO- AND RECIPROCAL TOXICITIES IN ACHYRANTHES ASPERA L. AND PERISTROPHE BICALYCULATA (RETZ.) NEES

D. Khan1 and S. Shahid Shaukat2

1Department of Botany, Govt. National College, Karachi-74800, Pakistan.
2Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

Germination and seedling growth of Achyranthes aspera L. and Peristrophe bicalyculata (Retz.) Nees under influence of each other’s aqueous shoot and root extracts or against their own extracts, expressed as single value of inhibition index across the whole range of extract concentrations indicated more Autotoxic sensitivity in P. bicalyculata than A. aspera. P. bicalyculata was more susceptible to A. aspera, which was reciprocally less susceptible to P. bicalyculata. Shoot extract of both species was more toxic than root extract. Furthermore, shoot extract of one species was more toxic to root growth of other species (overall inhibition: 56.2 – 60.6%) than to the shoot growth (overall inhibition: 22.0 – 30.6%). In both cases root extracts didn’t show any deleterious effects on shoot growth of other species, however, root extracts inhibited root growth more or less equally in either case (overall inhibition: 8.7 – 12.8%).

A STUDY ON PREVALANCE OF MULTI-DRUG-RESISTANT GRAM NEGATIVE BACTERIA

Sabahat Saeed, Asma Naim and Perween Tariq

Department of Microbiology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

Antibacterial susceptibility tests against hundred (100) strains, belonging to 11 species of Gram negative bacteria, were carried out by standard disc diffusion method. These comprises Escherichia coli (30 strains), Klebsiella pneumoniae (25), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (15), Salmonella typhi (5), Salmonella paratyphi A (1), Salmonella paratyphi B (1), Proteus mirabilis (10), Proteus vulgaris (2), Shigella dysenteriae (5), Yersinia enterocolitica (1), Enterobacter aerogenes (5). In the present study, out of 100 isolates, 2% isolates were found resistant to streptomycin, 9% to gentamicin, 38% to ampicillin, 7% to neomycin, 20% to kanamycin, 22% to chloromphenicol, and 40% isolates were found resistant to tetracycline. It was observed that multi-drug-resistant strains were more common as compare to single-drug-resistant strains of Gram negative bacteria i.e. 48% strains were found multi-drug-resistant while single-drug-resistance was found in only 22% strains.

FUNGICIDAL CONTROL OF POST HARVEST STEM-END ROTS OF KINNOW MANDARIN AND LEMON CAUSED BY ATERNARIA CITRI ELLIS AND PIERCE

M. B. Ilyas, M.U. Ghazanfar and T. Naveed

Department of Plant Pathology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad,Pakistan

ABSTRACT

In in vitro evaluation Tilt followed by Rubigon was the most effective fungicide in inhibiting the mycelial growth of Aternaria citri, the cause of stem end rot of kinnow mandarin and lemon. Thiabendazole and Antracol were intermediate while Calixin, Polyram combi, Daconil and Calixin M, were the least effective fungicides. Nimrod was ineffective fungicide in inhibiting mycelial growth of the fungus. Daconil, Thiabendazole, Daconil+Rubigon (in combination of 1:1) were the most and equally effective in controlling stem end rot of kinnow mandarin with dip treatment while Tilt dip treatment was the most effective in controlling stem end rot of lemon fruits. Although there was an increased reduction in percent fruit rot with an increase in Tilt concentration, the lower concentrations of Tilt, which were ineffective for kinnow fruits, were quite effective for controlling stem end rot of lemon fruit

IN VITRO CHEMICAL CONTROL OF COLLETOTRICHUM GLEOSPORIOIDES

Arshad Javaid, Naureen Akhtar, Muhammad Akbar and Noor Zaman

Department of Mycology and Plant Pathology, University of the Punjab, Quaid-e-Azam Campus Lahore, Pakistan
E-mail: arshadjpk@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

Colletotrichum gleosporioides Penz. was isolated from the leaves of citrus suffering from anthracnose disease. In vitro efficacy of four fungicides viz. Acrobat MZ, Dithan M-45, Aliette and Ridomil Gold was evaluated against the isolated fungal species in Basal Broth medium. Different doses of the test fungicides viz. recommended (R), 0.50R and 0.25R were employed in the experiment. All the employed doses of the Dithane significantly reduced the biomass of the test fungal species. Similarly 0.5R and 0.25R Ridomil Gold significantly reduced the test fungal biomass. In contrast to that Aliette and Acrobat MZ found ineffective against the test fungal species.

COMBINED EFFECTIVENESS OF FERTILIZERS IN THE CONTROL OF ROOT ROT AND ROOT KNOT DISEASE COMPLEX OF MUNG BEAN AND OKRA

Shahnaz Dawar, Lubna Irshad and M. Javed Zaki

Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

An experiment was carried out to check the efficacy of different nursery fertilizers as separate dosage and also as combined dosage against the root rot fungi viz., Macrophomina phaseolina, Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium spp., and root knot nematode (Meloidogyne javanica) on mung bean and okra. Nursery fertilizers showed a significant increase in the plant growth parameters and significant decrease in the infection caused by root infecting fungi and root knot nematodes. Nursery fertilizer NPK was found best in the combination with all other fertilizers like flourish with frutan, flourish with NPK, flourish with urea, frutan with NPK, frutan with urea and NPK with urea to increase the plant growth as well as in the control of root rot and root knot of mung bean and okra plants. Use of nursery fertilizers is necessary for the plants as a food source through which they showed a better plant growth and control the infection of root rot fungi and root knot nematodes.

STUDY OF HISTOPATHOLOGICAL CHANGES CAUSED BY A TREMATODE PARASITE IN THE STOMACH OF FISH LUTJANUS ARGENTIMACULATUS (FORSK., 1775) OF KARACHI COAST

A.G. Rizwana1, Nasira Khatoon1, F.M. Bilqees2 and Uzma Jaffer1

1Department of Zoology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan
2Department of Zoology, Jinnah University for Women, Karachi-74600, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

Trematode parasite collected from the fish Lutjanus argentimaculatus (Forsk., 1775) of Karachi coast belonging to the genus Erilepturus (Woodcock, 1935) were studied. Histopathologic effects of this trematode on host stomach has been studied and reported here.
Histopathology is the study of tissue damage, causes of tissue damage are of varied nature including protozoan and helminth infections. In Pakistan fish histopathology caused by trematode parasites has not been studied previous. Here an attempt is made to discuss the histopathologic changes in stomach of fish infected with trematode parasites. Several histological sections were prepared and stained by routine procedure with haematoxylin and eosin and mounted permanently in Canada balsam. Photographs of selected portions were prepared in support of the damage caused by the trematode parasites. The histopathologic changes observed during the present studies include changes in submucosal layer and infiltration of cells at the sites of penetration of trematode sucker. Clogging and ulceration of gastric mucosa.



 
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