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Abstract January 2011

Abstract 2011
+ Abstract January 2011

 

ABSTRACTS IJBB VOLUME 8 NO. 1. JANUARY 2011


ALLODISCOCOTYLA PAKISTANENSIS N.SP (MONOGENEA, DIClIDOPHOROIDEA: DISCOCOTYLIDAE) FROM THE FISH CHORINEMUS TOL OF KARACHI COAST, PAKISTAN

Rana Hadi*and Fatima Mujib Bilqees

Department of Zoology, Jinnah University for Women, Karachi, Pakistan
*Corresponding author, E.mail: ranahadi2000@yahoo.co.uk

ABSTRACT

Allodiscocotyla pakistanensis n.sp is described from the gills of the fish Chorinemus tol (Carangidae), from the Karachi coast. The new species is characterized by having bean-shaped genital atrium, 3 pairs of testes. Ovary tubular, posttesticular, uterus spindle-shaped, vagina prominent. Four pairs of clamps, clamps large and without accessory sclerites. Anchors absent.

LECITHOCLADIUM CYBII N.SP. (DIGENEA: HEMIURIDAE LUHE, 1901) FROM THE FISH CYBIUM GUTTATUM OF KARACHI COAST, PAKISTAN

Neelofer Shaukat and Fatima Mujib Bilqees

Department of Zoology, Jinnah university For Women, Karachi-74600, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

A new hemiurid trematode Lecithocladium cybii n.sp. is described from the fish Cybium guttatum (Cybidae) of Karachi coast, Pakistan. This new species is separted from the previously described large number of species of the genus in having a combination of characters such as body long, soma long and wide at the level of ventral sucker, ecsoma shorter and narrower ending into a knob posteriorly.Oral sucker terminal, transversely flattened, pharynx large, elongate, following into prominent oesophagus, the anterior part of which is distinct, sac-like, intestinal bifurcation is much anterior to ventral sucker, ventral sucker smaller than oral sucker, testes 2, close, diagonal, sub-globular in shape, situated almost in the middle of hind body, seminal vesicle elongate, bluntly pointed at both ends, anterior part of which is recurved followed by long, coiled pars prostatica, sinus sac extending from the posterior level of ventral sucker to mid region of pharynx and joining the long, tubular, genital atrium opening at the anterior margin of oral sucker. Ovary post-testicular, situated in posterior fourth quarter of soma, seminal receptacle present, vitellaria consist of seven, long, tubes, radiating ventral to seminal receptacle, all directed posteriorly. Uterine coils extend into middle of ecsoma and anteriorly opening into the base of sinus sac. Eggs numerous. small.Excretory pore terminal.

FOOD AND FEEDING HABITS OF MARINE EDIBLE FISH POMADASYS MACULATUM (BLOCH, 1797) AND DESCRIPTION OF A NEW NEMATODE DUJARDINASCARIS MACULATUM N.SP.

Yasmin Akhtar1 and F.M. Bilqees2

1Department of Botany, Jinnah University for Women 5 C Nazimabad 74600
2Department of Zoology, Jinnah University for Women 5 C Nazimabad 74600
E mail: yasminhameedi1@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

Pomadasys maculatum (Bloch) is a marine fish of economic importance, were collected ( February 2006 to July 2007) from fresh landing of Karachi coast, Pakistan. Seventy five specimens of P. maculatum were subjected for analysis of food and feeding habits showed no significant seasonal variation in food contents. During the analysis of food items, nematodes were also recovered from the stomach which when compared with literature indicates the presence of a new nematode species that cause infection in the intestine. The infection in intestine may be due to the alkaline medium of the intestine. Identification of nematodes was made using conventional techniques and Scaning Electron Microscopy. Nematodes corresponded to a new species of the genus Dujardinascaris (Baylis, 1947). The new species along with some already known nematodes were detected in intestine of 5 fish specimens. Tissue damage by this nematode in intestine was also observed.

GENUS OROSIUS DISTANT (HEMIPTERA: CICADELLIDAE: DELTOCEPHA-LINAE: OPSIINI) FROM PAKISTAN

Imran Khatri1*, M. A. Rustamani1, M. S. Wagan2 and Z. Ahmed3

1Department of Entomology, Sindh Agriculture University, Tando Jam, Pakistan
2Department of Zoology, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan
3Department of Zoology, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Sciences and Technology, Karachi 75300, Pakistan
*Corresponding author

ABSTRACT

Genus Orosius Distant from Pakistan is described with two species O. albicinctus Distant, 1918 and O. aegypticus Ghauri, 1966. The use of incorrect name in the region is also discussed.

REDESCRIPTION OF MYROCHEINE GENUS ERACHTHEUS STÅL 1861 (HEMIPTERA: PENTATOMIDAE: PENTATOMINAE) AND ITS PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIPS

Imtiaz Ahmad1 and Muhammad Zahid2

1Dr. Afzal Hussain Qadri Biological Research Center, University of Karachi, Pakistan.
2Department of Zoology, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Sciences and Technology, Gulshan-e-Iqbal Campus, Karachi, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

The myrocheine stink bug genus Erachtheus Stål is redescribed with reference to a brief description of both the sub genera i. e., E. Erachtheus s. str. and E. Alomaella with their type species or closely related species E. (E.) boris (Dallas) and E. (A.) tibialis (Dallas) with special reference to their general features, metathoracic scent auricle and male and female genitalia and in this light the phylogenetic relationship of Erachtheus is also briefly discussed within its tribe Myrocheini Stål.

A REWIEW OF CAYSTRINE SUBGROUP CAYSTRUS LANGEI BREDDIN (1899) WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE SPECIES DESCRIBED BY LINNAVUORI I.E., C. HIPPONAX, C. NIOKANUS AND C. PSEUDOBRUNNESCENS (HEMIPTERA: PENTATOMIDAE: PENTATOMINAE) FROM ETHIOPIAN AND PALAEARCTIC REGIONS

Muhammad Zahid1 and Imtiaz Ahmad2

1Department of Zoology, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Sciences and Technology, Gulshan-e-Iqbal Campus, Karachi.
2Dr.Afzal Hussain Qadri Biological Research Centre, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

The component species of Caystrus langei Breddin subgroup of Caystrus nigriventris Germar of main group including Linnavuori’s species C. hipponax, C. niokanus and C. pseudobrunnescens and C. langei Breddin are briefly described with special reference to their apomorphic characters and comparative note with keys to each other and their phylogenetic relationships are also briefly discussed. It is also shown that langei is not most closely related to either C. deserticolus Lnnavuori or C. trivalis (Gerstaecker).

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF DIFFERENT PARAMETERS OF CTENOID SCALES IN FIVE SPECIES OF GENUS LUTJANUS (PERCIFORMES: LUTJANIDAE) COLLECTED FROM FISH HARBOR, KARACHI, PAKISTAN

*Zubia Masood and Rehana Yasmeen Farooq

Department of Zoology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.
*email: masoodzubia@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT

Comparative study of ctenoid scales was conducted with reference to the total body length of species belongs to genus Lutjanus of the family Lutjanidae collected from Karachi fish harbor. The main objective of this study was to find out the relationship among the total length of fish and its scales parameters. About 351 samples were collected during survey from Karachi fish harbor, in the years 2007-2008. The total catch samples contained 87 individuals of L.johnii; 87 of L.lutjanus; 80 of L.russellii; 52 of L.malabaricus and 45 of L.fulvus. L.johnii and L.lutjanus were equally abundant, while L.fulvus was less abundant in number. Present work about the detailed structure of fish scales can be helpful in identification of fish up to major groups or species levels.


FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION PATTERN, LENGTH-WEIGHT RELATIONSHIP AND CONDITION FACTOR OF FOUR GOBIID SPECIES OF FAMILY GOBIIDAE (ORDER PERCIFORMES) COLLECTED FROM KORANGI FISH HARBOR, KARACHI, PAKISTAN

*Zubia Masood and Rehana Yasmeen Farooq

Department of Zoology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.
*email: masoodzubia@gmail.com.


ABSTRACT

A study was conducted on the length-weight relationship, condition factor and frequency distribution pattern of 120 fishes representing two genera and four species of family Gobiidae. Fish samples were collected monthly during November 2009 to October 2010 from the landing specimens at Korangi fish harbour of Karachi Coast. In years 2009-2010, the total catch samples (N=120) contained 8.3% Gobius occelatus, 40.8 % of G. biocellatus, 25.0% of G.viridipunctatus and 25.0% of Glossogobius giuris. In the month of December 2009, total catch samples of four species constituted 60.0% and the total catch samples, in the month of April (2010) they constituted 22.86% dominating all other samples collected during other months of these two years. Glossogobius giuris 66.6% was abundant in total catch of year 2009. While Gobius biocellatus constituted 40.8% total catch, was dominant in catch of both years and Gobius occelatus constituted 8.3% of total catch was very rare. The regression coefficient (b) value of 3.45 and 3.18 for G. biocellatus and Glossogobius giuris slightly higher than 3 revealed that growth is positive allometric. The (b) value of 2.9 for G. viridipunctatus being not much less than ideal value 3.0, showed the isometric pattern of growth. The very high values of r² were obtained between total length and standard length. The values of condition factor (K) for four species were also determined.

PROPAGATION OF CANDIDA UTILIS FOR THE MICROBIAL TRANSFORMATION OF L-TYROSINE TO L-DOPA

Nadia Aslam1*, Arjumand Ahmad2, Farooq Ahmad3 and Dr. Sikandar Ali1

1GC University, Institute of Industrial Biotechnology, Lahore, Pakistan
2PhD Laboratories, Sheikhupura, Pakistan
3GC University, Sustainable Development Study Centre, Lahore, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

L-dopa is an amino acid derivative used for the cure of Parkinson’s disease, a degenerative disoreder of nervous system. The present study is concerned with the propagation of C. utilis NRRL-Y-1084 for L-dopa production from L-tyrosine as a basal substrate. Yeast cells were cultivated under stationary culture for the biochemical transformation of L-tyrosine to L-dopa. As tyrosinase (Catechol oxidase, EC 1.10.3.1) is an intracellular enzyme, pre-grown yeast cells were used as an enzyme source in the reaction mixture. The effect of different cultivation conditions and nutritional requirements such as initial pH, time of incubation, carbon, nitrogen and phosphate sources on the propagation of C. utilis was investigated. Optimal production was observed when cells were cultivated at pH 5.0 for 72 h. with the addition of cellobiose at a level of 2.5%, peptone at 1.0% and KH2PO4 at 0.2%. A 16 h old inoculum was added at a level of 10% (v/v). During the course of study, the maximum L-dopa production of 1.624 mg/ml was accomplished in the reaction broth with a cumulative tyrosinase activity of 174 U/mg of yeast cells. L-tyrosine consumption was found to be 1.965 mg/ml. All the biochemical reactions were performed aerobically at 50ºC for 1 h on a hotplate with magnetic stirrers.

EVALUATION OF NEURON SPECIFIC ENOLASE (NSE) LEVELS IN CHILDREN WITH BACTERIAL AND VIRAL MENINGITIS

Junaid Mahmood Alam1,2, Jawed Altaf Baig2, Amna Hussain1, Syed Riaz Mahmood3, Ishrat Sultana1 and Maqsood Ali Ansari4

1Department of Biochemistry Laboratory services, and 2Department of Biochemistry, Liaquat National Hospital and Medical College, Karachi-74800, 3Department of Pathology, Govt Lyari General Hospital, Karachi, 4Department of Genetics, University of Karachi-75270.

ABSTRACT

The assessment of neuronal markers such as neuron specific enolase (NSE), which enables the diagnosis of meningitis infections and its severity as well as possible development of sub-clinical lesions, could be beneficial and clinically useful. The present study describes the determination of NSE level in the CSF of infants and children after meningitis of both bacterial and viral origins. Fifty eight (58) eligible children between the ages of 1 day and 3 years were selected depending upon history and clinical picture. Infants were divided into gram +ve, gram –ve and viral meningitis groups. CSF and blood samples were collected from all selected patients as part of their routine evaluation for bacterial sepsis and Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was analyzed for cell count, protein, and glucose concentrations, NSE and cultures for bacteria and viruses as per standard procedures. Results showed marked elevation in NSE concentrations of CSF in all meningitis groups irrespective of either viral or bacterial origin when compared with control group of non-infected patients (NSE = 1.69 ± 0.91 ng/ml). However, mild to moderate level of elevation was also observed within the meningitis group of viral (NSE = 20.19 ± 2.02 ng/ml) versus Nesseria meningitis group (NSE = 50.50 ± 8.96 ng/ml); viral versus Escherichia coli (NSE = 35.80 ±6.10 ng/ml) and viral versus Streptococcus pyogens group (NSE = 23.75 ± 6.20 ng/ml). The result of NSE being significantly elevated in meningitis patients from all etiological groups supported the hypothesis that meningitis infections and infiltration cause neuronal and neuro-physiological alterations and damages thus causing increase in NSE concentrations.

DIAGNOSTIC IMPORTANCE OF TUMOR MARKERS, NEURON SPECIFIC ENOLASE (NSE), CARCINO-EMBRYONIC ANTIGEN (CEA) AND CANCER ANTIGEN 15-3 (CA 15-3), IN SERUM AND PLEURAL EFFUSIONS OF PATIENTS WITH MALIGNANT PULMONARY DISEASES

1*Junaid Mahmood Alam, 2Syed Raiz Mahmood, 1Amna Hussain, 1Rabia Shaheen, 3Ishrat Irfan Ali, 4Muhammad Atif, 1Ishrat Sultana and 5Maqsood Ali Ansari.

1Department of Biochemistry and Laboratory services, *Liaquat National Hospital and Medical College, Liaquat National Hospital, Karachi 74800.
2Department of Pathology, Government Lyari General Hospital, Karachi.
3School of Diagnostic Lab Sciences, Liaquat National Hospital, Karachi-74800.
4Pathology Laboratory, Zubaida Medical Center-Karachi.
5Department of Genetics, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

The tumor markers such as Neuron Specific Enolase (NSE), carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA), cytokeratin fragment 21-1 (CYFRA 21-1), cancer antigen 15-3 (CA 15-3) and Tissue Polypeptide Specific antigen (TPS) are considered diagnostically useful in the assessment of lung cancer with different sensitivities and specificities in variable settings. In this regard, the present study describes the results of determination of the tumor markers NSE, CA 15-3 and CEA in blood and pleural fluid of patients with pleural effusions, and to evaluate their usefulness as a non-invasive method for differentiating between benign and malignant conditions. Sixty nine (n = 69) patients during the period, February 2006 to March 2009, were included in the study. Thirty eight (n = 38) out of 69 patients were grouped as malignant cases, sub-classified as NSCLC, SCLC, Breast cancer etc, where as n = 31 were found to have benign lung disease (tuberculosis). All 31 patients with tuberculosis pleurisy were classified as patients with benign condition and used as comparative group. Blood and pleural fluid samples were analyzed for NSE, CA 15-3, and CEA using electrochemiluminescence (ECL) technology on automated immunoassay analyzer according to manufacturer’s advice. Comparative study was performed individually for each malignant condition such as SCLC, NSCLC, breast carcinoma, and others (such as lymphoma and mesothelioma). In pleural fluid, NSE levels were noted to be significantly raised (P< 0.001) when compared with CEA and moderately raised (P< 0.01) when compared with CA 15-3 in SCLC group of patients. However, in NSCLC group, elevation pattern of NSE was moderately significant (P< 0.01) when compared with CEA and non-significant when compared with CA 15-3. Furthermore, levels of NSE observed to be low or in same range when compared with CA 15-3 and CEA in breast cancer and other malignant conditions. CA 15-3 was found to be significantly elevated in NSCLC with moderate capacity (P <0.01), with strong capacity in breast (P< 0.0001) and with mild capacity in other malignant conditions (P<0.05) when compared with both NSE and CEA. Similar pattern of elevation and moderate significance was noted in serum levels of NSE, CA 15-3 and CEA in SCLC, NSCLC and breast malignancy patients.
In conclusion NSE seems to be the most significant marker in pleural fluid for SCLC patients since it exhibited three fold elevations in its levels when compared with serum levels in same group of patients, followed by its moderate significance for NSCLC patients. CA 15-3, on the other hand, was found to be highly significant marker for breast cancer and moderately significant marker for NSCLC and other malignant conditions.

PREVALENCE OF HEPATITIS B VIRUS AMONG APPARENTLY HEALTHY BLOOD DONORS AND AMONG PATIENTS OF MOLECULAR BIOLOGY LABORATORY OF KIRAN HOSPITAL, KARACHI

Muhammad Hanif1, Parveen Zaidi1, Laeeq Ahmed2 and Nazia Ahmed1

1PCR and Molecular Biology Lab, Karachi Institute of Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine, Karachi, Pakistan
2Liaqat National Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

Hepatitis B virus affects millions of people worldwide and can lead to serious diseases as liver cirrhoses and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).The local prevalence of HBV infection among healthy population has not been well studied. The aim of the present study was to determine the seroprevalence of HBV and HBV DNA by PCR among apparently healthy blood donors and among patients of a molecular diagnostic laboratory in Karachi.
Serological test for Hbs-Ag were carried out by ICT (immunochromatography) rapid screening test and further by ONE STEP HBV COMBO 5 TEST CARD (Chemtrue, USA) as per supplier’s instructions and molecular tests for HBV DNA were performed by nested PCR.
The prevalence of HBV infection determined by HBs-Ag reactivity and HBV DNA tests by nested PCR in apparently healthy blood donors of Karachi was found to be 2.39%. Among 124 samples of KIRAN PCR and molecular biology laboratory 45 (36.3%) were found HBV positive in which forty samples were HBs-Ag positive and 5 were negative. All 45 samples were positive by HBV DNA test by nested PCR.

GROWTH-AND-OBESITY PROFILES OF CHILDREN OF KARACHI USING BOX-INTERPOLATION METHOD

Syed Arif Kamal1, Nida Jamil2 and Shahid Ali Khan3

1Mathematical Biology Group, Department of Mathematics, University of Karachi, Karachi 75270, Pakistan;
e-mail: kamal(at the rate of)ngds-ku.org
2Department of Mathematics, Jinnah University for Women, Karachi, Pakistan
3 Department of Physical Education, the City School, Darakhshan Campus, Karachi, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

This paper introduces quantifiable growth-and-obesity profiles of children in family-centered care. This work presents a model based on the mathematical-statistical technique of ‘box interpolation’, which generates patient- and parent-friendly profiles based on one set of height and weight measurements of parents and children. Target (mid-parental) heights and optimal weights were compared with measured heights and weights to determine if the children were obese (wasted) and tall (stunted), associating a numerical index with each condition, in the form of percentage. This model, also, estimated adult-heights and weights of children and indicated whether parents were obese (wasted). Data were collected by authors, following standard protocols developed by our team, as part of the NGDS (National Growth and Developmental Standards) Pilot Project. This project was approved by Institutional Review Board. Informed consents were obtained from parents of participating families. Each child was weighed and measured, in the presence of father and mother, barefoot, wearing short underpants, stripped to waist. Data from 70 participants of different localities of Karachi (17 families, consisting of 17 fathers, 17 mothers, 16 boys, 20 girls) were analyzed. Boys showed a greater risk of obesity (46.15%) as compared to girls (17.65%), when both parents were obese (15 families). Excessive obesity (wasting), failure-to-grow, short children developing normally, and failure-to-thrive, children neither growing nor developing normally, may be the cause of an underlying physical or psychological problem needing a head-to-toe evaluation. The method reported in this paper may be helpful in identifying such cases in children 3-10-year old, if regular height and weight screenings are conducted.

ALLELOPATHIC EFFECT OF BRASSICA AND BARLEY EXTRACTS ON WEED SUPPRESSION AND GRAIN YIELD OF WHEAT

Yasir Habib1, *Muhammad Saleem2, Syed Haider Abbas3, Maqsood Qamar4 and A. Wahab Khan2

1Department of Agronomy, Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan.
2 Rice-Wheat Programme, National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad, Pakistan
3WRRI, National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad, Pakistan
4Wheat Programme. National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad, Pakistan
*Corresponding author: drsaleemyousaf@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

The objective was to evaluate the allelopathic upshot of brassica and barley herbage water extracts on weed suppression and grain yield of wheat. The experiment was conducted during 2007-2008 at Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi using Randomized Complete Block design. The treatments were; ¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬ control/un-weed check (T0), hand weeding at 30 and 60 DAS (Days after sowing) (T1), brassica herbage water extract @12 L ha-1¬¬¬ at 30 DAS (T2), brassica herbage water extract @12 L ha-1¬¬¬ at 30 and 60 DAS (T3), barley herbage water extract @12 L ha¬¬¬-1 at 30 DAS (T4), barley herbage water extract @ 12L ha¬¬¬-1 at 30 and 60 DAS (T5), brassica + barley herbage water extract @ 6+6 L ha-1¬¬¬ at 30 DAS (T6), brassica + barley herbage water extract @ 6+6 L ha-1¬¬¬ at 30 and 60 DAS (T7). Brassica and barley extracts in mixture exhibited significant inhibitory alleopathic effects by suppressing the weeds. Weed density was reduced significantly in T7 by 20.44% and 21.45% over control when data was recorded at 65 and 95 DAS, respectively. The maximum increase in grain yield was 17% over control caused by hand weeding. After hand weeding, 9.63% grain yield increase was recorded in T5. Treatment T6 caused 8.92% wheat yield increase which was followed by T7 that enhanced grain yield by 8.5% over un-weed check.

EFFECTS OF EUCALYPTUS CAMALDULENSIS DEHNH. AQUEOUS LEAF LITTER EXTRACT ON THE GROWTH OF GREEN GRAM (VIGNA RADIATA (L.) WILCZEK)

Saima Ibrahim

Department of Botany, Jinnah University for Women. Karachi, Pakistan, Sept. 2010

ABSTRACT

The allelopathic effects of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. and its control by farmyard manure was subjected by the application of different concentration of aqueous leachate of leaf litter and with the combined effects of E.camaldulensis litter leachate and farmyard manure through different dilutions. The experiment was carried on by the examined seed germination, seedling growth of green gram (Vigna radiata) (L.) Wilczek growing in plate culture. Different concentrations of aqueous leachate of Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) litter affect differently along with different concentrations of farmyard manure (FYM). The investigations showed that E.camaldulensis leaf litter extract (leachate) had inhibitory effects on the growth of different parameters of vigna radiata. It was also observed that the combined effects of litter and farmyard manure markedly reduced the inhibitory effects of leachate and thus increased the growth of gram. The results suggested that if Vigna radiata L. is to be cultivated in an agricultural land surrounded by E. camaldulensis trees, its growth rate may be enhanced by the application of FYM. In the absence of FYM, Vigna growth is significantly arrested due to allelopathic effect of E. camaldulensis leaf litter.

BIOCONTROL AND ALLELOPATHIC EFFECTS OF EUCALYPTUS CAMALDULENSIS DEHNH. LEAF LITTER ON THE GROWTH OF GREEN GRAM (VIGNA RADIATA L.) WITH FARMYARD MANURE

Saima Ibrahim

Department of Botany, Jinnah University for Women, 5 C Nazimabad, Karachi, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

The influence of Farm Yard Manure (FYM) was studied by examining seedling growth and some important physiological and biological aspects in green gram (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek), against Eucalyptus camadulensis Dehnh. leaflitter. FYM was applied as soil amendment to check their effects alone or in combination with litter on green gram growth. The soil amendment with E. camaldulensis leaflitter @1%(w/w) and 5%(w/w) along with FYM significantly reduced the inhibitory effects of E.camaldulensis leaf litter treatments and increased germination, shoot and root length, shoot fresh and dry weight, root fresh and dry weight of Vigna radiata L, while only leaf litter treatment showed suppression in above growth parameters. Both concentrations of leaf litter (1%w/w and 5%w/w) considerably decreased chlorophyll and protein content. The inhibitory effect of leaf litter at high concentration on total protein and soluble carbohydrate was significantly controlled by FYM amendment. Free proline and nitrate reductase activity increased with increasing litter concentration. The treatment of Eucalyptus leaf litter extract also enhanced the accumulation of phosphorus in green gram.

OPTIMIZATION OF NITROGENOUS FERTILIZER REQUIREMENT IN COTTON CROP TO ENHANCE THE SEED YIELD BY USING CHLOROPHYLL METER

Muhammad Naeem Akhtar1, Shabab Ud-Din2, Ghulam Abbas3, Saghir Ahmad4, Ijaz Ahmad5 and Mehvish Shabab6.

1Pesticide Quality Control Lab. Multan,Pakistan.
2Central Cotton Research Institute, Multan, Pakistan.
3Department of PBG, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan.
4Cotton Research Station, Multan, Pakistan.
5Soil Chemistry Section, Ayub Agriculture Research Institute, Faisalabad, Pakistan.
6Department of Chemistry, Bahauddin Zakria University, Multan, Pakistan.
Corresponding author: naeem_786ccri@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

Field experiments were conducted to investigate the use of portable chlorophyll meter to improve nitrogen management during the growth period of cotton at Central Cotton Research Institute, Multan. The treatments consisted of six nitrogen levels i.e. 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 kg ha-1, arranged in RCB design with four replications, applied at planting, first flowering and peak flowering phases. Cotton cultivar CIM-534 was planted during second week of May at spacing 75 cm between rows and 30 cm between plants. Results indicated that applied nitrogen fertilizer showed highly significant relationship with chlorophyll meter readings. The SPAD values increased from 52.2 to 64.2 as nitrogen fertilizer was increased from 0 to 250 kg ha-1. Results showed that seed cotton yield and its components differed significantly due to the application of different levels of nitrogen fertilizer with a range from 1731 to 2521 kgha-1 in various treatments. Main stem height, number of nodes on main stem and inter-nodal length increased significantly with the increasing dose of nitrogen fertilizer. The values of main stem height ranged from 79.5 to 119.7 cm and the nodes on main stem ranged from 23 to 31. The relationships between seed cotton yield and nitrogen doses showed that seed cotton yield increased with the increasing levels of nitrogen fertilizer. Regression analysis exhibited highly significant relationship of nitrogen doses with seed cotton yield and SPAD values. Chlorophyll meter is being used in different parts of the world to measure the chlorophyll contents (SPAD value) of leaves for N management during the cropping season. Keeping the above facts in view, there is a need to quantify chlorophyll meter readings for matching N levels during the cotton growing season.

EFFECT OF BORON AND GIBBERELLIC ACID ON GROWTH AND FRUIT YIELD OF OLIVE CV. “USLU”

Mukhtar Ahmad, Muhammad Ali Khan, Hafeez-Ur-Rahman, Niaz Ahmad, Sudheer Tariq and Aasia Ramzan

Fruit Crops Research Program, Horticultural Research Institute, NARC, Islamabad
Corresponding Author E-mail: mukhtarhri@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

A field research was under taken to evaluate the efficiency of Boron (B) and Gibberellic Acid (GA3) on fruit setting phenomenon in Olive cultivar “Uslu” in Olive fruit orchard at NARC, HRI during 2009. The Olive plants were sprayed with 4 levels of (B) (@ 0, 0.3, 0.06 & 0.09 %) and (GA3) was also sprayed in 4 levels (0.20ppm, 25ppm and 30ppm) after flower opening. The results showed that the maximum flowering (No.2557) with the application of (B) treatment @ 0.03%, while GA3 showed maximum flowering (No. 2222) with 30ppm treatment. Maximum fruit setting (34) was recorded with (B) spray @ 0.06% and maximum fruit setting (21) was observed with GA3 treatment @ 20ppm. Maximum number of fruits, fruit size and fruit weight was observed with 30ppm (25.00, 3.787cm and 3.650 kg) and maximum number of fruits, fruit size and fruit weight was observed with (B) treatment @ 0.09% (No. 63.50, 1.712 and 3.562 kg) on the basis of above results it may be concluded that (B) @ 0.09% and GA3 @ 30ppm treatment was optimum for improvement in number of flowers & fruits, fruit size and fruit weight in Olive cv “Uslu”

RESISTANCE PATTERN IN COMMUNITY ACQUIRED URINARY PATHOGENS AGAINST SULFISOXAZOLE AND TRIMETHOPRIM-SULFAMETHOXAZOL

Sabahat Saeed1 and Perween Tariq2

1Department of Microbiology, Jinnah University for Women, Karachi, Pakistan.
2Department of Microbiology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

In the present study, antibiotic resistance patterns for two commonly used sulfonamides antibiotics; sufisoxazole and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SXT); were determined in order to evaluate the emergence of antibiotic resistance among uropathogens. Escherichia coli displayed lower resistance rates against sulfisoxazole (3.3%) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SXT) (2.6%). Only 2% isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. In case of Gram positive bacteria 4.4% (3/68) isolates of Staphylococcus saprophyticus were resistant to sulfisoxazole and 1.5% (1/68) isolates of S. saprophyticus were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole.

COMPERATIVE EVALUATION OF LOCAL BT AND NON BT COTTON AGAINST EXOTIC BT VARIETIES FOR COTTON LEAF CURL VIRUS DISEASE

1Inam-ul-Haq, 1Mumtaz Hussain, 2Noor-ul-Islam, and 3S. Sarwar Alam

1Plant pathology Research Institute, Faisalabad
2Ayub Agricultural Research Institute, Faisalabad
3Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology, Faisalabad.

ABSTRACT

Eight Elite advanced Non Bt(NBt) and six local Bt varieties planted at Faisalabad, Multan and Khanewal were evaluated for their response to cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV) disease. SLH-284, BH-167 and GS-1, NBt cotton varieties showed resistance with 5%, 10% and 15% disease incidence respectively, whereas MG-6 and ARS-802 were tolerant with 20% and 25% disease infection. NBt, CRSM-38 and NIAB-777 and Bt hybrid FH-113 had disease range between 40% to 45%. Rest of the test entries were highly susceptible. Twenty four exotic Bt cotton hybrids of Monsanto were noticed with serious CLCuV disease infection ranging between 90-100% at Sahiwal, Khanewal and Vehari and 88% to 100% at Bahawalpur. The yield performance of exotic Bt hybrids was quite low showing stunting of plants with minimum numbers of bolls. Among all these hybrids CM-496 had maximum number of big bolls.
It was obvious that local cotton varieties and Bt hybrid had highly significant edge over exotic hybrids with respect to intensity of disease and yield performance.


EVALUATION OF (DIVERSE) COTTON GENOTYPES FOR REACTION TO COTTON LEAF CURL VIRUS DISEASE AND YIELD PERFORMANCE UNDER DIFFERENT ECOLOGICAL ZONES

Inam-ul-Haq1, Mumtaz Hussain1, Noor-ul-Islam2, S. Sarwar Alam3 and Muhammad Aslam3

1Plant Pathology Research Institute, Faisalabad, Pakistan.
2Ayub Agricultural Research Institute, Faisalabad, Pakistan.
3Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

Thirty five advanced cotton lines including nine hybrids in National Coordinated Varietal Trials (NCVT) and twenty six lines in Provincial Coordinated Cotton Trials (PCCT) were planted in order to test their performance related to Cotton Leaf Curl Virus (CLCuD-B) disease and seed cotton yield. These experiments were laid out in core area (Cotton Research Station, Vehari) and in non core-area (Cotton Research Station, Sahiwal) during May, 2008 as per proposed plan. Twenty six coded varieties in NCVT were found with higher CLCuV disease incidence within 85-100% range and a drastic seed cotton yield variation was noticed in seed cotton yield ranging from 654 Kg/ha to 1903.52 Kg/ha. The variety V22 (NIBGE-II) out yielded the rest entries with maximum seed cotton yield of 1903.52Kg/ha with 87% CLCUV disease infection. It was followed by V13 with 1439.53 Kg/ha seed cotton yield and 100% disease incidence. While nine cotton hybrids in NCHT had 85 to 100% CLCuV disease incidence with yield ranging from 273.63 Kg/ha to 499.69 Kg/ha seed cotton yield. Twenty six advanced lines in PCCT showed severe infection of CLCuV disease up to 79.94% range. The seed cotton yield of these varieties varied from 1435-3588 Kg/ha. Both the coded genotypes V11 and V26 promised the same highest cotton yield as 3588 Kg/ha with 84% and 89% disease incidence respectively.
Results indicated that core area (Vehari) is an ideal hot spot place/site for appraisal of cotton varieties performance under high pressure of CLCuV disease. Hence the cotton varieties with good yield potential even in presence of CLCuV disease can be better exploited in hybridization program for development of superior cotton varieties.

SIZE-PHYTOMASS RELATIONS IN PROSOPIS JULIFLORA (SWARZ.) DC.

D. Khan

Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

Allometric equations were developed to estimate aboveground phytomass of Prosopis juliflora (Swartz.) DC using regression models based on height, crown diameter, basal area of stem, stem diameter etc. These equations predicted phytomass of individual plants or the components of the plant. Dry firewood mass of P. juliflora (loge transformed) was best estimated with a quadratic model based on height, quadratic and power model based on stem diameter and through power models based on basal area and the crown cover of the plant. The multiplicative models were also equally good. Multiple regression model based on linear combination of untransformed independent variables viz. height, Canopy cover, stem diameter and basal area of the plants estimated log-transformed total fresh phytomass of the plant better than the log-transformed dry firewood component.

SEED MASS VARIATION AND ITS EFFECTS ON GERMINATION, SEEDLING GROWTH AND THE ROOT INFECTIVITY WITH MACROPHOMINA PHASEOLINA IN SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.)

Muhammad Anis, D. Khan, M.J. Zaki and M. Qasim Khan

Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi- 74700, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

The seed weight of sunflower (Helianthus annuus (L.) cultivar Aussie gold 61 averaged to 56.56 ± 0.8607 and varied around 21.52%. The seed weight distribution was symmetrical. The seed weight had no influence on germination / emergence but had significant effect on seedling growth. Larger seeds gave rise to larger seedlings. In 30-day old seedlings, shoot and plant length and shoot, root and plant fresh weight related with seed weight through power equations. Root length was, however, found to correlate with seed weight in simple linear fashion. The number of leaves per plant exhibited no correlation with the seed weight but the area of the largest leaf of a seedling related with seed weight in a third degree polynomial (cubic) manner. Practically, there was no substantial difference in areas of the largest leaves in seedlings arising from the seeds of > 60 mg in weight. The seedling’s average growth inequality on composite basis for all growth parameters, sans number of leaves per seedling which remained practically invariant, was more or less of the same order as that of seed size inequality. It is indicated that the seed weight hierarchy was well translated in the seedling weight hierarchy in these seedlings. Seed weight exhibited no bearing on root infection with fungus, Macrophomina phaseolina.


 
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