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Abstract January 2013

Abstract 2013
+ Abstract January 2013

 

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BIOLOGY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY
VOL.10, No.1, JANUARY 2013.

 

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 10 (1): 01-05, 2013.

UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYME INVOLVED IN THE IMMUNE RESPONSE CAUSED BY PATHOGENS INVASION

Chen Cheng, Chunxia Zhang, Qin Yao and Keping Chen

Institute of Life Sciences, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212013, P.R. China

ABSTRACT

Ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (UPP) is a significant way of protein degradation and modification in eukaryotic cell and involved in a complex series of intracellular processes. As a key component in UPP, ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2) plays an extremely important role in ubiquitin (Ub) transferring and substrate specific recognition. More and more researches prove that UPP is involved in cells immune reaction caused by pathogens and the attendance of E2 has a significant effect on host cells and pathogen. This review presents an overview of the current research on E2s that involved in immune response caused by viruses and bacteria.  

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 10 (1): 07-20, 2013.

MONITORING THE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE SELECTED BIRDS SPECIES IN WETLANDS OF SINDH (A FRAMEWORK OF REMOTE SENSING-AND GIS)

Sheeba Afsar, Sumaiya Bano and Jamil Hassan Kazmi

Department of Geography, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan
e-mail: sheebanaeem@hotmail.com

ABSTRACT

Satellite Remote Sensing and GIS techniques are very useful for the study about the Wetlands and the spatial distribution of animal species like avifauna as discussed in this paper. Wetlands are amongst the most productive and dynamic ecosystems and essential part of our landscape. Wetlands provide countless benefits that include rich floral and faunal habitat, improved water quality, flood abatement, water storage and groundwater recharge, support of fisheries, and opportunities for education and recreation. Pakistan, due to its diverse weather and varied land is home to some of the rare and exclusive birds in the world. Its wetlands and lakes attract millions of migratory birds from across the globe. Out of total 19 RAMSAR sites in Pakistan, 10 sites including Hab Dam are located in Sindh. The selected Birds of the study are the common Birds, listed as Least Threatened except the Dalmatian Pelican found in Hub Dam area, listed as Vulnerable by IUCN.

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 10 (1): 21-28, 2013.

CHANGING THE SABKHA SCENARIO FROM DESERTED LAND TO AN EMERGING AGRICULTURE FARM LAND – A CASE STUDY IN QATAR

Osman A. El-Sharief Abdalla1, Riaz A. Wahed2, Ghanim  A. Al Ghanim1, M. Lemine Meffed1 and Nazir Hussain1

1Department of Agriculture and Water Research (DAWR), Ministry of Environment, Post.Box.1967, Doha Qatar.
2Department of Radiation and Chemicals Protection, Ministry of Environment, Post. Box 7634,Doha, Qatar

ABSTRACT

Studies are continued on production of useful biomass production system on highly saline Sabkha lands (EC>100 dS/m) underlain by super brine ground water (EC>110 dS/m) present at 0.80 meter depth at Nuclear Research Station for Bio-saline Agriculture, Dukhan Sabkha Qatar, (165500 North, 409500 East). The soil is light textured and completely exhausted of essential macro/ micro nutrients except sodium chloride and calcium. Using a combination of agronomy, hydrology and soil physics approaches, highly salt-tolerant plants were grown including Acacia ampliceps, Salt Bush (Atriplex lentiformus), Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Prosopis Juliflora, Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.), Kallar grass (Leptochloa fusca), Para grass (Brachiaria mutica) , Kochia indica, and Sesbania acculeata.
Limited surface irrigation with treated sewage water was applied through drip/ bubbler irrigation system for plant establishment phase. Salt tolerant material was planted in April-May, 2009 peak dry summer season (peak open air temperature 54.9o C, minimum RH=15%, maximum Class-A Pan Evaporation = 22.1 mm/day) while harvesting for biomass sampling was completed on July 13, 2009. The plants survived under all exposed stresses of very high soil salinity, high air temperature and very dry and fast winds. The plants showed wide genetic diversity in biomass production potential, fodder value and ionic retention potential. Pomegranate appeared to contain very effective differential selective membrane system from a mass of high flux of salts present in saline soil and treated sewage water. Hence, its gene pool may be of specific interest of researchers for inducing tolerance against specific biotic and abiotic stresses. The study is still continued as part of collaborated IAEA Technical Cooperation Project (Number QAT 5002) for assessing long term survival of plants and soil rehabilitation.

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 10 (1): 29-35, 2013.

QUANTIFICATION OF PHYSICAL TESTING OF LEATHER THROUGH APPLICATION OF  DIFFERENT  RETANNING PRODUCTS

Beena Zehra*,1 , 2, Syed Shahid Shaukat 1   and Omm-e-Hany 1

1Institute of Environmental  Studies, University of Karachi, Karachi 75270,  Pakistan.
2Leather Research Centre, PCSIR, D-102 , South Avenue ,  SITE, Karachi, Pakistan.
(*Corresspondance at :  zehrabeena@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

Two retanning products were prepared by utilizing waste protein of chromium containing solid wastes. One retanning product was prepared by alkaline protein hydrolyzate while  the other was prepared by acidic protein extracted from chromium containing solid wastes (chrome shavings). Whereas two retanning products were commercial and applied in the same dosage in goat skin processing for comparison of results.  The impact of four different leather retanning products was evaluated by analyzing  data from standard physical testing of leather.  ANOVA and Duncan’s multiple range tests were employed to compare the physical testing methods.  Results revealed that retanning product prepared from the recovered  protein was effective as a retanning product.  The results of ANOVA for various parameters such as tensile strength (N/mm2), tear strength (N/mm), etc. were found significant (p at the most 0.05).

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 10 (1): 37-43, 2013.

PHENOL DEGRADATION BY AN INDIGENOUS SOIL PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA AND BACILLUS SUBTILIS

Suraiya Jabeen, M.Altaf Khan, Omm-e- Hany, Moazzam Ali Khan, S.Shahid Shaukat

Institute of Environmental Studies, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

Phenol and phenolic compounds, widely used in industries are of growing concern owing to their high toxicity, and wide distribution in industrial wastes. The present study envisages microbial potential of Psuedomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis isolated from the activated sludge effluent of oil refinery, for the biodegradation of phenol. The individual isolated culture was acclimatized with different phenol concentrations, under ambient temperature in nutrient broth and in mineral medium. Growth kinetics of adapted bacterial culture was investigated.  The study reveals that successive increase in phenol concentration directly increased the generation time. While using mineral salt medium supplemented with phenol, generation time increased compared to growth in nutrient broth. With the passage of time culture became adapted with the higher concentration of phenol. However, once the organisms adapted itself to phenol containing environment, the generation time decreased. This means that to expose the organism directly to higher concentrations of phenol would be lethal rather the culture should be gradually exposed to increasing concentration of phenol. Such adapted cultures have the potential to degrade phenol in relatively short time. Present findings prove that phenol adapted culture would reduce the cost of treatment of phenol containing wastewater. 

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 10 (1): 45-51, 2013.

DIVERSITY OF  PHYLLOPLANE MYCOBIOTA OF AVICENNIA MARINA (FORSSK.) VIERH. AND RHIZOPHORA MUCRONATA POIR. AT INDUS DELTA,  SINDH COAST, PAKISTAN

S. Shahid Shaukat1, Hina Zafar2, Waqar Ahmed1, Moazzam A. Khan1 and Sahar Zaidi2

1Institute of Environmental Studies, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan
2Department of Botany, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, Gulshan-e-Iqbal, Karachi-75300, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

Phylloplane fungal assemblages of two mangrove species Avicennia marina and Rhizophora mucronata were investigated at two sites each. Altogether twenty-three fungal species and 16 genera were recorded. Greater number of species and genera were recorded for Rhizophora mucronata. Among the sites studied, Keti Bunder showed the highest number of fungal species and genera associated with the phylloplane. In general, the phylloplane mycobiota was dominated by the genera Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Alternaria and Fusarium. The genus Aspergillus was represented by six species. Aspergillus niger, A. fumigatus and A. flavus were most abundant.as measured by CFUs/cm2 of phylloplane.
Species diversity and its components for the fungal communities were estimated. It was found that the general diversity (H¢) was slightly but consistently higher for Rhizophora mucronata compared to Avicennia marina. However, equitability (J¢) was more or less equal for the two mangrove species. Regarding sites, equitability was slightly higher for Rehree Island. High qualitative similarities of phylloplane mycobiota were found between species and between sites. The correspondence between  air-spora and  the phylloplane fungal assemblages is discussed.

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 10 (1): 53-59, 2013.

FEEDING  HABITS  OF  HEMIRAMPHUS ARCHIPELAGICUS COLLETTE  AND PARIN, 1978 ( FAMILY:HEMIRAMPHIDAE) FROM  KARACHI  COAST, PAKISTAN

Farzana Yousuf, Sadaf Tabassum  and Saba Rauf

Department of Zoology, University  of  Karachi, Karachi-75270,Pakistan
Corresponding author. Email- sadafali26@yahoo.com
                                                                                                                                  
ABSTRACT
      
Feeding habits of Hemiramphus  archipelagicus (Hemiramphidae), Collette and Parin, 1978 in Karachi coast, Pakistan were studied based on the analysis of stomach contents. Monthly samples were taken from September, 2009 to December, 2009 from Karachi Fish Harbour. Stomach  contents of  333 fishes (male  n = 200 , female n = 133) were examined. Eleven food categories were identified: Polychaeta , Mollusca,  Bivalvia,  Crustacea,  Amphipoda, Brachyura, Cirripedia,  Pisces ,  Unidentified  animal  materials , Unidentified  plant materials  and Unidentified materials. The results showed that H. archipelagicus is an omnivorous predator and its diet depends upon the availability of local prey species, especially in intertidal areas. The proportions of food items in the diet composition of the H. archipelagicus  in   the  category of 145-185 mm  and  195-235  mm  length  were  to be found  roughly  equal. 

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 10 (1): 61-66, 2013.

MANAGEMENT OF ROOT KNOT NEMATODE WITH MARIGOLD (TAGETES ERECTA L.) AND ANTAGONISTIC FUNGUS (PAECILOMYCES LILACINUS(THOM) SAMSON) IN TOMATO CROP

Nasira Parveen*, Tariq Mukhtar, M. Fahim Abbas and C. Abdul Rauf

Department of Plant Pathology, Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi, Pakistan.
*Corresponding author: nasirap20@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

In Pakistan, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) has achieved second position among the most important vegetable crops and Root Knot Nematode (Meloidogyne javanica) caused economic losses in tomato production. Different quantity of marigold (Tagetes erecta L.) leaves along with different concentration of antagonistic fungus (Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom) Samson) were used to control Root Knot Nematode on tomato plants in a glasshouse experiment. Significant increase in fresh and dry weight of root and shoot along with plant height was recorded with maximum quantity of marigold (10g/kg) and antagonistic fungus (10Í103) while there was no significant increase in any parameter at low quantity (2, 4 and 6g/kg) and concentration (4Í103 and 4Í103). Maximum increase and decrease in number of galls, eggs masses, soil and root population, eggs per eggs mass and total population of nematode was recorded in the absence and presence of marigold and antagonistic fungus respectively. All parameters of host along with pathogen were statistically similar at intermediate doze of fungus and marigold. 

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 10 (1): 67-71, 2013.

EFFECTS OF THE SUBSTITUTION OF INULIN FOR FAT ON TEXTURAL CHARACTERISTICS AND SENSORY EVALUATION OF REDUCED-FAT WHEYLESS CREAM CHEESE

Khadijeh Poursharif 1 , Vajiheh Fadaei 2 and Mohammad Daneshi3

1M.Sc student  of Food Science & Technology, Shahr-e-Qods branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
2Department of Food Science & Technology, Shahr-e-Qods branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
3Department of R & D, Tehran Pegah Dairy Co. Tehran, Iran

ABSTRACT

Demand for health oriented products such as low calorie and high fiber foods is increasing. One such recent trend is to decrease fat content in food products to overcome health problems such as obesity, coronary health diseases and diabetes, among others. However, such products must have been favorite texture features. Fat content modification results in flavor and textural variants, which are important factors for consumer perception and market success. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of addition of inulin to cheese-making milk, at  8% (treatment CI,8), 10% (treatment CI,10) and 12% (treatment CI,12) (w/w), on the textural and sensory properties of a wheyless cream cheese in which about 60% the typical fat content was replaced by inulin. Results highlighted that hardness, gumminess and chewiness significantly increased (p<0.05) as inulin levels increased. However, no significant differences were observed in the stringiness and cohesiveness values of cream cheeses. In sensory evaluation tests, the color was not affected by inulin content. Treatments (8 and 10%) achieved to required scores in taste parameter. Taste, aroma, texture and overall acceptability scores in the cream cheese sample containing 10% inulin were significantly higher (p<0.05) than other treatments. The results showed that it is possible to make a wheyless cream cheese with lower fat content and desirable sensory and textural attributes using inulin (10%w/w) as fat replacer.

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 10 (1): 73-77, 2013.

SALIVARY FLOW RATE AND ELECTROLYTES IN YOUNG MALE SAUDIS

Osama Abdulrahman M. Shaikh-Omar

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Ministry of Higher Education, Saudi Arabia
E-mail: oashaikhomar@uqu.edu.sa

ABSTRACT

The saliva comprises health benefits and its output, composition and flow rate are helpful in understanding the clinical disorders. In the present study, the salivary flow rate (SFR) and electrolyte estimation in unstimulated saliva (USS) and stimulated saliva (SS) were carried out in young male Saudis (n: 124) (Makkah, KSA) showing presence of oral dryness (ODP; n:48; 38.71 %) and absence of oral dryness (ODA; n:76; 61.29 %). The results showed significant variations for SFR in USS (p= 0.0187) and SS (p=0.0462). The salivary sodium, potassium and calcium were determined. However, except calcium levels both in USS (p=0.0155) and SS (p=0.0049), no any significant change in other electrolytes could be found. In view of the significant alterations in SFR and salivary calcium levels in USS and SS in ODP and ODA, it is suggested to the clinicians to pay much attention on the diagnostic value of salivary flow rate and composition.

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 10 (1): 79-82, 2013.

CHANGES IN THE ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES ACTIVITY OF WAEAT SEEDLINGS UNDER ABSCISIC ACID (ABA) AND WATER STRESS

Nadia Khan

Department of Genetics, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan
Email: nadiakhan@uok.edu.pk

ABSTRACT

The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA), as a stress signal, plays important roles in the regulation of plant responses to water stress. Increasing evidence indicates that ABA-enhanced water stress tolerance is related to the induction of antioxidant defense systems by ABA. Current research was conducted to compare the effect of ABA and water stress on wheat seedlings of two genotypes (‘Sarsabz’ and ‘Inqilab-91’). Seeds were allowed to grow under normal irrigation for 7 days. Water Stress was imposed by withholding water for a period of one week and also ABA induction was given for the same period of time. Seedlings were collected from stress and non-stress condition and antioxidant enzymes were estimated. Water stress resulted in a significant enhancement in the activity of peroxidase and reduced levels of catalase compared to ABA treated seedlings in ‘Sarsabz’. Furthermore, ‘Inqilab-91’ showed reversed results and highest reduction was noticed of both the enzymes as compared to control and ABA treated seedlings. These results indicated that the antioxidant activities in two wheat genotypes were greatly affected at water stress. In conclusion, ‘Sarsabz’ reflected more tolerance with respect to antioxidant activities under ABA and water stress condition as compared to ‘Inqilab-91’.

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 10 (1): 83-90, 2013.

A LIST OF DRAGONFLIES (ANISOPTERA: ODONATA) WITH NEW RECORDS FROM PAKISTAN

Muhammad Asif Iqbal1, Syed Anser Rizvi1, Zubair Ahmed2 and Muhammad Atique Akhter1.

1Department of Zoology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.  
2Department of Zoology, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, Karachi, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT
           
The study is based upon dragonflies collected from different localities of Sindh Province, Pakistan, between 2006-2010. In this work, sixteen species, belonging to the eleven genera representing three families and two subfamilies are listed, including nine newly recorded species from Pakistan. Key to the families, genera of subfamily Libellulinae and species of the genus Anax Leach of Sindh, Pakistan also provided.

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 10 (1): 91-99, 2013.

ETHNOBOTANICAL STUDIES ON PLANTS OF DISTRICT HUNZA-NAGAR (GILGIT-BALTISTAN), PAKISTAN

Sujjad Hyder, Surayya Khatoon and M. Imran

Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270. Pakistan.
E-mail: sajjadbotanist@yahoo.com; sajjadbotanist@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

Ethnobotanical studies were conducted in the Hunza-Nagar district of Gilgit-Baltistan (Northern Pakistan) about the uses of plants by the local people. Information was gathered by interviewing people in different villages. People used different plant species for various purposes; however the most common uses were for medicinal purposes. The present work documents ethnobotanical information for 106 plant species including both wild and cultivated ones, belonging to 92 genera and 46 families. Habit-wise, 27 were trees, 13 shrubs, and 63 were herbs. The common names are provided for the first time in the locally spoken language “Burushiski”. A common name is the key to the treasure of ethnobotanical information; as this is the name by which the local people recognize the plant species concerned. Ethnobotanical knowledge was noticed to be fading away with the modernization of society. There is an urgent need to document all the information which is available at present.  

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 10 (1): 101-108, 2013.

PATHOGENICITY OF SOME IMPORTANT ROOT ROT FUNGI TO THE CHILLI CROP AND THEIR BIOLOGICAL CONTROL

Faisal Hussain1*, S. Shahid Shaukat2, Muhammad Abid1, Farzana Usman1 and Muhammad Akbar1

1Dr. A.G. Aerobiology and Plant Pathology Lab., Department of Botany, Federal Urdu University of Art, Science & Technology, Gulshan e Iqbal Campus Karachi, Pakistan.
2Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Karachi, Pakistan
*Correspondence author E-mail: faisal.botanist2011@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

A number of soil borne fungi are reported to cause diseases in chilli crop in Pakistan and induce heavy annual losses. During our survey conducted during July 2010 to August 2012 it was observed that in the chilli plants of lower areas of Sindh Province including Kunri, Kot Ghulam Muhammad, Mirpurkhas, Hyderabad, Tando Allahayar, Samaro, Umerkot and Digri show pathogenicity  symptoms including wilting, stunted growth, chlorosis and blotch.  Diseased plant specimens were collected and brought to laboratory. The soil borne fungi Rhizoctonia solani, Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium oxysporum, F. solani and Pythium sp. were isolated from specimens collected from these areas.  Pathogenicity tests were carried out under greenhouse conditions using isolated fungi on chilli and colonization, and infection percentages were determined. During this study, Pythium sp., and R. solani severely affected plants compared to other fungi tested for their pathogenicity such as F. oxysporum, F. solani and M. phaseolina. In biological control, four antagonistic fungi Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, Penicillium commune and Trichoderma harzianum were used against the above mentioned plant pathogenic fungi which successfully suppressed the activity of pathogenic fungi. In addition, it disclosed that T. harzianum was highly antagonistic towards R. solani, M. phaseolina, F. oxysporum, F. solani and Pythium spp. as it showed a strong inhibitory effect on the growth and mycelial development.

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 10 (1): 109-116, 2013.

FILAMENTOUS FUNGI INFECTING FRUITS AND LEAVES OF CAPSICUM ANNUM L. IN LOWER SINDH

Faisal Hussain1*, S. Shahid Shaukat2, Muhammad Abid1, Farzana Usman1 and Muhammad Akbar1

1Dr. A.G. Aerobiology and Plant Pathology Lab., Department of Botany,
Federal Urdu University of Art, Science & Technology, Gulshan e Iqbal Campus Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan.
2Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.
*Correspondence author E-mail: faisal.botanist2011@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

In Pakistan, the production of chilli (Capsicum annum L.) crop usually grows under stressed conditions due to a number of pathogens and mostly fruit and foliar fungal diseases are regarded as responsible for reduced production. For this purpose, eight different localities of lower Sindh including Hyderabad, Tando Allahyar, Mirpurkhas, Umerkot, Kunri, Samaro, Kot Ghulam Muhammad and Digri areas were selected for survey of fungal infection as they are the major chilli producing areas of Pakistan. One hundred sixty samples of infected fruits and foliar parts with fruit as well as without fruit were collected. The stored fruits were also collected from the markets and godowns of the major storing units of chilli fruit. Eleven fungi including Alternaria alternata, A. solani, Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, Botrytis cinerea, Cercospora capsici, Colletotirchum capsici, Leveillula taurica and Verticillium spp. were isolated and identified from the fruits and foliar parts of chilli. The diversity of the fungal assemblages was estimated using diversity indices.

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 10 (1): 117-123, 2013.

PESTICIDE POSIONING: PAKISTAN’S PERSPECTIVE

 Imtiaz Ahmad1, Tahir Anwar2 and Seema Tahir3

1M. A. H Qadri Biological Research Centre, Department of Agriculture, University of Karachi, 75270. Pakistan
2Pesticide Research Institute, Southern zone Agricultural Research Center (SARC), Pakistan Agricultural Research Council (PARC), Karachi University Campus, Karachi, 75270, Pakistan
3Department of Zoology, University of Karachi ,72570, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

In this article a comprehensive review on pesticide poisoning in Pakistan’s perspective with reference to hospital records and studies with reference to impact of pesticide on health point of view is carried out. The consequences of these poisoning cases are discussed and future plan and strategies are briefly highlighted to tackle its implication on human health of occupational and non occupational groups. A concept of net working of laboratory for monitoring pesticides across Pakistan and a need of a regulatory body in the country is also emphasized for reliable monitoring assessment and reporting procedures in accordance with the appropriate environmental policies, laws and regulations in order to minimize the pesticides cases of poisoning as suggested in this article.

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 10 (1): 125-142, 2013.

PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF SALT TOLERANCE IN THREE CULTIVARS OF SORGHUM BICOLOR (L.) MOENCH. AT SEEDLING STAGE UNDER SINGLE SALT (NaCl) SALINITY

Zulfiqar Ali, D. Khan and Naeem Ahmed

Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

Three sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.) cultivars namely Mr. Buster, Honey Graze and Extra Sweet of Australian origin were tested for their salinity tolerance. Their seedling growth was tested in a sand culture experiment n pots under saline irrigation with 0, 50, 100, and 150 mM NaCl prepared in half strength Hoagland solution. The parameters like number of leaves per plant and total leaf area per plant declined with salinity. Salt tolerance sequence, on the basis of 50 % loss of leaf area per plant over control, of the cultivars in hand was as - Cv. Buster > Cv Extra Sweet > Cv Honey Graze. Fifty per cent reduction in growth, in terms of dry weight of seedling phytomass, corresponded with 82.895, 82.089, and 72.65 mM NaCl in cultivars Extra Sweet, Honey Graze and Mr. Buster, respectively. Salt tolerance sequence, on the basis of 50 % losses of seedling phytomass over control, of the cultivars in hand was as - Cv. Honey Graze ≈ Cv Extra Sweet > Cv. Mr. Buster
The relative turgidity of the plants remained unchanged under salinity treatments. Overall photosynthetic pigments were reduced significantly although chlorophyll – a remained statistically unchanged in concentration. Carotenoids level was reduced under salinity. The total soluble sugar contents in treated plants appeared not to vary with salinity. Protein contents declined. Although proline contents increased by 23.5% in Cv Mr. Buster under high salinity; in other varieties proline declined with salinity. There was an increase of phenolic contents up to 34.66 % in Honey Graze and 11.92% in Mr. Buster at NaCl concentration of 150 mM. The phenols, however, declined in Extra Sweet (6.14% in 50 mM NaCl and 19.67% in 100 mM NaCl. The electrolyte leakage from leaves of three varieties didn’t vary significantly among the varieties and under the salinity. Sodium, Potassium and chloride ions increased greatly with NaCl concentration. The results are discussed in eco-physiological context.

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 10 (1): 143-148, 2013.

METABOLIC SYNDROME: A CONSEQUENCE OF OBESITY

Sumera Sohail, Qurat ul ain and Saleha Daud

Department of Physiology, University of Karachi, Karachi 75270, Pakistan.
                                                                                            
ABSTRACT
                  
The contribution of obesity towards the development of metabolic syndrome, a complex multifactorial disorder is investigated using NCEP-ATP III and AHA criteria. Forty subjects were included in this study form the selected areas of Karachi (Pakistan). Brief description about this syndrome and purpose of study was given to all individuals. Data were collected through a pre-designed questionnaire including inquiries about medical and family history, lifestyle, dietary habits etc. Body weight, height, waist circumference, BMI, systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured for every individual. Fasting blood samples were collected for the determination of fasting blood sugar (i.e. glucose), triglycerides and high lipoprotein. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome was found to be 80% and 70.58% in obese men and women, respectively, showing a strong association between obesity and metabolic syndrome.

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 10 (1): 149-150, 2013.

ELEMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ECHORNIA CRASSIPES (MERIT.) SCHLECHT.

Fazal Hadi1, Muhammad Ibrar2 and Abdur Rashid1

1Centre of Plant Biodiversity/Botanical Garden, University of Peshawar, Peshawar, Pakistan
2Department of Botany, University of Peshawar, Peshawar, Pakistan
Corresponding author Email: hadibotany@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

Elemental analysis of Echornia crassipes (Merit.) Schlecht showed the presence of Al, Cr, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Sn, Sr and Zn in the leaves and rhizomes.K was in maximum and Pb in minimum quantity in the leaves while in rhizomes Ca was maximum and Pb was minimum. 

 

 


 
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