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Abstract January & April 2009

Abstract 2009
+ Abstract January & April 2009

 

ABSTRACTS IJBB VOLUME 6 NO. 1. JANUARY & APRIL 2009


A NEW SPECIES OF TREMATODE GENUS SCHWARTZITREMA PEREZ VIGUERAS, 1941 (STRIGEIDAE) FROM A BIRD (CATTLE EGRET, BUBULCUS IBIS L.) IN SINDH, PAKISTAN

Aly Khan1, Sanjota N. Das, Rafia R. Ghazi and Noor-un-Nisa
1Crop Diseases Research Institute, PARC, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan
Vertebrate Pest Control Institute, Southern Zone Agricultural Research Centre, Karachi University Campus, Karachi-75270, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

Examination of five Cattle Egret (Bubulcus ibis Linn.) revealed two trematodes from the small intestine of a bird. Morphometric studies specify that the trematode being reported is new to Science and named as Schwartzitrema bilqeesae. The new species differs from its congeners in a number of characters.

 

PLAGIOPORUS MULTIOVARIUM  N. SP. (TREMATODA: OPECOELIDAE FROM A FRESHWATER FISH (LABEO GONIUS (HAM.))

Fatima Mujib Bilqees1, G.S. Shaikh2 and Aly Khan3
1Dept. of Zoology, Jinnah University for Women, Karachi-74600, Pakistan
2Department of Zoology, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Sindh, Pakistan
3Crop Diseases Research Institute, PARC, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

A new trematode Plagioporus multiovariumi is described here from the freshwater fish Labeo gonius from Keenjhar Lake, Sindh, Pakistan. The new species is characterized by having smooth elongated body, oral sucker small and well developed; pre-pharynx absent; pharynx well developed; intestinal ceca simple; acetabulum almost rounded; pre-equatorial and median; testes almost rounded; vitellaria consists of numerous rounded follicles occupying mostly lateral fields from slightly anterior to cirrus opening to the posterior end of the body; cirrus long and tubular; slightly overlapping acetabulum containing seminal vesicle; ovary 7-8 lobed; uterus small and eggs small, oval and numerous.

 

REDESCRIPTION OF ASOTA CARICAE (F.) (LEPIDOPTERA : ARCTIIDAE) FROM NORTHERN AREA OF PAKISTAN

S. Nargis Viqar1, S. Kamaluddin2, S. Viqar Ali3, Isma Yasir2, Aliza Ali4 and A.S.Siddiqui2
1Department of Zoology, Government Degree College for Women, Block-M, North Nazimabad, Karachi (SNV). 2Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, Gulshan-e-Iqbal Campus (SK,IY,ASS).
3A-18, Block-N, North Nazimabad, Karachi (SVA)
4Jinnah Medical and Dental College, Shaheed-e-Millat Road, Karachi (AA).

ABSTRACT

Asota caricae (F.), is recorded from Ghora-gali, Pakistan and described in detail with special reference to its head appendages, venation of fore and hind wings and female genitalia.

 

TRICHOMES  MORPHOLOGY AS A TAXONOMIC MARKERS IN THE SUBFAMILY HELIOTROPIOIDEAE (BORAGINACEAE) FROM PAKISTAN AND KASHMIR

Anjum Perveen
Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi - 75270, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

Trichomes morphology of the subfamily Heliotropioideae  (Boraginaceae) representing by 18 species has been examined by light and scanning microscope. Within the subfamily Heliotropoideae trichomes are generally eglandular rarely glandular as in Heliotropium  ophioglossum Boiss. Within the subfamily Heliotropoideae  1-celled unicellular and two celled uniseriate trichomes are observed. Shape of the trichomes usually conical with pointed tips and distinct trichomes base. However, few species have indistinct trichome base. The data is significantly useful at specific and generic level within the subfamily Heliotropioideae

 

STUDY ON THE DETERMINATION OF SUITABLE TWIST FOR KNITTED SWEATER

M. A. Kalam Azad, M. Kamal Uddin ,*Engr. Md. Tahzibul Haque (Shahin) and M.A Salam Khan
Bangladesh Jute Research Institute, Manik Mia Avenue, Dhaka-1207, Bangladesh and
*Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET)

ABSTRACT

Twist is an important factor for the strength of yarn as well as the end product. Generally, higher the twist of the yarn higher the strength of the yarn. But twist has to be an optimum value. If the twist increases up to the optimum value, after this point the strength of yarn will reduce although the twist is increased. A study was performed on the physico- mechanical and physico-chemical properties of jute: acrylic blended sweater and 100% acrylic sweater made from different ( 3 to 6 TPI ) twisted yarn. It is observed that blended sweater made from the twist 3 TPI, 5 TPI and 6 TPI shows dissimilar properties to the 100% acrylic sweater prepared from similar type of yarn. But sweater made from the yarn of 4 TPI shows very acceptable results which are nearer to the properties of 100% acrylic sweater. Hence, 4 TPI is a suitable twist to produce standard sweater.

 

COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT METHODS OF HELICOBACTER PYLORI DETECTION IN SYMPTOMATIC GASTRODUODENAL PATIENTS OF KARACHI

Muhammad Hanif1, Parveen Zaidi1, Abid Hameed1 and Ajaz Rasool2
1Karachi Institute of Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine, Karachi, Pakistan
2Department of Microbiology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

Helicobacter pylori is a principal cause of chronic gastritis (CG), gastric and duodenal ulcers and a major risk factor for gastric cancer in humans. The objective of this study was to determine and compare the prevalence of H. pylori by different detection methods in symptomatic patients of Karachi. A total of 227 biopsy samples were collected from patients having complaints of peptic ulcer disease (PUD), chronic gastritis and/or abdominal discomfort (AD) from three different health providing institutions of Karachi during 2004-2006 and analyzed for the presence of H. pylori. Comparative evaluation of three different conventional diagnostic techniques with that of a highly specific PCR amplification of ureC gene were carried out and found H. pylori in 62.5%, 64.7%, 68.7% and 59% by PCR, histology, rapid urease test and culture respectively.
Out of 227 biopsy samples collected, 120 (52.8%) were H. pylori positive by all methods comprising 62 male patients and 58 female patients. A significant association between H. pylori infection and gastro duodenal diseases was observed. Among 120 H. pylori infected patients 56 were comprised of PUD, 37 with CG, 19 with AD and 8 with Gastric cancer (GCa). The epidemiology of H. pylori infection is also discussed.

 

HERITABILITY, GENETIC ADVANCE AND CORRELATION STUDIES OF SOME IMPORTANT TRAITS IN RICE

H.R. Bughio, M.A. Asad, I. A. Odhano, M.A. Arain, and M. S. Bughio
Plant Breeding and Genetics Division, Nuclear Institute of Agriculture, Tando Jam-Pakistan

ABSTRACT

Genetic variability, estimates of broad sense heritability, genetic advance as percent of mean and genotypic and phenotypic correlation coefficients were observed in eight rice genotypes at Nuclear Institute of Agriculture, Tando Jam in 2005. High heritability coupled with high genetic advance was exhibited for number of fertile grains per panicle, number of productive tillers per plant and grain yield per plant, indicating additive gene action and possibility of improving these traits by simple selection. High heritability with moderate genetic advance was exhibited for plant height, 1000-grain weight and panicle length indicating the involvement of additive and non-additive type of gene action and postponement of selection programs for the improvement of these traits. The characters productive tillers per plant, panicle length, number of fertile grains per panicle, panicle fertility percentage and 1000-grain weight showed significant positive correlation with grain yield per plant. While plant height and days to 50% flowering were observed non-significant and negatively correlated with grain yield per plant. Fertile grain had significant and positive correlation with panicle fertility percentage.

 

HERITABILITY ESTIMATES FOR YIELD AND RELATED TRAITS IN BREAD WHEAT

Kalimullah1, Rahm Din1, Shah Jehan1 and Ibrarullah2.
1Department of PBG, Faculty of Agri:, Gomal Univ: D.I.Khan, Pakistan.   kalimpbgian@yahoo.com
2 Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agri:, Gomal Univ: D.I.Khan, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

A set of 22 experimental wheat lines along with four check cultivars were evaluated in irrigated and unirrigated environments with objectives to determine genetic and phenotypic variation and heritability estimates for yield and its traits. The two environments were statistically at par for physiological maturity, plant height, spikes m-2, spikelets spike-1, and 1000-grain weight. Highly significant genetic variability existed among wheat lines (P ≤ 0.01) in the combined analysis across two test environments for traits except 1000-grain weight. Genotypes x environment interactions were non-significant for traits indicating consistent performance of lines in two test environments. However lines and check cultivars were two to five days early in maturity under unirrigated environment. Plant height, spikes m-2 and 1000-grain weight also reduced under unirrigated environments. Genetic variances were greater than environmental variances for most of traits.  Heritability estimates were of higher magnitude (0.74 to 0.96) for plant height, medium (0.31 to 0.56) for physiological maturity, spikelets spike-1 (unirrigated) and 1000-grain weight, and low for spikes m-2.

 

ESTIMATION OF SOME LEAF TRAITS IN VARIOUSLY-AGED CORDATE-ACUMINATE LEAVES OF FICUS RELIGIOSA L.

D. Khan
Department of Botany, Government National College, Karachi. Pakistan,

ABSTRACT

Based on measurements of 106 leaves of F. religiosa plants, the measured one-sided leaf area (LA) varied from 3.55 – 162.55cm2 (mean = 67.89 ± 4.42 cm2; CV = 64.43%). Allometrically, LA (cm2) was given as:
 LA = [0.362241.ℓ 0.916702.b 0.662385] + [0.68987.L0.954921.B 1.088545] where ℓ is the length of acumen and b  is the base of acumen, L is the length of cordate part of lamina along midrib and B is the breadth of the lamina at the widest points in cm. On whole leaf blade basis the leaf blade area (LFA, cm2) was given by the equation:
LFA = 0.691548.LF0.625684.BF 1.33323 where LF is the total length of leaf blade along midrib (inclusive acumen) and BF is the breadth of lamina at the widest points in cm. LA, LFA, and leaf area determined through K factor determination (KFA) behaved statistically in similar manner and didn’t vary significantly with each other. Measured and estimated areas correlated highly significantly (r = 0.9940).  Mature leaves were fairly consistent in shape.
SLA averaged to 208.51 ± 6.78 cm2.g-1 and varied substantially from 109.85 to 400.0 (CV: 33.5%) amongst the leaves investigated. SLA related negatively with LDMC and SLM.
Four types of leaves were easily recognizable - red tender leaves, reddish green developing leaves, yellow green maturing leaves and dark green mature leaves. SLA, SLM, LDMC, succulence and moisture content of leaf were the plastic traits. Leaf area, leaf dry matter, LDMC and SLM increased significantly with the growth and maturity of the leaves. Pink tender leaves had higher SLA and conversely low LDMC and SLM. SLA was low in dark green mature leaves as compared to immature leaves. The tender leaves were more succulent than maturing and mature leaves. The moisture content of the leaves didn’t vary in juvenile red tender or maturing reddish green or yellow green leaves but significantly declined in mature dark green leaves.

 

ASSESSMENT OF WATER QUALITY FOR THE DETERMINATION OF EXTENT OF POLLUTION IN MALIR RIVER

Farida Bano, Syeda Nazneen Rizvi, Farida Begum and Sumera Farooq
Department of Zoology, University of Karachi,Karachi-75270, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

Karachi is the most industrially developed and populous city of Pakistan. A big part of its basin is occupied by alluvial of Malir River which is basically a seasonal river but becomes perennial within the limits of Karachi due to the continuous flow of untreated sewage and industrial effluents through its basin into the Arabian Sea.
The data obtained during this study shows that the most down stream parts of the river are grossly polluted due to the inclusion of sewage and industrial wastes. Present data shows that pollution has not only deteriorated the pristine conditions of this river but it is also causing pollution in Arabian Sea where river finally falls. The data shows increasing trend of nutrients concentration and turbidity from 1994 to 1996. This study provides the base line data and reflects the quality of water in Malir River in middle 1990’s. This data can be used to study the extent of pollution in Malir river by comparing it to the recent data (if available) on Malir river.

 

SCREENING OF CANDIDATE VARIETIES IN NCVT (2007-08) FOR COTTON LEAF CURL VIRUS BY A MODIFIED DISEASE SCORING SCALE

S. Sarwar Alam, Mahmood-ul-Hassan, Jafar Hussain and M. Aslam
Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology, Jhang Road, Faisalabad, Pakistan
E-mail: drssalam@ yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

Twenty advanced lines of cotton in the National Coordinated Varietals Trial were screened for cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) and seed cotton yield during the year 2007-08. The experiment was laid out according to RCB design in four replicates. All the cultural operations and plant protection measures were adopted in optimal fashion. A rapid and convenient modified scale for rating of CLCuD was developed for screening the material in the field for large population and also for single plants. Among these one line showed traces (Rating 2) of disease and was highly resistant. Nine lines were resistant having a rating of up to 3 and six were tolerant (Rating 4) while three were rated as moderately tolerant with rating of 5 and one line was found to be susceptible (Rating 6). The highest seed cotton yield (6033 kg ha-1) was found in VH-255 with a plant population ha-1 of 35557 and resistant to ClCuD followed by Cris 129 (5815 kg ha-1 seed cotton yield), and Cris 342 (5793 kg ha-1 seed cotton yield) with rating of 3. NIAB-846 rated 4 with the yield of 5794 kg ha-1.


                                                                                                   
STUDIES ON THE INFESTATION IN RELATION TO SEX OF THE HOST FISH LUTJANUS ARGENTIMACULATUS (FORSK., 1775)

1Rizwana, A.G., N. Khatoon1  and F.M. Bilqees2
1Department of Zoology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.
2Department of Zoology, Jinnah University for Women, Nazimabad, Karachi, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

A marine fish, Lutjanus argentimaculatus of the Karachi coast, was studied for effect of its sex on the abundance of its parasites. The infestation of parasites did not show any significant difference in male and female fishes. But the result showed significant difference between the level of infection of the dominant parasites in male and female Lutjanus argentimaculatus.

 

HISTOPATHOLOGICAL CHANGES IN THE INTESTINE OF VIPERA RUSSELLI ASSOCIATED WITH NEMATODE LARVAE

A.G. Rizwana1, N. Khatoon1, R. Sidra1 and F.M. Bilqees2
1Department of Zoology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.
2Department of Zoology, Jinnah University for Women, Nazimabad, Karachi, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

Nematode larvae are the common helminth parasite in vertebrates. They also affect reptiles. The present study deals with the collection of nematode larvae from the intestine of snake Vipera russelli and histopathological observations on the infected intestine by nematode parasites. This infection badly affects the structural morphology of the intestinal wall specially the villi. Necrosis, atrophy and degeneration of the villi totally destroy the internal surface microanatomy of the intestine. Further observation from the same material has revealed extrusion of the exudates on to the surface of the bowl. Hemorrhage, inflammation, adenoma, ulceration, atrophy, necrosis, degeneration and erosion of the surface layers was seen in several sections. Numerous large, pink stained inflammatory cells were scattered in the affected areas.

 

RISK FACTORS AND BIOCHEMICAL VARIATIONS IN PATIENTS WITH ISCHEMIC STROKE

Lubna Naz1, Zahir Hussain1 and Tahir Husain2
1Department of Physiology,University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakisatn
2Department of Medicine, Abbasi Shaheed Hospital, Karachi-75270, Pakisatn

ABSTRACT

There has been much interest in homocysteine (Hcy) as an important risk factor for vascular diseases including stroke, independent of the long-recognized factors like hyperlipidemia, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and smoking, although its association was described many decades ago. During the last decade, numerous studies observed a strong positive correlation between hyperhomo-cysteinemia and ischemic stroke, while others could not establish the same. The present study was, hence, planned to explore an association between Hcy levels in Pakistani patients with ischemic stroke in view of the limited data available, so that some practical recommendation for screening and treatment of this modifiable risk factor could be provided. The patients were categorized into several groups on the basis of the major risk factors involved.  Hypertension , diabetes, high cholesterol, cigarette smoking, atrial fibrillation, and previous stroke or TIAs were the major risk factors in these patients. The biochemical changes studied in several groups of stroke patients were homocysteine (Hcy;µmol/g), albumin(g/dL), hemoglobin (Hb;g/dL), and total cholesterol (mg/dL). No significant change was obtained in most of the comparisons except significant variation of homocysteine level (p<0.05) in stroke patients with previous stroke and TIAs. Determination of levels of Hcy in patients with ischemic stroke and age- and sex-matched controls provide us knowledge about whether Hcy vary at different time periods following stroke. This investigation, hence, might be helpful in assessing the association of Hcy with stroke severity, outcome, recurrence, etiology, infarct volume, or risk factors.

 

THE CONTENTS OF ARABINOXYLAN (TOTAL AND WATER-SOLUBLE) IN EIGHT PAKISTANI HARD WHITE SPRING WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) CULTIVARS

Saqib Arif1, Abid Hasnain2 and Mubarik Ahmed1
1Grain Quality Testing Laboratory, SARC, PARC, Karachi University Campus, Karachi.
2Department of Food Science & Technology, University of Karachi, Karachi.

ABSTRACT

The total arabinoxylan (AXt) and water-soluble arabinoxylan (WeAX) contents in meal and flour from eight hard white spring wheat cultivars grown at two distinct locations in Pakistan were examined. AXt and WeAX ranged from 50-79 mg/g & 6.2-11 mg/g in meals and 12-22 mg/g & 3.5-8.2 mg/g in flours with the mean values of 60 mg/g & 8.0 mg/g and 15 mg/g & 5.0 mg/g, respectively. The ANOVA indicated that the wheat cultivars varied significantly in their AX contents and also confirmed the influence of genotype and environment on AX accumulation in Pakistani wheat grain. Overall, the whole meal flour contained ~3.6-4.2 times greater AX contents than white flour.

 

NUTRITIONAL VALUE OF CARROT JUICE AS AFFECTED BY DIFFERENT BLANCHING MEDIA

M. Salariya, **Mukhtar Ali and Sajid Hussain and ***Khalid Jamil
***Food and Biotechnology Research Centre, PCSIR Laboratories Complex, Lahore-54600 (Pakistan)
**Govt. Science College, Wahdat Road, Lahore-54600 (Pakistan)

ABSTRACT

Effects of different blanching media on the yield and nutritional value of carrot juice was investigated in this study.  Each blanching medium showed different effect on the yield and nutritional value of carrot juice.  Maximum amount of carrot juice (76.0%) was obtained on blanching carrots in 0.5 % acetic acid solution containing 1.0% CaCl2.  However, 66.0% juice was obtained from unblanched carrots.  Highest amount of protein (1.34%) minerals (2.50%) and soluble sugars (5.46%) were found in carrot juice, which was obtained after blanching carrots in acetic acid solution containing 1.0% CaCl2.  Similarly, this blanching media also showed highest amount of carotene (195 mg 100-1 g) and vitamin C (8.0 mg 100-1 g) contents in carrot juice.  However, 0.88% protein, 1.26% minerals and 4.81% soluble sugars along with carotene (175 mg 100-1 g) and vitamin C (44.0 mg 100-1 g) contents were present in juice from un-blanched carrots. 

 

 

 
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