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Abstract January - April 2010

Abstract 2010
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ABSTRACTS IJBB VOL.7 NO.1 JANUARY-APRIL, 2010

MEDICINAL PROPERTIES OF NIGELLA SATIVA (KALONJI)

Sabahat Saeed1 and Nazish Iqbal Khan2

1Department of Microbiology, Jinnah University for Women, Karachi, Pakistan.
2Pathophysiology Research Unit, Department of Physiology, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

Seeds of Nigella sativa (N. sativa) have been frequently used in folk medicine for several medicinal purposes including to treat cough, asthama, diarrhoea, fever, common cold, headache, rheumatic disease, stomach disorders, dyslipidaemia, infections and to expel worms from the intestine. It is also effective for scorpion and spider strings and bites of snake, cat and dog. Seeds of N. sativa have also hypoglycemic, antioxidant, antihistaminic and anti-inflammatory effects. Recently, antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, antiparasitic, antiprotozoal, and anticancer properties of seeds of N. sativa have also been established. Nigellon, thymohydroquinone (THQ), thymoquinone and thymol (THY) are its active ingredients which are responsible for its therapeutic effects. N. sativa also contains carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, mineral elements, essential amino acids and proteins. The seeds of N. sativa can be poisonous to man in high doses.

TWO NEW HEMIURID TREMATODES FROM THE FISH PLECTORHYNCHUS CINCTUS (T.S.) OF KARACHI COAST

Fatima Mujib Bilqees1, Bushra Khalil1, Aly Khan2, M. Farooq Haseeb3 and Shakila Perveen4

1Department of Zoology, Jinnah University for Women, Karachi-74600, Pakistan
2Crop Diseases Research Institute, PARC, Karachi University Campus, Karachi, Pakistan
3Department of Zoology, S.M. Government Science College, Karachi, Karachi-75270
4Department of Zoology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

Two new trematodes of genus Tubulovesicula (Hemiuridae: Dinurinae) are described here from the stomach of the fish Plectorhynchus cinctus (T.S.) of Karachi coast, namely Tubulovesicula microrchis n.sp., and Tubulovesicula magnavesicula n.sp. T. microrchis is characterized by having elongate body, short ecsoma, oral cucker small, wider than long, prepharynx and esophagus absent, caeca long reaching to posterior extremity of ecsoma. Acetabulum larger than oral sucker, round, in anterior third of body proper. Testes two, ovary small, between acetabulum and ovary, separate, oblique. Seminal vesicle long. Tubular, slightly twisted, reaching far posterior to acetabulum, pars prostatica large, mostly preacetabular, hermaphroditic duct enclosed in a pouch. Genital pore posteroventral to pharynx. Ovary post-testicular, oblong, in anterior half of body proper. Vitellaria consist of long winding, thick tubules, laterally overlapping caeca reaching to body margins, far anterior from end of body proper, uterus winding reach posteriorly to a little distance but not entering into ecsoma, then ascending anteriorly between the two testes to the preacetabular region. Another species T. macrovesicula n.sp. also has elongate body with ecsoma more than half of body proper in length. Oral sucker cup-shaped, subterminal, prepharynx and esophagus absent. Caeca long reaching to posterior extremity of ecsoma. Acetabulum large, rounded, in anterior half of body proper. Genital opening at the base of pharynx. Testes two, postequatorial, obliquely symmetrical, seminal vesicle large, mostly postacetabular reaching to the anterior and close to posterior testis, pars prostatica preacetabuar, hermaphroditic duct long, preacetabular, hermaphroditic pouch prominent. Ovary rounded to oval, near posterior end of body proper, vitellaria consist of 6-7 long, twisted tubules, two small, directed anteriorly, 4-5 directed posteriorly reaching into tail. Uterus coiled entering to a long distance into ecsoma.

PLEORCHIS KARACHIENSIS N.SP. (TREMATODA: PLEORCHIDAE, POCHE, 1926) FROM THE FISH SCIAENA DUSSUMEIRI OF KARACHI COAST

Fatima Mujib Bilqees1, Imrana Shabbir2, Bushra Khalil1, Aly Khan3 and Shakila Perveen4

1Department of Zoology, Jinnah University for Women, Karachi-74600, Pakistan
2Department of Zoology, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science & Technology, Karachi, Pakistan
3Crop Diseases Research Institute, PARC, Karachi University Campus, Karachi, Pakistan
4Department of Zoology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

A new trematode of family Pleorchidae, Poche, 1926 Pleorchis karachiensis n.sp. is described here from the intestine of the fish Sciaena dussumeiri of Karachi coast. This species is characterized by having elongate body almost uniformly thick throughout its length with a rounded caudal appendage, oral sucker is terminal projecting out, rounded, prepharynx and esophagus prominent, pharynx transversely elongate, ceca long terminating anterior to caudal appendage, anterior cecal diverticula are absent, acetabulum small, spherical and a little behind cecal bifurcation, genital pore preacetabular, testes 50-52 in number, intercecal situated on each side of excretory bladder in two ventral and two dorsal longitudinal rows, cirrus sac claviform, extending laterally on right side of acetabulum and reaching in postacetabular region containing elongate seminal vesicle and pars prostatica. Ovary is median, 8 to 9 lobed, prestesticular, vitellaria consist of numerous small follicles extending from anterior level, post bifurcal to posterior end of the body proper but not reaching the caudal appendage, uterus coiled, between ovary and acetabulum, eggs numerous, elongate, metraterm prominent. Excretory vesicle tubular, excretory pore terminal.

TWO NEW SPECIES OF THE GENUS SPLIOSOMA CURTIS(LEPIDOPTERA: ARCTIIDE:ARCTIINAE) RECORDED FROM PAKISTAN

S. Kamaluddin, S. Nargis Viqar, A.S.Siddiqui, Isma yasir. Aliza Ali and S.V.Ali

Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology,Gulshan-e-Iqbal Campus,Karachi. (SK,ASS,IY), Government Degree College for Women, Block-M, North Nazimabad, Karachi. (SNV) Jinnah Medical and Dental College Shaheed-e-Millat Road Karachi (AA) and A-18 Block-N North Nazimabad Karachi (SVA).

ABSTRACT

Two new species of the spilosoma Curtis viz. S.poswali and S.saleemi have been recorded from Donga-gali, Pakistan and described in detail with special reference to its head, venation of fore and hind wings, male and female genitalia. The cladistic relationships are also briefly discussed.

 

New host record and redescription of Proctoeces maculatus (Looss, 1901) Khan and Bilqees, 1990

Ghulam Shabbir Shaikh, Fatima Mujib Bilqees and Aly Khan

 

DIVERSITY OF POLYHYDROXYBUTYRATE PRODUCING BACTERIAL ISOLATES OF AGROINDUSTRIAL WASTES

J. Kasthuri and S. Poornima

Department of Zoology, The Standard Fireworks Rajaratnam College for Women, Sivakasi – 626 123 , Tamil Nadu, India.

ABSTRACT

Monitoring the diversity of polyhydroxybutyrate producing bacterial isolates of 15 novel agroindustrial wastes revealed that the aquaculture industrial site seemed to harbour with a maximum of 6 positive colonies. About 67 % of the PHB producing isolates were of Bacillus Sp., 25 % Acinetobacter and only 8 % were of Enterobacter. However, Acinetobacter CN1 an isolate of cashew nut industry has been identified as a potential (8.4 g / L media) PHB producing strain. However, when the carbon source was substituted with one of the cheapest sources, viz sago waste (2 %) , Acinetobacter CN1 appeared to accumulate 8.5 g PHB granules / L .

THE CANDIDATE GENE APPROACH IN PLANT ANAEROBIOSIS

S. Abdolhamid Angaji

Department of Biology, Tarbiat Moallem University, Tehran, Iran
Email address: angaji@tmu.ac.ir, ershad110@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

There has been a tenfold increase in the number of Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) studies published annually over the past 10 years. Once QTLs have been identified; the next challenge is to identify the genes. Identifying the genes behind these QTLs has been described as the greatest challenge for geneticists in this century. Three main approaches lead to the cloning of genes of interest. Classical methods such as positional cloning and insertional mutagenesis have been used with success to identify major genes, i.e. genes having a major effect on the phenotype. However, these methods are limited by genome size and/or by the lack of transposons in the species being studied. For those species that have been sequenced, there should be no need to generate the large insert clones because gene order is already known. All that is required is to locate a QTL on the sequence and then look for candidate genes (CG). In the present study, 36 CG were detected for seed germination under anaerobic condition in rice.

CONCORDANCE OF MBD AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS FOR THE DIAGNOSIS OF OSTEOPOROSIS IN POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN STUDIED AT KIRAN KARACHI

Parveen Zaidi1, Muhammad Hanif1, Rafat Murad2, Shahid Kamal1 and Abid Hameed1

1Karachi Institute of Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine
2Basic Medical Sciences Institute, Jinnah Post Graduate Medical Centre

ABSTRACT

Osteoporosis is a skeletal disease characterized by low bone mass and micro architectural deterioration of bone tissue, leading to enhanced bone fragility and a consequent increase in fracture risk. Correlation of bone mineral density (BMD) measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometery (DEXA) and biochemical parameters (Urinary excretion of calcium, phosphate, zinc and serum estrogen) for the diagnosis of osteoporosis in pre and postmenopausal women of Karachi was carried out.
A total of 90 women including 50 post menopausal and 40 pre menopausal women were selected. There was no history of any drug use for bone loss in both groups. Bone mineral density was measured by DEXA at the lumber spine (LS BMD) and total hip (H BMD). Biochemical parameters were measured on biochemistry analyzer or on spectrophotometer by using Randox and biosystem kits and serum estrogen was measured by using Enzyme Immunoassay.
Comparison of BMD measured at hip and lumbar spine shows that the BMD at hip was 0.80±0.017, 1.09±0.026 gm/cm2 in post and pre menopausal women respectively which is significantly low in post menopausal subjects (P<0.001). Similarly BMD at lumbar spine shows 0.75±0.017, 0.94±0.016 gm/cm2 in post and pre menopausal women respectively which is also significantly low in post menopausal women (P<0.001). Distribution of postmenopausal women into normal, osteopenic and osteoporotics according to the finding of BMD measured at hip and spine depicts that out of 50 post menopausal women, only 4 (8%) were normal, where as 22 women (44%) were osteoporotic and remaining 24 (48%) were osteopenic.
Biochemical parameters show that the mean urinary calcium, phosphate and zinc was significantly higher (P<0.001) where as estrogen was found to be significantly decreased in postmenopausal women.

APPRAISAL OF SOME PSEUDOMONAS STRAINS AS A BIOFERTIZER FOR SUN- FLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUS L.)

Ruqia Suliman and Rukhsana Bajwa

Department of Mycology and Plant Pathology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

Inoculation of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) var SF-107 was carried out with three strains of Pseudomonas which resulted in significant plant growth promotion when cultivated in pots at 28 ± 2°C. Statistical analysis demonstrated that different strains of Pseudomonas showed variable effect on vegetative growth of sunflower in comparison to recommended dose of NPK fertilizer. Pseudomonas fluorescence (BCCP# 083) significantly increased number of leaves and roots. Similarly maximum shoot growth in term of shoot height was observed by its inoculation after successive days of sampling. Pseudomonas maltophilia (BCCP# 097) significantly increased fresh biomass of plant.

A SIMPLE SOLAR DRYING TECHNOLOGY WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO FARM LEVEL CHILI DRYING IN SINDH PROVINCE OF PAKISTAN

Tahir Anwar, Seema Tahir,2 and Imtiaz Ahmad2

1Southern zone Agriculture Research Center, Pakistan Agricultural Research Council, (PARC) University Campus, Karachi. 75270, Pakistan
2Department of Zoology, University of Karachi 75270, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

The cost-benefit analysis is based on the prevailing market prices for both the fresh and the dried products. Even if the technical performance of the dryer found to be satisfactory, the use of solar dryer in Pakistan needs to be described from the economic point of view. Drying is an essential process in the preservation of agricultural products. Various drying techniques are employed to dry different food products. Each technique has its own advantages and limitations. Industrial drying offers quality drying whereas it’s high cost limits its use. Open sun drying suffers from quality considerations though it enjoys cost advantage. Choosing the right drying system is thus important in the process of drying agricultural products. Especially, in the regions where some crops have to be dried during rainy season. In such areas special drying system has to be adopted Presently study describes a comparison between traditional sun drying and other solar drying techniques showed that the use of solar dryer leads to a considerable reduction of the drying time and to a significant improvement of the product quality in terms of color, texture and taste. Besides, it also ensures the prevention of the infestations of insects and microbial pests.


EFFECT OF NATIVE DOMINANT AM FUNGUS AND PGPRs ON GROWTH AND BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MEDICINALLY IMPORTANT INDIGOFERA ASPALATHOIDES VAHL. ex. DC

S.K. Sundar1, A. Palavesam2 and B. Parthipan3

1Department of Microbiology, Noorul Islam College of Arts and Science, Kumaracoil. India.
2Centre for Marine Science and Technology, M. S. University, Rajakkamangalam, India.
3Department of Botany and Research Centre, S. T. Hindu College, Nagercoil. India.
Email:sundar_microjj@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

The effect of native dominant AM fungus Glomus aggregatum isolated from the rhizosphere soil of Indigofera aspalathoides and plant growth promoting rhizomicroorganisms (PGPRs) viz., Bacillus coagulans and Trichoderma viride on the growth and biochemical parameters of the medicinally important I. aspalathoides was studied in pot culture. Infection percentage and number of spores in the rhizosphere soil were higher in plants treated with triple inoculation (G. aggregatum + B. coagulans + T. viride). Dry matter content of I. aspalathoides was high in dual inoculation (G. aggregatum + B. coagulans) whereas plant height, protein and amino acid contents were higher in triple inoculation. The macro- and micronutrients of the test plant except manganese were also higher in G. aggregatum and PGPRs treated plants than the uninoculated control. Total chlorophyll, carotenoids, lipid and phenol contents were higher in triple inoculation of I. aspalathoides than the other treatments. The inoculation of efficient AM fungus in combination with the two PGPRs had positively influenced the growth and biochemical constituents of I. aspalathoides whereas B. coagulans and T. viride as individual inoculations did not show significant effect on the test plants.

DAMAGE TO PORTAL TRACT AREA IN THE LIVER OF GOAT INFECTED WITH FASCIOLA GIGANTICA

Imrana Shabbir1, Fatima Mujib Bilqees2 and Aly Khan3

1 Department of Zoology, Central Urdu University of Arts, Science & Technology, Karachi, Pakistan
2Department of Zoology, Jinnah University for Women, Karachi-74600, Pakistan
3Crop Diseases Research Institute, PARC, Karachi University Campus, Karachi, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

Histopathology of liver of goat infected with Fasciola gigantica has revealed that portal tract area is greatly damaged. It has become fibrotic affecting the artery, bile duct and portal vein. Fragmentation of bile duct and epithelium sludging of vein was obvious in this area. Diffusion of arterial wall was also prominent. In some cases vein was totally blocked by fibrous tissue accompanied by bile duct hyperplasia. In addition to this hepatic cords and hepatocytes lost the normal shape and architecture.


CONTROL OF ROOT ROT-ROOT KNOT DISEASES OF COWPEA AND OKRA BY AQUEOUS PLANT EXTRACTS

Sadia Khaliq, Shahnaz Dawar and M. Javed Zaki

Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi -75270, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

The different concentration of plant extracts of Datura alba Nees and Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. were used at 25, 50 and 100 % w/v to examined their effects in the control of root diseases in okra and cowpea. Highest concentration significantly enhanced the germination and growth parameters in terms of root length, root weight, shoot length and shoot weight in both cowpea and okra. Plant extract also reduced the infection of pathogenic fungi like, Macrophomina phaseolina, Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium spp. on both okra and cowpea plants by increasing concentration at 25, 50 and 100 % w/v. Plant extracts significantly suppressed formation of galls at 100 % w/v extract of D. alba and C. dactylon on cowpea and okra. Both soil drenching and seed treatment with plant extracts showed significantly result in enhancement of growth parameters and reduction of root diseases.

EVALUATION OF NERVE CONDUCTION STUDIES IN PATIENTS WITH DIABETIC NEUROPATHY: A STUDY ON MEDIAN, ULNAR, PERONEAL AND TIBIAL NERVE

Sadaf Ahmed, Sheeza Mujeeb, Samia Mushtaq and Zahir Hussain

Department of Physiology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

Nerve conduction study (NCS) has its significant importance in the diagnosis of diabetic neuropathy. We evaluated NCS in patients with diabetic neuropathy and also compared these parameters on the basis of their variations between upper and lower limbs, and the progression of the neuropathy with the duration of diabetes. We undertook a pilot study of NCS of Median, Ulnar, Peroneal and Tibial nerve in 56 diabetics of age 40 to 50 years with symptoms of neuropathy. The compound muscle action potentials (CMAP) were recorded with surface electrodes. NCS revealed abnormal values of conduction velocity(NCV) in 63% of the total patients. We found decline of Median 27%, Ulnar 26%, Peroneal 29% and Tibial 35% NCV. While rest of 37% patients had normal values for conduction velocity besides having neurological symptoms. We found close association between neurological deficit score and abnormalities in NCS. The values for amplitude were still in normal range. Decrease in conduction velocity of Tibial and Peroneal nerve indicate earlier progression of the disease in lower limbs than upper limbs that further indicated early demyelination in these nerves. The normal amplitude of all four nerves indicated that axonal loss may accompany in later stages of disease.

HIGH DAY TEMPERATURE INDUCES METABOLIC CHANGES IN PROTEIN, SUGAR AND PHENOLIC CONTENTS IN COTTON GROWN UNDER ARID AND SEMIARID ENVIRONMENTS

Muhammad Naeem Akhtar1, Shabab Ud-Din1, Ghulam Abbas2, Fiaz Ahmad1, Ammarah Husnain3 and Muqaddas Noreen3

1Central Cotton Research Institute, Multan, Pakistan
2Department of Plant Breeding & Genetics, University of Agriculture., Faisalabad, Pakistan
3Department of Biochemistry, B.Z. University, Multan, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

Thermal stress is a main limitation to achieve good and stable cotton yield in Pakistan. Cultivars differ in their adaptation to heat stress. Therefore, the screening of advanced strains is carried out by planting cotton in the month of April to coincide their fruiting phase with the hottest period of season (June-July). Fourteen genotypes were selected for screening against heat stress. Seed sowing was done during mid-April and the leaves were collected after 90 days of sowing while seed cotton yield was taken 125 days after sowing. Results revealed that genotypes CIM-496, Cyto-87, NIAB-V3, CIM-554, NIAB-V1 and CIM-541 resulted in higher seed cotton yield while Gomal 93 and Shahbaz, CRIS-342 and Cyto-89 exhibited lowest seed cotton yield. It was also observed that heat induced-stress caused certain quantitative and qualitative changes in phenolic, sugar and protein contents. The quantitative changes in the amounts of crude protein were also observed and such changes varied variety to variety but not in a regular fashion. Different types of sugar compounds were observed in all cultivars with no distinct relation with seed cotton yield. It was found that higher yielding cultivars maintain relatively higher nitrogen and protein contents and less sugar contents as compared to low yielding cultivars under high temperature environments. In qualitative analysis of phenolic contents, six standards phenolic compounds namely gallic acid, pyragallol, hydroquinone, phenol, 2-naphthol and o-nitro phenol were detected in different cultivars of cotton, indicating that high day temperature cause various changes in the metabolism of the plant helpful for their adaptation under arid climate.

EVALUATION OF HIGH YIELDING AND LOW TOXIN GRASSPEA [LATHYRUS SATIVUS (L)] GENOTYPES FOR CULTIVATION IN PAKISTAN

Irshad Begum1, Javed Afzal2, M. Imran3 and Naheed Akhtar4

1Pulses Program, Crop Sciences Institute (CSI), National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad-45500, Pakistan.
2Rangeland Research Program, National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad-45500, Pakistan.
3Fodder Research Program, National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad-45500, Pakistan.
4Insect Pest Management Program, National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad-45500, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

Fifteen improved, low toxin grasspea (Lathyrus sativus L.) genotypes received from the International Centre for Agricultural research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), Aleppo, Syria and a local check were tested for two consecutive winter seasons 2004-05 and 2005-06 in the rainfed conditions of National Agriculture research Centre (NARC), Islamabad. Aim of the study was to select the best genotypes that would give high seed yield with low neurotoxin oxalyl-diamino-propionic acid (ODAP) content. Data on maturity days, plant height, biological yield, grain yield, 100-kernel weight, and harvest index were collected. The genotype Sel 736 significantly outperformed other genotypes for yield and it was followed by Sel 1327, Sel 1322, and Sel 1328. These genotypes are suggested to be tested at the Quaid-e-Awam Agricultural Research Institute (QAARI), Larkana for their general cultivation/yield potential.

GENOTYPE X ENVIRONMENT INTERACTION AND STABILITY YIELD PERFORMANCE AMONG DIFFERENT VARIETIES OF CHICKPEA DESI

Irshad Begum1, Shahid R. Malik1, M. Asif2, Javed Afzal3 And Naheed Akhtar4

1Pulses Program, Crop Sciences Institute (CSI), 2Wheat Program (CSI), 3Rangeland Research Institute, 4Insect Pest Management Program, National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad-45500, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

In order to identify a biotype (s) which could withstand drought as well as blight stress, twenty genotypes of chickpea (CMC211S, NCS 9917, CMC5 99S, CMC186M, AZC-06, SL-01-13, SL-02-23, SL-03-64, 3CC113, 3CC116, 96A4504, 96A4580, BRC-61, CH23/00, CH24/00, 01032, 01067, 93127, 98154, and Bittal-98) developed by different research institutes of Pakistan, were evaluated against the prevalent biotic and abiotic stresses at 13 different locations, for various agronomic traits. In this study, 20 different lines developed by various institutes at federal as well as provincial level were evaluated against the said abiotic and biotic stresses and then statistical tools were applied in order to assess their stability. One genotype (AZC-06) developed at Arid Zone Research Institute, Bahawalpur, and another genotype (CH23/00), from Nuclear Institute for Agricultural and Biology (NIAB), Faisalabad have shown considerable potential by producing average grain yield of 2061 and 2116 Kg ha-1 respectively.

EFFECTS OF PETRODIESEL-CONTAMINTED SOIL ON EMERGENCE AND GROWTH OF SEEDLINGS OF PROSOPIS JULIFLORA (SWARTZ.) DC.

D. Khan

Department of Botany, Government National College, Karachi, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

The effects of diesel oil pollution on Prosopis juliflora Swartz DC. were investigated in a series of artificially and freshly polluted sandy soil with 0, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 2.5, 4.0, 5.0, 7.5 and 10 mL diesel oil per 100g soil. Emergence of seedlings was impeded and germination losses occurred at high diesel oil concentrations (> 1.0 mL diesel oil per 100 g Soil). Emergence of seedlings was completely inhibited in 7.5 and 10 mL diesel oil concentration. All the parameters of seedling growth viz. height, number of leaves, hypocotyl and epicotyl lengths, and cotyledon area per seedling, declined progressively with increase of diesel oil concentration in the rhizosphere. Some 66% of the seedlings died in 1% diesel oil concentration. Hundred percent seedling mortalities were observed in 4 and 5% diesel concentrations. Plant death was preceded by dehydration, wilting and defoliation. P. juliflora appeared to be a sensitive species to petrodiesel pollution.

DIVERSITY OF BENTHIC MACROMOLLUSCS ON FOUR ROCKY SHORES OF KARACHI COAST, PAKISTAN

Solaha Rahman and Sohail Barkati

Department of Zoology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan
e-mail: sohailbarkati@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

The spatial and temporal variations in the rocky intertidal molluscs communities were studied with reference to tidal level and species diversity at four sites (Manora, Buleji, Nathiagali and Cape Monze) along the Karachi coast. The average values of species richness was high (3.63) at Manora followed by Cape Monze (3.25), Nathiagali (3.22) and Buleji (3.06). The Species Richness and Hill diversity number N1 was inversely proportional to tidal height at Manora, Buleji and Nathiagali whereas reverse was the case at Cape Monze. The average values of Evenness (E5) were directly proportional to tidal zone at Manora, Nathiagali and Cape Monze whereas no relation with tidal zone was found at Buleji. The average value of Hill diversity number N1 from the total area was high at Manora (6.47) followed by Nathiagali (6.33), Cape Monze (5.65) and Buleji (5.31) shores. Molluscan species were more evenly distributed at Nathiagali (0.67) and less evenly at Buleji (0.64), Manora (0.63) and Cape Monze (0.61). Seasonal variation in E5 values was less evident in the four sites. Values of Hill Diversity index N1 is directly proportional with the species richness index. However, inverse relationship exists between values of species richness and modified Hill ratio.

SEASONAL VARIATION IN HEAVY METALS OF TWO SPECIES OF MOLLUSCS, PERNA VIRIDIS (BIVALVIA) AND TURBO CORONATUS (GASTROPOD) FROM MANORA, KARACHI, PAKISTAN

Solaha Rahman and Sohail Barkati

Department of Zoology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan
e-mail: sohailbarkati@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

The concentration of Fe, Pb, Zn, Cd, Cu and Ni in the soft tissues of two molluscs, Perna viridis (Bivalve) and Turbo coronatus (Gastropod), from Manora rocky beach, Karachi, Pakistan was determined. The concentration of iron was highest among the metals. The other metals were present in following decreasing order of concentration: lead, zinc, copper, cadmium and nickel in both the species. The concentration of all metals except Cu was higher in T. coronatus than P. viridis.

GUILD BASED POPULATION STRUCTURE OF SHOREBIRDS FROM KARACHI COAST, PAKISTAN

Syed Najam Khurshid1, Sohail Brakati 2 and Solaha Rahman2

1Water Sector Improvement Project, Sindh, FAO.
2Department of Zoology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

Seasonal changes in population structure of 53 species of Waterbirds from four localities along the Karachi Coast, Pakistan were studied for a period of four years (1993-1996). The concept of Guild Structure was introduced for the first time to classify the bird species. Six guilds were defined on the basis of food and feeding style etc. Food preferences of bird species were also studied. Abundance of birds of different guilds was related to the availability of food.

DETERMINATION OF PESTICIDES, NITRATE AND ARSENIC IN GROUND WATER OF SINDH

Jehanzeb Abdul Wahid1, Tahir Anwar2, Omm-E-Hany1, Seema Tahir3, Imtiaz Ahmad4, Muhammad Azhar Khan1 and Moazzam Ali Khan1

1Institute of Environmental Science, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270
2Pesticide Research Institute, Southern zone Agricultural Research Center, Pakistan Agricultural Research Councils (PARC), University campus Karachi-75270, Pakistan
3Department of Zoology, University of Karachi -75270, Pakistan
4M. A. H. Qadri Biological Research Center, University of Karachi -75270, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

In the present study Pesticides, Arsenic and Nitrate were analyzed in the ground water samples collected from the different districts of Sindh. Endosulfan was found above the MAC level (Maximum Acceptable Concentration 0.1 µg L-1 for single pesticides) and chlorpyrifos was found below the MAC level as defined by the Economic European Countries (EEC). Nitrate and arsenic were below the National Environmental Quality Standard (NESQS) i.e. 50 mg L-1 and 10 µg L-1, respectively. A highly significant correlation of endosulfan with arsenic (r = 0.94) and nitrate (r = 0.95) was recorded followed by moderate correlation of nitrate with arsenic (r = 0.52), chlorpyrifos (r = 0.51) and between arsenic and chlorpyrifos (r = 0.50) by t-test at 8 degrees of freedom.

STUDY OF SIZE-FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION 0F THE FISHES OF GENUS LEIOGNATHUS (LEIOGNATHIDAE: PERCIFORMES) COLLECTED FROM KORANGI CREEK, KARACHI COAST

*Zubia Masood and Rehana Yasmeen Farooq

Department of Zoology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.
*email: masoodzubia@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

There are 3 genera and 10 species of family Leiognathidae found on Karachi coast. Qureshi (1955) reported 5 species belonging to 2 genera of family Leiognathidae found on Sindh and Makran coast; Leiognathus splendens, Leiognathus blochii, Leiognathus fasciatus, Secutor incidiator, Secutor ruconius. Qureshi (1955) recorded 2 genera (Gerres and Leiognathus) from Karachi coast, but Gerres is not included in family Leiognathidae. It is included in family Gerridae. Leiognathus species were collected for studied their distribution on Korangi creek of Karachi Coast.


 
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