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Abstract January & April 2008

Abstract 2008
+ Abstract January & April 2008

 

PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF ISCHEMIC DISORDERS: I- LDL CHOLESTEROL AND ISCHEMIC STROKE

Nazish Iqbal Khan and Zahir Hussain*

Department of Physiology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.*E-Mail: zahussai@yahoo.ca

ABSTRACT

Blood lipids, particularly total and LDL cholesterol levels, are associated with all subtypes of brain infarction. Furthermore, many of the effects of elevated or modified low density lipoproteins on endothelial cells and endothelial cell processes could be expected to contribute to the development of atherosclerosis and therefore, to the association between lipids and atherosclerotic, particularly coronary and cerebrovascular disease. However, the extent to which “endothelial dysfunction” accounts for the known relationships between serum lipid concentrations, ischemic disease and endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) pathophysiology is yet to be established. On the basis of the mentioned and other reports, we hypothesize that higher levels of plasma LDL cholesterol not only directly impair endothelial cells, but also effect EPC number and function at the same time, thus influencing the endothelial repair process and disturbing the balance between the magnitude of injury and the capacity for repair, which leads to endothelial dysfunction and promotes the progression of stroke. Because EPCs have been implicated in various events requiring endothelialization, we further hypothesized that LDL-C could influence the action of EPCs and sensory neurons and that this could be important to know how LDL-C effects repair, injury and vasculoprotection . In order to corroborate this proposal, quantification is required for EPCs and DRG neurons treated with various concentrations of LDL-C and characterizing the underlying molecular mechanisms. The relative contributions of apoptotic and necrotic death to ischemia-induced neuronal loss may provide us information for understanding the underlying mechanisms. Conclusively, the aggressive management of risk factors, like cholesterol, could have a significant and positive impact on the natural history of atherosclerotic cerebrovascular disease.

CINNAMON (CINNAMOMUM ZEYLANICUM L.)

Sabahat Saeed and Perween Tariq

Department of Microbiology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum L.) is one of the most popular spices. It has been used for thousands of years for its medicinal properties. It has long been used for the treatment of diabetes, inflammation and stomach ulcers. It has also antibacterial, antifungal, antiparasitic and mosquito larvicidal activities. It is also used for the treatment of cough and cold, to treat gastrointestinal disturbances, bronchial asthama and asthenia of blood. Cinnamon consists of volatile acids (1-2%). It is mainly composed of cinnamic aldehyde (75-90%) and eugenol (8%).

A CLADISTIC ANALYSIS OF THE GONOCERINE SQUASH BUG GENERA BRUNSELLIUS DISTANT AND PLINACHTUS STÅL (HEMIPTERA : COREIDAE)

Navaid Rab1 and Imtiaz Ahmad2

1Department of Zoology, Govt. Degree Girls College PIB Colony Karachi, Pakistan
2Department of Zoology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

Cladistic analysis of the species of the genera Brunsellius Distant and Plinachtus Stål from Indopakistan subcontinent are carried out on the basis of their outgroup. A cladogram is constructed on the principle of parsimony. No homoplasies had to be invoked.

PHARYNGODON ODEROLALENSIS SP.N. (NEMATODA: OXYURIDAE) FROM THE COMMON AMPHIBIAN RANA TIGRINA IN SINDH

Rafia Rehana Ghazi1 and Aly Khan2

1Southern-Zone Agricultural Research Centre, Vertebrate Pest Control Institute,P.O. Box 8401, Karachi-75270
2Crop Diseases Research Institute, PARC, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

A new oxyurid Nematode Pharyngodon oderolalensis is described from the common frog Rana tigrina collected from the vicinity of the agricultural area of Oderolal in Sindh, Pakistan. The new species is characterized by having distinct, membranous and semi-circular lips and bearing a pair of small papilla, excretory pore in preoesophageal region, vulva being situated in the mid body region, eggs oval to globular in shape and in having slender filiform larvae inside the uterus and a different host and locality. This is a first record of the genus from Pakistan.

DESCRIPTION OF A NEW ACANTHOCEPHALAN POLYMORPHUS FATIMAAE N.SP. (ACANTHOCEPHALA: POLYMORPHIDAE) FROM CROW (CORVUS SPLENDENS VIEILLOT)

Aly Khan1, A.M Dharejo2, N.A. Birmani2, F.M. Bilqees3 and M.M. Khan2

1Crop Diseases Research Institute (PARC), University of Karachi, Karachi-75270 –Pakistan
2Dept. of Zoology, University of Jamshoro, Sindh, Pakistan
3Dept. of Zoology, Jinnah College for Women, Nazimabad, Karachi-74600, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

Lühe, 1911 is described here from the crow (Corvus splendens Vieillot) from Hyderabad, Pakistan. The new species name is proposed P. fatimaae. This species is characterized by having proboscis hooks in 9 to 12 rows each row having 6-12 hooks. Hooks measuring 0.030 – 0.057 by 0.0076 – 0.019 mm. Neck small, lemnisci sub-equal, testis oval, capsule shaped, cement glands four long tubular, cement reservoir small. Bursa well developed and Eggs oval measuring 0.060 – 0.068 by 0.022 – 0.030 mm.

REDESCRIPTION OF AMERILA ASTREUS (DRURY) (LEPIDOPTERA: ARCTIIDAE: ARCTIINAE) FROM PAKISTAN

Saeeda Nargis Viqar1, S. Kamaluddin2, Aliza Ali3, Isma Yasir2 and A.S. Siddiqui2

1Department of Zoology, Government Degree College for Women, Block-M, North Nazimabad, Karachi (SNV). 2Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, Gulshan-e-Iqbal Campus (SK,IY,ASS),
3Jinnah Medical and Dental College Shaheed-e-Millat Road Karachi (AA).

ABSTRACT

Amerila astreus (Drury) is recorded from Pakistan and described in detail with special reference to its head appendages, venation of fore and hind wings and male and female genitalia. The systematic position and life cycle are also briefly discussed.

TEA PEST PARASA LEPIDA MOORE (LEPIDOPTERA: LIMACODIDAE) FROM BANGLADESH WITH REFERENCE TO ITS DESCRIPTION AND CONTROL STRATEGY

S. Nargis Viqar, S. Kamaluddin , Aliza Ali, Isma Yasir and Waqar-Ul-Haq

Government Degree College for women, Block-M, North Nazimabad, Karachi (SNV) Department of Zoology and Botany, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, Gulshan-e-Iqbal Campus, Karachi. (SK,IY,WH) and Jinnah Medical and Dental College Shaheed-e-Millat Road Karachi (AA)

ABSTRACT

Parasa lepida Moore, recorded from Sylhat, Bangladesh, a pest of tea plant. Its larva feeds on leaves, the adult female described in detail with reference to its head, venations of fore and hind wings, genitalia, cocoon, larvae and economic importance.

IDENTIFICATION AND NEW DISTRIBUTIONAL RECORDS OF GRASSOMYIA DREYFUSSI TURKESTANICA (THEODOR & MESGHALI,1964) AND ITS PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIP WITH ITS CLOSEST ALLIES

Juma Khan Kakarsulemankhel

ILeishmaniasis, Sand flies, Mosquitoes & Helminths Research, Center for Advanced Studies in Vaccinology & Biotechnology (CASVAB), Brewery Road, Quetta, Pakistan.
dr.jumakhankakarsulemankhel@yahoo.com ; kakarjumakhan@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

The work was done to develop taxonomic record of sand flies Grassomyia dreyfussi turkestanica (Theodor & Mesghali) collected for the first time from endemic places of Sindh and Punjab provinces. In view of the published reports about the detection of encephalitis viruses from the species of the genus Sergentomyia (Franca and Theodor) from the Indian localities and their possible role in kala-azar transmission, the correct identification of sand fly species becomes of significant value in the study of epidemiology of leishmaniasis and other viral diseases. Therefore, in order to facilitate Zoologists and Medical researchers in correct identification of sand fly, morphology of taxonomic characters especially wings, cibarium, mouth parts, male and female genitalia of Grassomyia dreyfussi turkestanica (Theodor & Mesghali) is studied and results are presented. A key is also given to this species and its closest allies of the genus Grassomyia. In this light, its phylogenetic relationship with its closest allies is also briefly discussed.

R PLASMIDS OF CLINICAL GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA: MOBILIZATION OF NON-CONJUGATIVE R PLASMIDS BY CONJUGATIVE PLASMIDS

Asma Saeed1, Hajra Khatoon1* and Fasihuddin Ahmed Ansari 2

1Department of Microbiology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan
2Division of Reproduction and Endocrinology, School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, King's College, London, England

ABSTRACT

During studies on the transferable antibiotic resistance of clinical gram-negative bacteria, 28 R plasmids were isolated from indigenous strains. The R plasmids conferred resistance to one or several antibiotics on their host strains and most of them were conjugally transferable to other pathogenic bacteria, posing a threat to chemotherapy. Some of the R plasmids were conjugally non-transferable. It was of interest to see whether they could become transferable to other bacteria in the presence of a co-resident conjugative plasmid. For this purpose, genetically marked strains of Escherichia coli, carrying the individual, non-transferable R plasmids, were conjugally infected by the conjugative plasmids: F' pro+ lac+, KR61-KNST, pSK1a, pAK3, pAK6, pAK13 and pAK17. Mobilization of the non-transferable R plasmids was observed in different patterns by the co-existing conjugative plasmids in conjugal crosses.

IDENTIFICATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF SUPERIOR GENOTYPES OF VEGETABLE MESTA (HIBISCUS SABDARIFFA L.) IN BANGLADESH

M. Rafiqul Islam, Hosne Ara Begum, M. Mozibur Rahman, Mahboob Hossain, AKM Shahadat Hossain, M. Harun-or-Rashid and M.I. Talukder

Bangladesh Jute Research Institute, Manik Mia Avenue, Dhaka-1207, Bangladesh

ABSTRACT

Eight selected advanced superior genotypes of smooth mesta (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) containing different traits were evaluated for further identification and development of higher yield of edible leaves and pericarp (calyces). The study was undertaken to develop edible vegetable mesta containing the highest amount of fleshy calyces (pericarp) and edible smooth leaves. The genotypes revealed significant differences for all the characters with wide range of variability. Among the studied eight genotypes treatment M-780 (cordate leaf) gave the highest amount of green leaves (104.70g/plant) in 45 days and the treatment M-715 (lobed leaf, red and long fruit) gave the highest number of fruits (70.30 /plant) which also gave the highest amount of pericarp (calyces) 41.25 g/10 fruits. The highest genotypic variance and phenotypic variance were observed in weight of leaves/plant. Heritability and genetic advance were the highest in the weight of pericarp. These two genotypes can be devloped as vegetable mesta varieties. Leaves could be used for cooking purpose, preparation of soup, tea and pericarp for cooking purpose and preparation of jam, jelly, tea and confectionery materials.

DROUGHT TOLERANCE IN WHEAT GENOTYPES

Yousaf Ali and J. Akhter

Nuclear institute for Agriculture and Biology P. O. Box 128, Jhang Road, Faisalabad, Pakistan; Email: Yousafpro_niab@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

Ten genotypes of wheat were studied at three water regimes by applying three, two and only one irrigation at different intervals/stages. The experiment was conducted at NIAB Farm, Faisalabad, Pakistan on clay loam soil applying normal doses of N and P fertilizer during 2005-06 in three replications keeping varieties as main plot and treatments as subplots. Date for seven morphological characters viz. Plant height, productive tillers per plant, spike lets per spike, spike length, grain per spike, yield per plant and 1000 grain weight were recorded and subjected to analysis for variances and means were computed following DMR test. Effect of water stress on different morphological attributes in all treatments showed significant differences. All the seven plant attributes reduced at less number of irrigations while sterility percentage was increased at less moisture conditions. Maximum grain yield per plant was recorded in varieties Sarsabz and Sarcc-3. This might be due different genetic makeup of the breeding lines and behaviour and interaction in water stress environment. It may be concluded that for achieving maximum economic yield Sarsabz and Sarcc-3 can be grown in water stress environments.

SCREENING OF BRASSICA GENOTYPES FOR HIGHER GRAIN YIELD IN SALT-AFFECTED SOILS

Yousaf Ali and G. Sarwar and J. Akhter

Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology Jhang Road P.O. Box # 128 Faisalabad
Email: Yousafpro_niab@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

Fourteen genotypes of Brassica (Brassica comprestries L.) were studied in the Laboratory under different salinity levels (EC=5, 10,15,20,25 d.Sm-1) for preliminary evaluation in respect of germination percentage and relative growth rate. Five genotypes among 14 were selected for yield evaluation in Multilocational trials at five different natural saline areas of Punjab province. Seed germination ranged form 20-40% at EC=25d.Sm-1 Raya Anmol exhibited highest relative growth rate and lowest relative growth rate was exhibited by No. ZBJ. 97003. The stability analysis of seed yield of Brassica genotypes collected from different Multilocational trials indicated that high yielding genotypes Khanpur Raya (880 Kgha-1) showed its suitability for rich environment due to having regression coefficient significantly different from one. However, the second high yielding genotype RL-18 (729 Kgha-1) which had non significant regression coefficient value and non significant value of standard deviation to regression showed more stability and hence it may be grown safely with more economic benefits on saline soils.

THE INTERACTION OF EXCIMER LASER WITH BLOOD COMPONENTS AND THROMBOSIS

Hongbao Ma1, Yan Yang2 and Shen Cherng3

1Bioengineering Department, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450001, China, mahongbao@zzu.edu.cn; mahongbao2007@gmail.com; 01186-137-8342-5354
2Brookdale University Hospital and Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York 11212, USA, youngjenny2008@yahoo.com
3Department of Electrical Engineering, Chengshiu University, Niaosong, Taiwan 833, China, cherngs@csu.edu.tw; 011886-7731-0606 ext 3423

ABSTRACT

Vascular thrombosis is a major component leading to acute cardiovascular events. Rapid and efficient thrombolysis is critical for quick relief of symptoms and prevention of organ damage. This article describes the excimer laser ablation of thrombus and effect on blood components, by-products of excimer laser ablation and hemoglobin release into the medium. In conclusion, this background data could help the operator select catheter sizes and laser energy protocols depending on the needs of a particular case. If a situation consisted of a thrombus in an artery with poor distal run off then a smaller catheter with lower energies may be selected. On the other hand a large vessel with a large thrombus load and good distal run off may be approached with a larger catheter and higher energies. These types of decisions can be based on the basic data and implemented in a clinical situation. However, the choice of how to proceed in a case would always depend on the judgment of the operator and the presented data are meant to serve only as broad guidelines.

ANTIATHEROGENIC EFFECT OF FRESH GINGER (ZINGIBER OFFICINALE) IN HYPERLIPIDEMIC RABBITS

Ghazala Yasmeen and Nazish Iqbal Khan

Department of Physiology, University of Karachi, Karachi 75270, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

Hyperlipidemia is one of the major contributors to atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. Non-pharmacological dietary therapy and exercise are the first line of treatment in Hyperlipidemia and several dietary components with such effects have been known. The present study has been undertaken to investigate the antiatherogenic effect of fresh grated ginger (Zingiber Officinale) in cholesterol fed rabbits with relation to its antihyperlipidemic activity. The mark rise in serum cholesterol, triglyceride and LDL-C in cholesterol fed rabbits was significantly reduced by the administration of fresh ginger (p<0.05) while a rise in plasma HDL-C was observed. These findings suggest that ginger has strong antihyperlipidemic effects and its dietary supplementation may be used effectively for the primary prevention trials against atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease.

CONFORMATIONAL ANALYSIS OF HISTAMINE H1-RECEPTOR ANTAGONIST “TEMALASTINE” AS A CIMETIDINE DERIVATIVE

Khalida Bano, Naheed Akhter, Najaf Abbas Ghafoor, M. A. Haleem.

Biophysics Research Unit, Department of Biochemistry, University of Karachi, Karachi –75270 , Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

The non-bonded potential energies were computed for 2-[4-(5-Bromo-3-methyl-2-pyridyl) butylamino]-5-(6- methyl -3 - pyridyl - methyl) - 4 – pyrimidone, trihydrobromide , (Temalastine), which is the H1 receptor antagonist and sedative psychoactive in nature. In the present calculation all the possible pairs of non-bonded interaction have been included for the energy calculation. The present work describes the conformational analysis of temalastine by using kitaigorodsky function. The minimum potential energy was found to be -0.0089 k.cal/mol at ?1 = 100o and ?2 =300o . Allowed region is obtained for the Temalastin, using minimum potential energy, and the results indicates that possible allowed zone by using conformation for the Temalastin is 315o to 360o.

POST HARVEST LOSSES IN CITRUS FRUIT DURING TRANSPORT

M.B. Ilyas, M. U. Ghazanfar, M.A. Khan, C.A. Khan and M.A,R, Bhatti

Department of Plant Pathology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

The losses of the Feutrell’s Early transported from Kallurkot, Bhalwal and Jauharabad to Faisalabad market during the month of November were found to be 16, 17 and 16 percent respectively. The losses in orange transported from Kallurkot, Bhalwal and Jauharabad in the months of December and January accounted for up to 20, 19 and 20 percent, respectively. The losses in case of Kinnow mandarin transported from Kallurkot, Bhalwal and Jauharabad during the months of January and February were found to be 22, 21 and 27 percent respectively. The fungi isolated from citrus fruits (Feutrell’s Early, Orange and kinnow mandarin) were Alternaria citri, A. tunis, A. tenuissima, Aspergilllus flavus, A. fumigatus, A. nigar, Botryodiplodia theobromae, Collectotricum gloeosporiodies, Fusarium solani, Geotrichum candidum, Penicillum digitatum, P. italicum, Phomopsis citri and Rhizopus nigricans, . The fungi A. tenuis B. theobromae, C. gloeosporiodies, G. candium, P. digitatum, P. italicum, Phomopsis citri and Rhizopus nigricans were found pathogenic both on injured and uninjured fruits.

THE RESPONSE OF SOME GRAM POSITIVE AND GRAM NEGATIVE BACTERIA TO LEAD

Shazia Haque 1 and Ehsan Elahi Valeem2

1Institute of Environmental Studies, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.
2Department of Botany, Govt. Degree Sci. & Com. College Gulshan-e-Iqbal, Block VII, Gulshan-e-Iqbal, Karachi-75300, Pakistan.
Corresponding author: valeem@go.com

ABSTARCT

Toxic effect of various concentrations of Lead (2,4, 8, 10, 16, 20 mg/mL) on some gram +ive and gram –ive bacteria is reported in this study. Lead inhibited the growth of gram +ive Staphylococcus areus and Bacillus cereus as well as gram –ive bacteria Salmonella typhi and Escherichia coli. The area of the zone of inhibition was directly proportional to the concentration of Pb. Gram –ive bacteria were more susceptible to Lead than gram +ive bacteria.

PLANT-SIZE DATA AND ESTIMATION OF SOME VITAL LEAF CHARACTERISTICS IN NATURALLY GROWING NICOTIANA PLUMBAGINIFOLIA VIV. (SOLANACEAE) IN KARACHI

D. Khan

Department of Botany, Govt. National College, Karachi - 74800, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

Nicotiana plumbaginifolia Viv. (Tex-Mex tobacco) is recorded from Karachi as a rare winter weed in flower beds and growing as road-side plant near plant-nurseries and along sewerage lines. Data on its plant size and the leaf characteristics, based on sample size of 120 leaves, are presented here. Measured Leaf area of radical leaves varied from 24.44 to 126.03 cm2 (mean 80.8 ± 5.86 cm2; CV = 34.04%) and for cauline leaves from 0.61 to 124.36 cm2 (mean: 22.29 cm2; CV = 126.38%). The regression coefficients were computed from multiple regression to fit in the allometric model – Y = a + b1X1 + b2 X2, where Y is the true leaf area (LA) and X1 and X2 were leaf length and leaf breadth, respectively. The predictive equation was as follows:

Log e LA = - 0.38295 + 0.88962 Log e L + 1.06053 Log e B ± 0.098195
t = -5.72 t = 17.97 t = 29.04
p < 0.00001 p < 0.00001 p < 0.00001
R2 = 0.9953; Adj. R2 = 0.9952; F = 12241.7; r = 0.9976
OR
LA = antilog [-0.38295.L 0.88962.B 1.06053]

Also, the value of the multiplication factor K for each leaf was found by employing the formula, K = LA / (L*W) and employing average K value, 0.58206, the leaf area for each leaf was computed as Leaf area computed = K*L*W. By comparing the estimated leaf area with measured leaf area it was found that allometric estimation was little better than k factor analysis in the present case.
Leaf Dry matter of individual leaves (LDM) behaved more or less in the same manner as LA. Average multiplication factor KLDM was arrived at 0.00267619. The estimated LDM using formula, LDM = KLDM *L*B, was not statistically different from the measured LDM (X2 = 4.40, df = 118; NS). The Estimated LDM related closely with measured LDM (r = 0.9312; df = 118; p < 0.00001).
Specific Leaf Area (SLA) was expressed as one-sided graphically determined leaf area of a fresh leaf divided by its oven-dry mass (cm2/g -1) and the inverse of SLA was referred to as Specific leaf mass (SLM). SLA varied substantially from 63.5 to 576.83 (CV= 36.58%) amongst the leaves investigated. The curvilinear or logarithmic relationship of SLA with LA appeared to be little better than simple linear relationship between them. In short, smaller are the leaves, lower the SLA. Larger are the leaves, larger the SLA. SLA of cauline leaves was consistently lower than that of radical leaves in all individual plants examined. Considering overall variation in SLA in the two types of leaves, SLA was comparatively of higher order in rosette leaves (354.09 ± 21.39; N = 22, CV= 28.3%) than cauline leaves (231.59 ± 7.58 cm2/g -1; N = 98, CV= 32.4%). High SLA of rosette leaves may be a significant factor enabling early ground cover by basal leaves for light interception in this species.
The Leaf to leaf analysis of SLA in leaves on the main stem and the lateral branches in two individual plants showed almost a regular trend of increase of SLA from apex to the base of the plants. Apical leaves had lower SLA than subsequent basal leaves. Exposure of axial leaves to comparatively more irradiance may probably the reason for low SLA of axial leaves. SLA related with ratio of Leaf Dry Mass contents (LDMC) negatively.
Specific Leaf Mass (SLM), an inverse of SLA, varied more in cauline (42.8%) than in radical leaves (25.8%). The values of SLM for cauline leaves were, however, generally higher (mean = 0.004901 ± 0.0002; range: 0.00241 to 0.01574) than for radical leaves (mean = 0.00303 ± 0.00166; range: 0.00173 to 0.00432). Since there appears no significant difference in hydrature between radical and cauline leaves, differences in SLM in them appears to be attributable to environmental differences. Possibly exposure of axial leaves to more irradiance and consequently their more active photosynthetic role is the reason for their high SLM.

PUBLIC HEALTH STATUS OF THE GROUND WATER RESOURCES IN KHIRTHAR NATIONAL PARK, SINDH PAKISTAN

Moazzam Ali Khan1 Adrian J. Peck2 and S. Shahid Shaukat3

1,3Institute of Environmental studies, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.
2A.J. Peck and Associates Pty. Ltd. P.O. Box. 1213, Subiaco WA6904, Australia

ABSTRACT

This study investigates the public health profile of drinking water resources at Khirthar National Park (KNP). Groundwater discharged from springs or water pumped from wells provides the only source of water to sustain wild and domestic animals, irrigation and human use in KNP. The quality of water was examined by Most Probable Number Technique (MPN) using standard methods. The discharge of water from springs that were inspected was estimated to range from zero to 10 MLd-1. Water from all but one of 20 wells and all from 14 springs that were sampled failed to meet WHO guidelines for the bacteriological quality of drinking water. Water conforming the guidelines came from one well only that was around 80 m deep.

PHYSICO-CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF WATER AND SEDIMENTS OF CHINNA CREEK AND THE ASSOCIATED BENTHIC BIOTA ON ITS FRINGES

Moazzam Ali Khan1 and S. Shahid Shaukat2

1,Institute of Environmental Studies, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan
2,Department of Botany, University of Karchi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

Chinna Creek is about 5.0 km long, 300 to 500 m wide with a depth ranges from 1 to 3 m situated at the south east of Karachi. The concentrations and spatial distributions of different pollutants, including ammonia, Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Cyanide, Dissolved Oxygen (DO), oil and grease (n-Hexane extract), Phenol, and Heavy metals (As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Hg, Pb and Ni ) were investigated in water and sediment samples collected from eight stations at Chinna Creek. The concentration of many of these pollutants was quite alarming except Cr, Pb and Ni in water and sediment samples. A total of 47 species of flora and fauna were recorded from 8 different sampling sites of Chinna Creek. Ecological survey of the benthic communities revealed that the pollutants are responsible for the degradation of natural ecosystem of the Creek, which has consequently resulted in reduced biodiversity of the ecosystem.

STUDIES ON PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF SALT TOLERANCE IN WHEAT

Parvez Khan*, Muhammad Aslam, Muhammad Imtiaz and Muhammad Yousuf Memon

Soil Science Division, Nuclear Institute of Agriculture, Tando Jam-70060, Pakistan.
Email: parvez_08@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

Ten wheat cultivars were screened for salt tolerance at seedling stages under glasshouse conditions. Four levels of salinity i.e., 0.25 (control) 10, 15 and 20 dS m-1 were induced in soil. As the growth of wheat cultivars raised in saline soil substrates indicated that Na+ and Cl- ions in plants increased with the increase in salinity levels, while K+ decreased accordingly. The salt tolerant cultivars (LU-26S, Blue Silver and Pirsabak-85) have low Na+ and Cl- ions and high K+ contents. Overall correlation studies between shoot yield of cultivars and Na+, Cl-, K+ and K+/Na+ ratio showed the Na+ and Cl- exclusion and K+ inclusion mechanisms are operating in salt tolerance in wheat crop.

FORAGE EVALUATION OF BERBERIS BALUCHISTANICA USED AS FODDER

Ghazala Shaheen and Mudassir Asrar Zaidi

Dept of Botany, University of Balochistan, Quetta, Pakistan;
mudassirisrar@hotmail.com

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted to evaluate the mineral concentration, nutritional and anti- nutritional contents of the leaf of Berbaris baluchistanica. It is commonly used as a forage plant and is found in the high altitude areas of Quetta district Samples of forage were collected during the year 2004-2005 through all four seasons. Mineral contents, crude protein, crude fiber and phenolics were estimated quantitatively. The metabolic effects of this plant were checked by feeding it to sheep. Its epidermal morphology (both surfaces) was used to check the adulterants. It has predominantly anamocytic type of stomata with some of the anisocytic type. High phosphorus in foliage 0.58%, calcium 0.39%, Sodium 0.04%, Potassium 0.62% was found in spring season, while more Iron 0.05% was found in summer and autumn season. Maximum Phenolic content (1.7%), crude protein content (19.35%), crude fiber content (26.3%), carbohydrate content (10%) and medium gross energy 5.2 Macl /Kg DM were found in the autumn season. All these values gradually increased from spring to summer and reached their maximum in autumn. Significant increase (P<0.05), in the mineral and nutritional concentrations were found in this season. Various concentration of phenolics in different seasons were recorded which increased with the maturity of plants. B. baluchistanica was fed to 21 sheep (8-10 months old) and their fecal and urine samples were analyzed for crude protein, crude fiber and total nitrogen The feeding experiment has demonstrated the digestibility of B. baluchistanica and has led to significant increases (P > 0.05) in the body weight of sheep in the experimental groups compared to the control group. The plant was found to be a good source of nutritional and mineral contents but its diet must be supplemented with other high energy diet.

RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN SEED YIELD AND ITS COMPONENTS IN EXOTIC AND INDIGENOUS GERMPLASM OF MUNGBEAN (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek.

Ghulam Abbas and M.S. Sadiq

Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology (NIAB), Faisalabad, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

For exploitation of the yield components to to formulate a selection criteria, eighteen diverse type of mungbean genotypes from different countries under IAEA/RCA project were planted in 3 repeats having a plot size of 7.2 m2. Data pertaining to different morphological attributes viz. days to flower, days to mature, plant height, clusters per plant, pods per plant, pod length, seeds per pod, biomass yield, seed yield, thousand seed weight and harvest index were recorded. Genetic parameters, correlation and direct and indirect effects of these traits were computed. Highly significant differences among the lines/ varieties were observed for all the traits except seeds per pod. Phenotypic co-efficient of variability was generally higher than corresponding genotypic co-efficient of variability. More than 50% heritability values were also observed for all the traits except seeds per pod. Maximum genetic advance was observed for cluster per plant (50.03) followed by biomass yield (45.78) and seed yield (44.68). It means additive type of genes mainly control such characters. Very low genetic advance was observed in case of seeds per pod (1.53) and harvest index (2.89). It means these traits are governed by non-additive type of genes. Seed yield had positive genotypic and phenotypic correlations with all the traits. Pod length and biomass showed highest positive direct effects along with positive genotypic correlation coefficient. Hence these characters may be taken directly for the improvement of seed yield in mungbean.

NEW RECORD OF ALTERNATE HOSTS OF ROOT KNOT NEMATODES IN PAKISTAN

Muhammad Shahid, Ateeq-ur-Rehman and Aman Ullah Khan

Plant Pathology Section, Ayub Agricultural Research Institute, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

In 2007, during the Survey for the plant parasitic nematodes in the Punjab Province, three new hosts (Alternate) of root knot nematode, viz., Creeping Weed ‘Khatti Booti’(Oxalis corniculata Sorrel), Fleabane ‘Lucern Booti’ (Conyza ambigua DC) and Wild Tobacco ‘Geedar Tumbacco’ (Nicotiana plumbaginifolia Viv.) were recorded from Pakistan.



 
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