Homepage Aboutus Editorial Board Instruction Contents Subcribe Feedback
 


Abstract January & April 2012

Abstract 2012
+ Abstract January & April 2012

 

ABSTRACTS IJBB VOLUME 9 NO. 1 & 2. JANUARY & APRIL 2012


INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 9 (1-2): 01-08, 2012.

MAPPING SPATIAL VARIATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS IN AN ESTUARINE ECOSYSTEM AT KARACHI HARBOUR: AN APPLICATION OF GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM (GIS)

Irfan Ali1, Ibtasama Tamiz1, Abdul Basit Khan1, Tariq Masood Ali Khan1, Atif Shahzad2, Syed Shahid Shaukat1, Shehla Afroz1

1 Institute of Environmental Studies, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.
2 Department of Geography, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.
Corresponding author: Irfan Ali; Email: iffu1988@hotmail.com; Contact No. +923312481590

ABSTRACT

Karachi Harbour is an estuarine ecosystem which hosts a major shipyard, and also serves as a receiving body to a river Lyari which brings untreated domestic and industrial effluents. This study has focused on mapping spatial variation of environmental pollutants in the Karachi Harbour using the Geographical Information Systems (GIS) Technology. A Pollution Index (PI) was developed by integrating all the water quality parameters. Finally, thematic-contour maps of all water quality parameters and pollution index were generated using ArcGIS 9.1 and Surfer 10 softwares.

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 9 (1-2): 09-11, 2012.

ANTI BACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF ALLIUMONOATE, A NEW CYCLOPENTANE DERIVATIVE ISOLATED FROM ALLIUM VICTORIALIS L.

Sadia Khan1, Mehdi Hassan Kazmi1, Darshna Kumari2 and Shakeel A. Khan2

1Department of Applied Chemistry and Chemical Technology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan
2Department of Microbiology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

Alliumonoate, a new cyclopentane derivative, was isolated from the chloroform soluble fraction of Allium victorialis L. Spectroscopic techniques were used to determine the structure of the compound. Antimicrobial activity tests were performed for the pure and crude sample extract, which showed some retardation activity against bacteria.

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 9 (1-2): 13-15, 2012.

LIPOXYGENASE INHIBITORY EFFECT OF PENTACYCLIC TRITERPENES FROM SORBUS CASHMIRANA HEDLUND MONOG

Mehdi Hassan Kazmi1, Sadia Khan1, M. Ashraf 2

1Department of Applied Chemistry and Chemical Technology, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan.
2Department of Pharmacy the Ismalia University Bahawalpure, Bahawalpure Pakistan

ABSTRACT

Cashmirol Aand B and sorbinol A and B have been isolated from ethyl acetate soluble fraction of Sorbus cashmirana. Their structures were determined through spectroscopic techniques that give significant activity against enzyme lipoxygenase.

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 9 (1-2): 17-21, 2012.

EFFICACY OF FOLIAR / SOIL BASED FUNGICIDES  COMBINATION FOR CONTROL OF GINGER LEAF SPOT (Phylosticta zingiberi

Nwawuisi, J.U., C. Nwadili,  J. Ndukuba and E.N. Nwaogu

Federal College of Agriculture, Ishiagu, Ebonyi State.PMB 7008, Ishiagu, Ebonyi State, Nigeria.
Email address:  jonahglun@yahoo.com; Phone number:   +2348038984608

ABSTRACT

Field trials were conducted to ascertain the efficacy of three fungicides on leaf spot disease of ginger (Zingiber officianale Rose) at National Root Crop Research Institute, Umudike, Nigeria. The fungicides were marketed as Team (Mancozeb/ Carbendazim}, Hi-shield (Mancozeb) and Funguran-OH (Copper oxide), and were used as sole and in various combinations for soil and foliar treatment against the disease, using ginger varieties UG1 and UG2, as test crops. The result of  the two year 2007 and 2008 trials revealed that the fungicides in their various applications reduced disease severity and increased rhizome yield of the ginger. There was significant difference in the effects of the various fungicide applications, with Team (Mancozeb/ Carbendazim) in both single and combination, showing more efficacy than others. The two ginger varieties equally exhibited significant differences in their susceptibility to the disease, with UG1 having high tolerance to it, giving high rhizome yield, unlike UG2 which was highly susceptible, with low yield.    

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 9 (1-2): 23-29, 2012.

ASSOCIATION OF ROOT-KNOT NEMATODES (MELOIDOGYNE SPP.) WITH CUCUMBER IN THE POTHOWAR REGION OF THE PUNJAB PROVINCE OF PAKISTAN

Muhammad Zameer Kayani1*, Tariq Mukhtar2 and Muhammad Arshad Hussain3

1Green Belt Project, Department of Agriculture, Rawalpindi, Pakistan.
2Department of Plant Pathology, PMAS-Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan.
3Plant Pathology Section, Regional Agricultural Research Institute, Bahawalpur, Pakistan.
Corresponding author E-mail: kianizmr@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

The root knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.)are one of the most harmful and most ubiquitous, there is no data about their association with cucumber in the Pothowar region of the Punjab province. Therefore, a survey was conducted to assess the incidence and intensity of root-knot nematodes on cucumber in 4 districts of the Pothowar region. The study revealed variation in incidence and severity of root-knot nematodes in the four districts. The incidence of root knot nematodes was the highest in district Rawalpindi (21.86%) followed by 13.89% in Attock. Of the four districts, minimum incidence of 10.97% was recorded from district Jhelum. The maximum mean severity measured in terms of galling index was found in district Rawalpindi (3.79) while the minimum was observed in district Jhelum (1.86). The mean severity of root-knot nematodes in districts of Attock and Chakwal were 2.66 and 2.19, respectively. Of all the associated species of root-knot nematodes, M. incognita constituted 78.53%, M. javanica 19.03%, M. arenaria 1.82 % and M. hapla 0.62%. All the four main Meloidogyne species were found in all the districts of Pothowar region except district Chakwal where M. hapla was not found. M. incognita was predominantly found in the all the four districts.

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 9 (1-2): 31-50, 2012.

PODS AND SEEDS CHARACTERISTICS WITHIN A POD CROP OF AN AMALTAS TREE (CASSIA FISTULA L. – CAESALPINIACEAE): I. INSECT INFESTATION, NUMBER OF SEEDS PER POD AND THE PACKAGING COST

D. Khan and M. Javed Zaki

Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan
 
ABSTRACT

        The total pod crop of 166 pods was collected from a solitary tree of Cassia fistula L. Excluding unripe pods, 101 mature fruits were air-dried for around 100 days in laboratory and studied for their insect infestation, size dimension, seed content, pod shape deformation, seed weight variation and seed packaging cost. Besides a leaf-stitcher (Piesmopoda obliquifasciata Hamps), two more insects associated with the pod - a seed borer moth, Trachylepidia fructicasseilla Ragonot and Oxyrhachis rufescens. ). The mean number of infestation (number of cocoons of T. fructicasseilla per pod) was 0.5743 ± 0.1804 – maximally reaching to 12 in one pod only. The distribution of cocoons amongst pods was highly positively skewed.
        The C. fistula pods were slightly lesser than 40 cm in length on an average – ranging from 16.6 to 51.0 cm and around 1.08 to 2.20 cm in diameter (mean = 1.80 ± 0.18).  The pod weighed from 12.7 to 91.0 g in mass and 23.7 to 189.9 cm3 in volume (mean = 100.5 ± 3.5 cm 3). The part of pod admeasuring ≤ 1 cm in diameter was devoid of any seeds or contained highly shriveled seeds. The number of locules in pods distributed asymmetrically (negatively skewed) and averaged to 93.92 ± 2.73 – varying from 38 to 127 per pod. The yield of healthy seeds fluctuated greatly from none to 110 seeds / pod averaging around 55.78 ± 2.29 seeds. The number of shriveled seeds per pod averaged to 4.41 ± 0.6845 per pod and exhibited highly positively skewed distribution with long tail with maximum number of shriveled seeds from a pod to be 49. There was a great degree of multi-colinearity among the structural and reproductive parameters. The distribution of seed weight of 100 randomly-selected and individually-weighed seeds was leptokurtic and negatively skewed. The seed weight of individual seed averaged to 109.5 ± 3.10 mg and varied around  28.2 %  i.e., around  3.23- folds. Clearly, the mean seed weight was a direct function of the pod weight but varied negatively with the total number of seeds developing in a pod. The data indicated a degree of trade-off between seed weight and seed number. The packaging cost calculated in terms of residual pericarp biomass (g) per g seeds in healthy pods averaged to 6.9613 ± 0.4609 g and varied with the pods from 3.69 to 14.16g per g seeds (3.84-folds variation). 

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 9 (1-2): 51-54, 2012.

CATHUCOTYLE ARABIANSIS N.SP. (MONOGENEA: GOTOCOTYLIDAE LEBEDEV, 1984) FROM FISH SCOMBEROMORUS GUTTATUS OF KARACHI COAST, PAKISTAN

*Rana Hadi and Fatima Mujib Bilqees

Department of Zoology, Jinnah University for Women, Karachi, Pakistan
*Corresponding author; E.mail: ranahadi2000@yahoo.co.uk

ABSTRACT

Cathucotyle arabiansis, a new species, is described from the gills of fish Scomberomorus guttatus of  Karachi coast, Pakistan. The present specimens are compared with all existing species of the genus , which are different in several diagnostic characteristics, such as, aseptate oral sucker, single rounded vagina, horseshoe-shaped ovary, clamps consisting of marginal sclerites, 3 pairs of connecting and median sclerites.

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 9 (1-2): 55-58, 2012.

A STUDY ON THE EFFICACY OF INACTIVATED AVIAN E.COLI VACCINE IN LAYER CHICKS

H. Abdul Hannan, Taseer A. Khan, M. Noman Khan and Zulfiqar Ahmad

Poultry Research Laboratory, Department of Physiology, University of Karachi-75270, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

The efficacy of avian Escherichia coli vaccine was studied in the prevention of colibacillosis in layer chicks by using intramuscular and subcutaneous routes. Sixty, one day old Layer chicks were divided into 3 groups (A, B and C) of 20 each. Chicks in each group were randomly divided into 2 replicates. On 15th day of age, chicks in group C (control-non-vaccinated) were injected with 0.9% saline through intramuscular (ten chicks) and subcutaneous routes (ten chicks). Whereas, chicks in group A and B were injected with Avian E.coli vaccine through intramuscular and subcutaneous routes, respectively. Ten birds in each group (A and B) were injected with 0.3ml and ten with 0.5ml of vaccine. Chicks were monitored for 21 days post vaccination and antibody titer through ELISA and AGP were noted. The results obtained through AGP and ELISA shows a marked difference between control and treated birds. Moreover, a high antibody titer was observed in the group which had received 0.5 ml of vaccine through subcutaneous route. Thus it was concluded that a dose of 0.5 ml per bird through subcutaneous elicits a high antibody titer that may provide protection against avian E. coli.

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 9 (1-2): 59-62, 2012.

NATURAL DIET AND FEEDING HABITS OF THE SARDINELLA LONGICEPS VAL. (OIL SARDINE) OF BALOCHISTAN COAST, PAKISTAN

Farzana Yousuf, Naeema Elahi and Sadaf Tabassum

      
 Department of Zoology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.
                                                                                                                                 
ABSTRACT  

The food and feeding habits of  Sardinella longiceps Val.(oil sardine),an important food item from coast of Gwadar, Balochistan was investigated for 12 months period . Four hundred and thirty specimens of S. longiceps Val. were examined for food and feeding habits,   It was caught   by gear operating in the sea floor.Fish obtained from the surface gill net showed poor feeding and the food consisted mainly of Coscinodiscus, a typical diatom. The fish from bottom gill nets and trawl nets had gorged stomachs and the food item Comprised mainly, either Pleurosigma or Ornithocercus , typical bottom-dwelling forms. There was  variation in feeding in relation to size.

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 9 (1-2): 63-67, 2012.

DIVERSITY AND UTILIZATION OF GYMNOSPERMS IN SWAT-KOHISTAN HINDUKUSH RANGE, PAKISTAN

Asad Ullah and Farrukh Hussain

Centre of Plant Biodiversity, University of Peshawar, Peshawar, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

Diversity and utilization of nine Gymnosperm species belonging to four families occurring wild in Swat-Kohistan have been described. Each plant is followed by local name, distribution range, short taxonomic description, part used and local uses.

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 9 (1-2): 69-73, 2012.

CARDIAC FUNCTIONAL IMPROVEMENT FOLLOWING EXERCISE TRAINING PROGRAM IN PAKISTANI PATIENTS AFTER CORONARY ARTERY BYPASS GRAFTING SURGERY

Basit Ansari1, Masood A Qureshi2, Humayun Imran Azeemi3 and Syed Hasan Abbas4

1Department of Health & Physical Education, University Of Karachi,
2Department of Physiology, Dow International Medical College & Director, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi,
3Department of Physiotherapy, Liaquat National Hospital & Medical College ,
4Principal, Department of Physiotherapy Liaquat National Hospital & Medical College.

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of exercise training program on cardiac function indicated by heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) in the patients who had undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery. The study was conducted in 100 cardiac patients of both sexes (age: 57-65 years) who after CABG surgery, were referred to the department of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation between 2008 and 2010 at Liaquat National Hospital & Medical College, Karachi. The patients undertook exercise training program (using treadmill), keeping in view the Borg’s scale of perceived exertion, for 6 weeks. HR and BP were measured at the start and end of the exercise training program. Exercise significantly restored the values of HR and BP (systolic) from the baseline to the last session of the training program. There appeared significant improvement in cardiac function four to six weeks of treadmill exercise training program.

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 9 (1-2): 75-79, 2012.

MICRO AND MACRO ALGAL GUT CONTENT ASSESSMENTS OF TWO LIMPET SPECIES FROM BULEJI AND MANORA, THE ROCKY COASTS OF KARACHI, PAKISTAN
       
Mohammad Humayun Atta and Furqana Chaghtai

Centre of Excellence in Marine Biology, University of Karachi, Karachi, Karachi-75270. Pakistan, E.mail mha_marine biology@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

Micro and Macroalgal gut content assessments of two commonest limpets: Cellana radiata and Acmaea sp. disclosed that both species are basically microphagous algal grazers but Cellana radiata also grazes upon the macroalga Ulva sp. Main food items investigated in the gut of these two limpet species were diatoms, although some Cyanobacterial species were also recorded occasionally.

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 9 (1-2): 81-83, 2012.

THE EFFECTS OF ANILINE ON THE GROWTH OF BUFO MELANOSTICTUS TADPOLES

M. Ahmad1, R.  Hasan1, F. B. Taj1, N. Ahmad2 and S.Akhter1

1Department of Physiology, University of Karachi, Karachi -75270, Pakistan
2Newyork Medical College Valhalla, New York, USA
Email: ruqaiya55@gmail.com// fatimataj04@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

The present investigation was aimed to determine the effect of aniline on the growth of Bufo melanostictus tadpoles .Pre- metamorphic tadpoles maintained in 0.001Nµg/ml solution of aniline for a period of 10 days in the experiment indicated growth retardation of 2mm.

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 9 (1-2): 85-87, 2012.

EFFECTS OF OCCUPATIONAL BENZENE EXPOSURE AMONG SHOEMAKERS IN KARACHI

Muhammad Jamal Haider1, Naeemuddin Arain1*, Naeemullah Qureshi1 and Abdul Rauf2

1Hematological and Hemoparasitic diseases research group, Department of Zoology, Federal Urdu University for Arts, Science & Technology, Gulshan-e-Iqbal campus, Karachi, Pakistan.
2Govt. Superior Degree Science College, Shah Faisal Colony, Karachi, Pakistan
*Corresponding author:

ABSTRACT

The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of benzene exposure on some hematological parameters and work related symptoms among workers of shoemaking units in Karachi. A total of 60 subjects (30 exposed and 30 control workers) in the age range of 20-55 years participated in the study. The results revealed a significant decrease in the erythrocyte account and hemoglobin levels among the exposed workers as compared to controls (P<0.05) while the leukocytes and platelets count were not significantly different in the two groups. The prevalence of work related symptoms was significantly higher in the benzene exposed shoemakers when compared with control subjects (P<0.01). Our data confirmed the association between occupational benzene exposure and deviation in hematological parameters and between the role of occupational exposure in the development of work related symptoms.

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 9 (1-2): 89-91, 2012.

EVALUATION OF PREGNANCY AND THE COMPLICATING DISEASES

Qurat-ul-Ain, Sobia Razi and Sumera Sohail

Department of Physiology, University of Karachi, Karachi 75270, Pakistan
Email: qrtlnain@yahoo.com
           
ABSTRACT

The present paper investigates the evaluation of pregnancy and complicating diseases. A survey was conducted in selected areas of Karachi (North Nazimabad).The pregnant women (19-48 years old) were included in the study. The data was collected from 50 pregnant women during May to July 2011.Data analysis was done by using mean ± S.E.M and t-test. Prevalence of risk factors during pregnancy was found to be 36%. Among these 36% of patients, 10% had hypertension, 18% had diabetes and 8% had hepatitis.

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 9 (1-2): 93-98, 2012.

ECTOPARASITE, NORILECA INDICA (MILNE EDWARDS, 1840) (CRUSTACEAN, ISOPODA, CYMOTHOIDAE) FROM THE MOUTH CAVITY AND BRANCHIAL CHAMBER OF RASTRELLIGER KANAGURTA (CUV, 1817) FROM KARACHI COAST, PAKISTAN

Faheem Ahmed­ 1 and Muhammed Atiqullah Khan2

1Govt.Jamia Millia College Malir City, Karachi, Pakistan.
2Department of Zoology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.

ABTRACT

The Study was carried out to analyze infestation of isopod parasites in the commercially important fish Rastrelliger kanagurta.  It was observed that these parasites create serious damage to branchial chamber or buccal cavity and gills. Two hundred ninety four fishes out of Eight hundred sixty two were infected by the parasites. One hundred thirty five male  Rastrelliger kanagurta out of Four hundred thirty eight and One hundred fifty nine  female Rastrelliger kanagurta out of Four hundred twenty four . One hundred thirty  nine  Male isopods and One hundred fifty  five Female isopods were identified . The  prevalence  of  infestation varied substantially during  April 2010 to March 2011. In male Rastrelliger kanagurta the prevalence was maximum in May 2010 (51.85%) and minimum in Sept 2010 (12.50%). In female   Rastrelliger   kanagurta   the  prevalence  was maximum in May 2010 (57.14%)  and minimum in June 2010 (20%). 

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 9 (1-2): 99-113, 2012.

NEMATODES IN THE SALINE ENVIRONMENT: A MINI OVERVIEW

M. Javed Zaki1, D. Khan1 and M. Abid2

1Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan
2Department of Botany, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, Karachi, Pakistan

ABSTRACT
           
The ecology of free-living nematodes in various natural salinity-affected habitats (viz. Mc Murdo and Taylor valleys of Antarctica, estuaries, deep Sea, Aral Sea bottom, halophytic tuft grass nematodes of golf courses, hyper-arid and hyper-saline oasis and desert soils, coastal entomopathogenic nematodes, stylet-bearing nematodes of mangroves of Sundarban and salinity relations of parasitic nematodes in agricultural systems (hatching of their eggs, larval survival, and infectivity of host plants, as studied by various nematologists,  are briefly overviewed.

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 9 (1-2): 115-121, 2012.

GENETIC BASIS OF HEAVY METAL TOLERANCE IN BACTERIA: A REVIEW

Erum Shoeb1 and Nuzhat Ahmed2

1Department of Genetics, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.
2Centre for Molecular Genetics, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

Throughout the world heavy metal pollution is considered a serious issue. Pakistan is also facing problem of industrial, municipal, vehicular and air pollution. While some of the heavy metals play a vital role in biological systems there are others which are purely toxic with no known cellular role. Excessive levels of even the most essential metals can be highly toxic to the organism.  Essential heavy metal ions present a dual challenge as these are useful but can also be lethal. Genetic basis of heavy metal tolerance in bacteria has been studied by researchers and interesting facts are found which can lead towards the better use of these naturally occurring mechanisms for the betterment of environment for all the living organisms.

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 9 (1-2): 123-137, 2012.

GEOMORPHOLOGY OF KARACHI WITH A BRIEF NOTE ON ITS VEGETATION

Gulraiz Hamid1, Khalil A. Mallick1, M. Bilal1, Ibraheem Azma1, S. Zohaib Ishaq1and R.R. Zohra2

1Department of Geology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.
2Department of Biotechnology, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan. 

Tables Link

ABSTRACT

The Karachi region presents the landforms of varied nature and origin ranging from the arid to fluvial and marine landscapes. This assemblage of landscape reflects polygenesis in origin. Structurally the whole region of Karachi presents a series of plunging folds trending NE-SW which is name after the localities as Cape Monze, Pir Mangho, Drigh road and Landhi-Korangi anticlines.   These four anticlines are alternated with three synclines named as Laljee, Lyari and Malir synclines which are traversed by these sizeable seasonal streams. The landscape features show a marked structural and lithological control although much of land surface is irregularly blanketed by aeolian sandy/silty cover and spotted with gravely mounds of variable dimensions depicting the remnants of former fluvial terraces. The whole area of Karachi region can be divided into six morphological zones from the hinterland to the coastal margin based on the nature and origin of the surface, relief conditions and the landform assemblages. Apart from the other processes of sub-aerial erosion, the process of differential erosion played a dominant role in shaping the landform on the alternately placed folded beds of hard and soft nature. Ridge and valley type topography is well developed whereby the transcurrent faulting has off-setted and truncated the ridges. Through the fault gaps, the opposite pediments are communicating and joined. The coast line is mostly cliffed and conspicuous signs of emergence in near geological past are present. Regression and degradation phenomenon is commonly along the coast line, although some parts show clear signs of progradation. Cumulatively the shoreline is of mixed type. The drainage networks mostly show adjustment with the regional and local grains of area. Presently, the region is passing through an immense phase of degradation in general. A brief note on the vegetation of various habitat types of Karachi is included. Euphorbia caducifolia, Acacia nilotica, A. senegal, Capparis decidua, Commiphora wightii, Salvadora persica, S. oleioides, Prosopis juliflora, P. glandulosa, Tamarix indica, Arthrocnemum indicum, Urochondra setulosa, Ipomoea pes-caprae, Halopyrum mucronatum, and Avicennia marina are the important characteristic species of various habitats. P. juliflora, a species of high ecological amplitude is the most dominant species throughout the area.

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 9 (1-2): 139-147, 2012.

EVALUATION OF RISK FACTORS IN PAKISTANI WOMEN WITH VARYING DEGREE OF BONE PAIN

Lubna Naz, Uzma Batool, Nazish Iqbal Khan and Ghazala Yasmeen

Department of Physiology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

Bone pain has become a common problem in pre and post menopausal women. This study was conducted in the Department of Physiology, University of Karachi and included only female subjects of age between 36 to 56 years having some kind of bone and joint pain. Subjects were investigated for many pathological and non pathological risk factors for bone pain through a detailed questionnaire. BMI and Waist to hip ratio for the evaluation of obesity were calculated. Blood samples for the estimation of serum alkaline phosphatase and total cholesterol were taken. Several pathological and behavioral risk factors were found in the subjects. Multiple non pathological factors like estrogen deficiency, inadequate dietary calcium and vitamin D intake, physical inactivity, stress and use of caffeine and soft drink were potential risks for bone pain even in the absence of any bone illness. It was observed that majority of the women have many risk factors among them sedentary lifestyle, less exposure to sunlight, obesity, soft drinks use are important. The incidence of bone pain was found to be higher with age. Serum alkaline phosphatase levels were higher in all subjects suggesting some bone disease. There was no significant correlation found between blood Cholestrol and bone pain. Thus it is concluded that incidence of bone pain in Pakistani middle-aged women is an alarming situation. Our lifestyle, diet pattern, physical activity should be modified to avoid the risks for bone pain. Bone pain in old age women is due to lack of protective effects of estrogen therefore during young age some adequate steps regarding lifestyles and diet should be taken to avoid complications later.

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 9 (1-2): 149-156, 2012.

SPECIES OF GENUS SARDINELLA IN PAKISTAN: A REVIEW

Y. Farzana1, E. Naeema1, M. Moazzam2 and H. B. Osmany2

1Department of Zoology, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan.
 (naeema_elahi@hotmail.com)
2Marine Fisheries Department, Government of Pakistan, Fish Harbour, West Wharf, Karachi, Pakistan. (mmoazzamkhan@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Eight species of Sardinellas are reported from Pakistan. Of these Sardinella longiceps, S. sindensis, S. gibbosa and  S. albella are of common occurrence in Pakistan. Report of S. atricauda  from Pakistan is possibly because of misidentification whereas there are some doubts about occurrence of S. fimbriata and S. brachysoma from Pakistan.  A key to known aspecies and their distribution from Pakistan are also included in the study.

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 9 (1-2): 157-159, 2012.

CORRELATION BETWEEN DOWN SYNDROME AND PROGNOSIS OF ACUTE MEGAKARYOBLASTIC LEUKEMIA

S Abdolhamid Angaji1,*, Atousa Haghi2 and Banafshe Fazelidelshad2

1 Department of Biology, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran
2 Department of Biology, North Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

  • Corresponding author, email: Angaji@tmu.ac.ir

ABSTRACT

Acquired mutations in megakaryocyte transcription factor GATA1 have recently been reported in Down syndrome (Ds), transient myeloproliferative disorder (TMD), and acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (AMKL).We focus on children with Down syndrome who are at a much higher risk for leukemia. Acquired somatic mutations in GATA1 in combination with trisomy 21 cause TMD and AMKL. Compared to the general population, children with trisomy 21 have increased risk of AMKL. However, trisomy 21-AMKL has a much better prognosis than AMKL not a companied by trisomy 21.

 

 

 
Home  |  Aboutus  |  Editorial Board  |  Instruction  |  Contents  |  Subcribe  |  Feed Back
Copyright 2011 - 2012 IJBB. All rights reserved.
Design by Citi IT Solution