Homepage Aboutus Editorial Board Instruction Contents Subcribe Feedback
 


Abstract July 2006

Abstract 2006
+ Abstract January 2006
+ Abstract April 2006
+ Abstract July 2006
+ Abstract October 2006

 

THE FRUITS OF PAKISTAN: DIVERSITY, DISTRIBUTION, TRENDS OF PRODUCTION AND USE

D. Khan1 and S.S. Shaukat2

1Department of Botany, Govt. National College, Karachi - 74800, Pakistan.
2Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi -75270, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

In all, some 144 types of fruits of Pakistan, belonging to 49 families and 78 genera, which are sold on shops or by the hawkers, or eaten locally or elsewhere as fun or famine food or are under research trial are described with reference to their distribution, trends of production and use. Citrus, mango, apple, banana, dates, melons, apricot, pear, peach, plum, guava, papaya and grape are the major fruits. Rosaceae, Rutaceae, and Moraceae are the three top families contributing 27, 12, and 12 types of fruits, respectively. Representative to these families, Citrus, Prunus, and Ficus are three top genera contributing 12, 10 and 7 types of fruits, respectively. Most of the genera (52) were represented by single fruit type. Some 22 genera were those, which represented 2-4 types of fruits.

SUCCESSES AND FAILURES IN MAMMALIAN CLONING

S.M.H. Andrabi

Animal Reproduction Laboratory, Animal Sciences Institute, National Agricultural Research Centre, Park Road, Islamabad, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

Mammalian somatic cell cloning by nuclear transfer is relatively a new reproductive biotechnique with many potential applications. However, at the current stage of development, the reprogramming of epigenetic inheritance by nuclear transfer is still inefficient. The variable conception or birth rates currently associated with cloning in mammals cannot be cited as justification for not embracing this technology as the future use of therapeutic cloning and of embryonic stem cells in tissue and cell therapy will be determined by its help. Similarly the role of cloning in producing transgenic livestock is unequivocal. Therefore, it would be shortsighted to reject it out of hand until we learn more about its possible future role in therapeutic medicine and animal biotechnology. Further efforts and new paradigms are needed to perfect this biological tool and extend it to its fullest potential.

BIOREMEDIATION AND ITS APPLICATION IN WASTE MANAGEMENT

Seema Jilani

Department of Environmental Engineering, NED University of Engineering and Technology,
Karachi. 75270, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

Pyrethroid, carbamate and organophosphate compounds were introduced to replace the recalcitrant and hazardous chlorinated pesticides. Although newly introduced pesticides were considered to be biodegradable, some of them are highly toxic and their residues are found in the environment. Moreover, some of these pesticides generates metabolites that are also toxic. A serious environmental concern is the contamination of ecosystems due to pesticide discharges from manufacturing plant, surface runoff, leaching, accidental spills and other resources. Safe and economical disposal of pesticides is a current problem of significant magnitude. Although microorganisms capable of degrading pesticides have been isolated. However, knowledge about bioremediation of these toxic compound in the soil and water environments is sparse. In this review, the role of microorganisms and the essential factors that enhanced the biodegradation process are described. This information may be helpful in designing on-site bioremediation systems (e.g. on-site bioreactor) for the degradation of toxic compounds like pesticides which are resistant otherwise to conventional treatment.

PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF GINGER (ZINGIBER OFFICINALE): A REVIW

Sabahat Saeed and Perween Tariq

Department of Microbiology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

Zingiber officinale (ginger) has been used for thousands of years as culinary spice and medicinally. It has long been used for the treatment of migraine, bacterial dysentery, toothache, cold and diarrhea. Besides, it also has antibacterial, antifungal, antiparasitic, antiviral, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-hypercholesterolaemic properties. It contains a wide variety of biologically active compounds. The major pharmacological activities of ginger appear to be due to gingerols and shogaols. It has not been associated with any significant adverse effects.

REDESCRIPTION OF DELEGORGUELLA VENTRALIS (GERMAR) (HETEROPTERA: PENTATOMIDAE): THE OLDEST LITTLE KNOWN SPECIES OF THE GENUS DELEGORGUELLA SPINOLA WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO METATHORACIC SCENT AURICLE AND MALE AND FEMALE GENITALIA WITH A NOTE ON ITS GENUS AND THEIR CLADISTIC RELATIONSHIPS

Imtiaz Ahmad1 and Muhmmad Zahid2

1Department of Zoology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan
2Department of Zoology, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science & Technology, Gulshan-e-Iqbal Campus, Karachi, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

The Myrocheine stink bug genus Delegorguella Spinola with its oldest, little known species Delegorguella ventralis is redescribed in detail with special reference to its metathoracic scent auricles and male and female genitalia and in this light their phylogenetic relationships are also briefly discussed.

BIODIVERSITY OF RED COTTON BUGS: REDESCRIPTION OF DYSDERCUS ORIENTALIS SCHOUTEDEN (HEMIPTERA: PYRRHOCORIDAE)

S. S. Qadri 1 and Imtiaz Ahmad 2

1Department of Zoology, Jamia Millia Government Degree College, Malir, Karachi, Pakistan
2Department of Zoology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

Dysdercus orientalis Schouteden is redescribed in detail with special reference to its metathoracic scent auricle, male genitalia including inflated aedeagus and female genitalia including spermatheca. The species is also compared with its closest allies and its cladistic relationship is also briefly discussed in the light of its apomorphic characters.

REDESCRIPTION OF EUPROCTIS DIVISA WALKER (LEPIDOPTERA: LYMANTRIIDAE) WITH DIVERSITY FROM PAKISTAN

S.Nargis Viqar1, S.Kamaluddin2, Kr.A.B. S. Khan2 and Aliza Ali1

1Department of Zoology, Government Degree College for Women, Block-M, North Nazimabad, Karachi, Pakistan
2Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, Gulshan-e-Iqbal Campus, Karachi, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

The Euproctis divisa Walker is redescribed first time from Pakistan with special reference to its head, venations of fore and hind wings, male and female genitalia and diversity are also briefly discussed.

REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY OF ABUTILON FRUTICOSUM GUILL. & PERR.

Rubina Abid

Department of Botany , University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

The reproductive biology of Abutilon fruticosum Guill. & Perr., in term of pollen ovule ratio, insect’s behaviour and breeding system has been carried out. Abutilon fruticosum is self compatible. Breeding experiments and pollen ovule ratio indicate it is a facultative autogamous taxon. Both insect mediated and direct autogamy seems to be the rule. The flower is regularly visited by insects. Mainly bees are found to be the main pollinators whereas, butterflies are just visitors.

ORIGANUM VULGARE INHALER IN THE TREATMENT OF CHRONIC RHINOSINUSITIS, A DOUBLE BLIND PLACEBO CONTROLLED RANDOMIZED CLINICAL TRIAL

A.A. Madani1, M. Azadbakht2, M. Kosarian3, P. Rabie4 and A.R. Khalilian5

1Department of Traditional Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Science, Iran
2Pharmacognosy, Department of Traditional Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Science, Iran
3Pediatrics, Department of Traditional Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Science, Iran
4MD, Department of Traditional Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Science, Iran
5Vital Statistics, Department of Traditional Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Science, Iran
E-mail: Azadbakhtm @yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

Symptoms of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) are cumbersome and refractory to most systemic medications and even after surgical intervention, the recurrence of symptoms are frequent. In order to study the beneficial effects of Origanum vulgare inhaler in releasing the symptoms, this study was conducted at Boo Ali Sina Hospital Sari, Iran. Sixty four patients were recruited and allocated equally in case and control groups matched for age,sex and duration of symptoms.15.6 and 25 percent of cases and controls had history of sinuses surgery. All symptoms including headache,nasal congestion, sinus pain, post nasal discharge, eye pain, purulence in nasal cavity and cough were significantly reduced after the intervention except for hyposmia and nasal discharge(p<0.00).No side effect was reported. Inhalation of 75% hydroalcoholic extract of Origanum vulgare effective in releasing most symptoms of CRS.

FUNGI ASSOCIATED WITH STORED SEEDS OF PARTHENIUM HYSTEROPHORUS COLLECTED FROM LAHORE

Arshad Javaid, Shazia Shafique and Sobiya Shafique

Department of Mycology and Plant Pathology, University of the Punjab, Quaid-e-Azam Campus Lahore, Pakistan.
E-mail: arshadjpk@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

The present study reports the fungi associated with stored seeds of an alien weed Parthenium hysterophorus L. collected from Lahore from February to June 2006. Experiment was conducted on July, 2006. A total of three fungal species namely Aspergillus niger van Tieghem, A. flavus Link ex Gray and Alternaria alternata (E.M. Fries) Keissler were isolated from Parthenium seeds. The percentage of occurrence of A. nigeer, A. flavus and A. alternata was 10, 20 and 30%, respectively in February. In the succeeding months of March and April both the number of species and their frequency of occurrence were reduced. Seeds collected in May and June did not harbour any fungal flora. This is the first report on seed-born mycoflora of Parthenium.

GLOMALEAN SPORE FLORA OF PAKISTAN III. SPORES FORMED FREELY IN SOIL AGGREGATES

Ghazala Nasim

Department of Mycology and Plant Pathology, University of the Punjab, Quaid-e-Azam Campus, Lahore-54590, Pakistan E.mail: ghazalanasim@hotmail.com

ABSTRACT

Glomalean spores were isolated from the soil of a fallow wheat field by direct soil paste method. These spores in the soil aggregates were formed without any connection with some organic matter or living host. Seventeen species of Glomus, three of Scutellospora and one species each of Gigaspora, Acaulospora and Sclerocystis were recorded.

RECURRING INCIDENCE OF SOOTY MOULD OF MANGO IN KARACHI AND ITS CONTROL

Maria Hamid1 and M. Jalaluddin2

1Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan
2Department of Agriculture, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

The sooty mould fungi present in sooty mass on the upper leaves of mango (Mangifera indica L.) were studied and identified. Altogether 18 species of sooty mould fungi belonging to 8 genera were found. The mealy bugs appeared first as white specks on the under surface of mango leaves and a causal connection between sooty moulds and mealy bugs on mango leaves have been explained. The blackening of the mango foliage was found due to the growth of sooty mould fungi. Its presence in the form of black spots and blemish on mango fruits reduce the value of mango fruits. Spraying of fungicide and insecticide separately on mango foliage reduced the incidence and spraying of the two together further decreased the level of incidence when applied at an early stage of the incidence of the disease. Repeated application of liquefied coal tar around the base of the stem was found cheap and effective than mineral oil mixed with starch for preventing the female mealy bugs from crawling and climbing on mango trees before flowering and formation of mango fruits.

SURVEY OF STYLET-BEARING NEMATODES ASSOCIATED WITH DATE-PALM IN KHUZDAR DISTRICT, BALOCHISTAN, PAKISTAN

Aly Khan1, Shamsul Islam2, S.S. Shaukat3 and Z.A. Handoo4

1Crop Diseases Research Institute, PARC, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.
2Centre of Agriculture and Bioscience, Regional Bioscience Centre, Rawalpindi, Pakistan..
3Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.
4Nematology Laboratory, USDA, ARS, Beltsville, MD-20705, USA.

ABSTRACT

Surveys were conducted during September and October 2002 to identify the stylet-bearing nematodes associated with date-palm in Khuzdar district, Balochistan, Pakistan. The nematodes recorded were namely Tylenchus Bastian, 1865 sp.; Merlinius Siddiqi, 1970; Helicotylenchus indicus Sher, 1963 Psilenchus hilarulus Siddiqi, 1963; Aphelenchoides Fischer, 1984; Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) 1919, Chitwood, 1949 and Xiphinema americanum Cobb, 1913.
The similarity between the localities based on the qualitative (presence/absence) nematode data was calculated using Jaccard’s coefficient of similarity. The dendograms derived from hierarchical agglomerative clustering of twelve locations of Khuzdar district showed the largest group with five localities. This group was characterized by high density of H. indicus; X. americanum and M. incognita.

EVALUATION OF AQUEOUS EXTRACTS OF NEEM SEED AND SEED PARTS AGAINST FOUR SPECIES OF STORED GRAIN FUNGI

Ishrat Niaz and S.A.R Kazmi

Grain Storage Research Institute, Southern-Zone Agricultural Research Centre, Pakistan Agricultural Research Council, Karachi University Campus, Karachi-75270,Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

Aqueous extracts of neem (Azadirachta indicia A. Juss) seed, seed kernel, seed coat and deoiled seed cake were evaluated for and fungicidal effects at three different concentrations against Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus, Fusarium moniliforme, and Rhizoctonia solani. Benlate ( fungicide) was used for comparison. All the extracts have shown fungicidal actitvity of varying degree against test species. Neem seed extract at 0.1 % concentration was as effective as benlate against R.solani and neem cake extract was found most effective against F. moniliforme. The responses were does dependent and statistically significant compared to the untreated check.

INFLUENCE OF TEMPERATURES ON RADIAL MYCELIAL GROWTH OF POTATO ISOLATES OF RHIZOCTONIA SOLANI KÜHN

C. A. Rauf1, F. Naz1, A. Riaz1 and A. Ikram2

1Associate Professor, Department of Plant Pathology, University of Arid Agric. Rawalpindi, Pakistan
2 Assistant Professor Department of Soil Science, University of Arid Agric, Rawalpindi, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

Eighteen Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group (AG) 3, 4 and 5 isolates recovered from potato tubers viz. KR-2, TH-1, SL-5, PK-1, TAX-1, OK-1, CL-58, BLN-1(AG-3), JG-4, JG-7, TH-2, SL-8, ST-9 (AG-4), ST1, QA-9, CL-56, SJ-5 and KM-2 (AG-5) were evaluated for their radial mycelial growth rates at 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35°C temperatures. All the eight R. solani AG-3 isolates showed the maximum radial mycelial growth rate at 25°C, although, there were differences in growth rate among various R. solani AG-3 isolates. Among the isolates of AG 3, isolate CL-58 showed the highest growth rate of 1.5 cm per day pursued by isolate KR-2, 1.42 cm/day and TH-1, 1.40 cm /day but they were at par with each other. As an AG, R. solani AG-3 isolates showed the maximum mean radial mycelial growth of 1.33 cm/day at 25°C. Temperature of 25°C was also found the best for radial mycelial growth of R. solani AG-4 isolates tested except isolate SL-8, which exhibited the maximum growth at 20°C but was statistically at par with AG-4 isolates, TH-2 and ST-9. R. solani AG-5 isolates also showed the best growth at 25°C followed by 20°C. Statistically non-significant differences were found among all the isolates of AG-5. In general, growth rate increased with increase in temperature up to 25°C for most of the isolates from the various AGs examined.

BILE DUCT HYPERPLASIA AND FATTY DEGENERATION IN GOAT LIVER INFECTED WITH FASCIOLA GIGANTICA

F. M. Bilqees1, Imrana Shabbir2 and Nasira Khatoon3

1Department of Zoology, Jinnah University For Women Nazimabad, Karachi. 74600, Pakistan
2Department of Zoology, Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, Gulshan-e-Iqbal, Karachi and
3Department of Zoology University of Karachi, Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

Fasciola gigantica is a common liver parasite in ruminants in Pakistan including goat. This infection is of great economic and public health importance. But the studies on tissue damage caused by this infection are meager specieally in goat. Therefore, observations are made by the study of histological sections of infected liver of goat Microscopic observations revealed severe host tissue reaction and damage including bile duct hyperplasia and fatty degeneration of liver. There was a quantitative increase in the number of cells of bile duct epithelium increasing the volume of the duct. Fatty degeneration indicates severe injury and was obvious by the accumulation of fat vacuoles within parenchymal cells resulting into a foamy appearance under the microscope. Dilated sinusoids, fibrosis, and vascular changes were also observed.

ANTIBACTERIAL EFFECT OF EUPHORBIA PULCHERIMA ON STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS

A. Ghaffar Ebadi

Department of Biology, Islamic Azad University, Qaemshahr branch, Center of Jouybar , Mazandaran , Iran; E.mail : Dr_ebadi2000@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

Bente- qunsul (Euphorbia pulcherima L.) is an ornamental and medicinal plant in Iran. It belongs to the family Euphorbiaceae, which grows in most of Europe and widely in northern Iran. We tested the aqueous leaf extract of E. pulcherima in vitro for its antibacterial activity. The extract showed concentration-dependent antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus 8327. This activity was heat resistant, but the activity of freeze-dried extract gradually diminished during a 90-day period. The traditional use of Iranian Bente-qunsul for infectious diseases and for controlling fever appears to be justified.

PHYTOCHEMISTRY AND BIOACTIVITY OF CASSIA ITALICA

M. H. Kazmi, Aliha Zehra, Sadia Khan, Farah Siddique and Saira Hameed

Department of Applied Chemistry , University of Karachi, Karachi -75270, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

Phyto chemical studies on Cassia italica resulted in the isolation of some known ß sistosterol stigmasterol, a myrine, 1,5 dihydroxy-3-methoxy-7-methyl anthraquinone, 1,5 dihydroxy-3 methyl anthraquinone and a new anthraquinone. Structure of new compound was assigned on the basis of spectral studies. The new compound showed anti bacterial activity.

RESIDUAL TOXICITY OF METHAMIDOPHOS AGAINST A COMMON FRESH WATER FISH

Tahir Anwar1, Seema Tahir1, Imtiaz Ahmad2, A. H. Baladi3 and Omm-e-Hani3

1Pesticide Research Institute, Southern-zone Agricultural Research Center, Pakistan Agricultural Research Council (PARC), Karachi University Campus Karachi-75270, Pakistan.
2Department of zoology, University of Karachi, Karachi- 75270, Pakistan.
3Institute of Environmental Studies, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

The residual toxicity of lethal and sub lethal doses of methamidophos (Organophosphate) were determined against a common carp (Channa punctata). The LC50s were calculated to be 8.58 mg/l after 96 hours followed by 16.62 and 25.32 after 72 and 48 h of treatment respectively. The importances of pesticides as the run off from the agricultural fields to aquatic bodies are discussed.

EFFECT OF THE AQUEOUS GREEN LEAF EXTRACT OF PSIDIUM GUAJAVA ON GLUCOSE LEVEL IN RAT

A. Ghaffar Ebadi

Department of Biology, Islamic Azad University, Qaemshahr branch, Center of Jouybar , Mazandaran , Iran; E.mail : Dr_ebadi2000@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

Psidium guajava belongs to the family of Myrtaceae, is widely grown in Sistan and Balochistan provinces in the South of Iran. P. guajava is known in folk medicine as a medicinal plant that used as hypotensive and anti-diabetic. In the present studies aqueous green leaf extract of P. guajava (400 mg/kg) showed a strong glucose lowering effect after oral administration in rats. The decrease of glycemia has reached to 30% of the control value 2 h after glucose loading. The amount of glucose absorbed in a segment jejunum in situ was 9.32±0.32 mg in the presence of tea extract as compared to control (14.55 ±045 mg ) during 2 h (P<0.05). The results indicate that aqueous extract of tea has a significant anti hyperglycemic effect that may be caused in part by the reduction of intestinal glucose absorption.

IMMUNOGENICITY OF NIAB ANGARA VACCINE IN BROILERS

M. Salahuddin1, T. M. Chaudhry1, Nadeem Yaqoob1, Asma Ashraf1, Shazia Khaliq1 and
Fuad Shah2

1Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology (NIAB), P.O. Box 128, Jhang Road, Faisalabad
2Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, University of Agriculture Faisalabad

ABSTRACT

The present study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of NIAB ANGARA vaccine under field conditions. For this purpose 2000 broiler chicks were vaccinated against Newcastle disease (ND) and Infectious Bursal disease (IBD). NIAB ANGARA vaccine was injected to 1000 broilers on 30th day of age. When the flock showed 5 to 10 mortalities per day, HPS was suspected in post mortem reports. Remaining 1000 broilers were kept as control. Seventy to eighty birds died in treated group within 2-3 days after vaccination then mortalities reduced to 1 and 2 birds per day. Flock became normal after 7th day of vaccination, whereas mortalities increased slowly and remained high in control group. Blood samples were collected from birds of treated and control groups on 37th and 44th day of age. Antibody titer against HPS vaccine was determined by Indirect Haemagglutination test. Results showed that NIAB ANGARA vaccine triggered the production of antibodies against HPS virus. The treated flock recovered from the disease within a week.

EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT DIETARY FATS ON PLASMA LIPID PROFILES IN RABBITS

Ali Sehattei1, Minoo ilkhanipour1, NasAhmadei-asl2, Samad Zare1, Reza Heidari1

1Biology Department,Science Faculty,Urmia University, Urmia, Iran.
2Department of Physiology, Medical Science University, Iran

ABSTRACT

Many factors are associated with decreased risk for coronary heart disease. One of these main factors is the distribution of plasma cholesterol over low density and high density lipoproteins (LDLs & HDLs). This can be modified by changing the source and amount of fats and oils in the diet. Therefore the main purpose of this investigation is to assess the effects of three dietary high fat diets on distribution of plasma lipoproteins in rabbit. Twenty male New Zealand White rabbits aged 4.5 months were randomly divided into four different groups. To each group was assigned a total of 5 rabbits and dietary feeding was commenced 15 days later at the age of four months after the rabbits had been acclimatised to their new environment in the animal experimental unit. The rabbits were fed for a total of two months a 10% (w/w) high fat diet containing the dietary oils I. Fed basal diet on commercial diet (CO), II. Fed basal diet contains 10% batterfat-ghee-oil (GH), III. Fed basal diet with 10% hydrogenated vegetable fat (HD) & IV. Fed basal diet with 10% unsaturated sunflower oil (SU). At the end of two months feeding the rabbits fasted overnight and had their blood collected by heart puncture. Blood samples were collected for measuring and comparison of the concentrations of HDL and LDL cholesterol, total cholesterol and triglycerides inserum. Results show that Plasma lipids and lipoproteins are affected by type of dietary fats and it seems that the impact of the hydrogenated oil is higher than others, and it increased significantly TG,HDL-chol, VLDL-chol respectively (P<0.05) However there was no difference in total cholesterol and LDL-chol between treatments. HDL-cholesterol increased in the sunflower oil significantly (P<0.05). Total cholesterol increased in ghee-oil-treatment group compared with basal-control diet (P<0.05). LDL/HDL ratio elevated significantly in 2nd group and decreased significantly in 4th group compared with control group respectively (P<0.05). Our findings elucidated that plasma lipids and lipoproteins are affected by the type of the diet, and it seems that the effect of hydrogenated vegetable oil (trans) is more prominent in contrast to the public assumption ghee-oil, as compared with sunflower vegetable oil that had smaller increasing effect on plasma lipids. However, in order to gain confirmation more studies are required.

DETERMINATION OF INDICATOR SPECIES AND COMPARISON OF SOIL CHARACTERISTICS OF CENTAUREA MUCRONIFERA DC. AND CENTAUREA PYRROHOBLEPHARA BOISS. DISTRIBUTED IN TURKEY

Sezgin Çelik1, Kürsad Özkan2, Ersin Yücel3 ,R. Süleyman Göktürk4, and M.Öztürk5

1 Onsekiz Mart Univ., Fac. of Sci. & Arts, Dept. of Biology, Çanakkale, Turk
2 S. D. Univ., Fac. of Forestry, Dept. of Soil Sci.& Ecology, Isparta,Turkey.
3Anadolu University, Faculty of Science, Biology Department, Eskisehir, Turkey.
4 Akdeniz Univ., Fac. of Sci. & Arts, Dept. of Biology, Antalya, Turkey.
5 Ege University, Centre for Environmental Studies, Bornova-Izmir,Turkey

ABSTRACT

This study was carried out to determine the indicator plant species of Centaurea mucronifera and Centaurea pyrrohoblephara and to compare the spatial distribution of these species in relation to the soil characteristics. For this purpose interspecific correlation analysis was used. In general 46 positive and 4 negative indicator species of C. mucronifera, and 10 positive and 3 negative indicator species of C.pyrrohoblephara were determined. The highest “C” coefficient among the positive indicator species in the C. mucronifera was determined in the absence of other indicator species in relation to the variable formed by the presence of any seven positive indicator species. The highest “C“ coefficient of C. pyrrohoblephara was determined in the absence of other indicator species in relation to the variable formed according to the presence of any one positive indicator species. Canonic discriminant analysis (CDA) was used for a comparison of soil characteristics of these species. In this analysis the discrimination was significant at a level of 5%. The success of discrimination classification was 76.7%, which is very high. This result depicts that C. mucronifera and C. pyrrohoblephara prefer different sites in terms of soil characteristics. The results subjected to an interspecific correlation analysis also support the statistically significant negative association among these species. According to the sand, loam, total lime, avaible P2O5 and organic matter contents. Latter showed that the discrimination between C. mucronifera and C. pyrrohoblephara was succesfull at a significant level of 5%. The classification succesfull for the discrimination was 76.7% , which is a very high value. This result is supported by the negative association we obtained between C. mucronifera and C. pyrrohoblephara via interspecific correlation analysis.

PARTHENIUM WEED – AN EMERGING THREAT TO PLANT BIODIVERSITY IN PAKISTAN

Arshad Javaid, Sobiya Shafique and Shazia Shafique

Department of Mycology and Plant Pathology, University of the Punjab, Quaid-e-Azam Campus Lahore, Pakistan.
e-mail: arshadjpk@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

The present study was carried out to investigate that how rapidly Parthenium hysterophorus L., a native of tropical America, is colonizing and spreading on new wasteland areas. For this purpose a four hectors piece of land in Punjab University Lahore that has been fallow for the last two years was selected to study the colonization of Parthenium in comparison with the local flora. A total of 31 weed species were found at the selected site. Phytosociological study of the site revealed that Parthenium has become the third most frequent weed after Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. and Malvestrum tricuspidatum A. Gray and the most densely populated weed only second to C. dactylon at this site within the two years. Fast growth rate, high reproductive potential, adaptive nature and interference by allelopathy are the major contributing factors for rapid spread and successful establishment of this weed in any ecosystem.

EFFECT OF ATRIPLEX LENTIFORMIS ON SOIL PROPERTIES AND VICE VERSA

Muhammad Arshad Ullah1, A. Rasul Naseem2, S. A. Raza Zaidi3

1Rangeland Research Program, NARC, Islamabad, Pakistan
2Soil Salinity Research Institute, Pindi Bhattian, Pakistan
3Ari. Extension Department., Jhelum, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

A growing experimental plot of Atriplex lentiformis was selected at the research area of University of Agriculture, Faisalabad. The Atriplex lentiformis plants (240 number) growing at the spacing of 3 x 3 meter were available in an area of one acre. For the present study, 12 approximately uniform plants in age, spread and height were selected. Two cuttings were obtained with an interval of two months. Plant height and crosswise diameters were recorded to calculate the canopy volume. Fresh and oven dried biomass was also determined. Soil profile was sampled up to the depth of 150 cm and representative soil samples were collected and analyzed for ECe, pH, and SAR. Mean ECe, of the soil was decreased in second cutting as compared to first one, thus indicating a decrease with plant growth. Mean soil pHs, was found to be 8.6 or less at different depths at the time of first cutting which was raised to 8.8 after last cutting. Mean surface SAR was recorded as 27.3 (m. mol L-1)1/2 at first cutting and 20.7 (m mol L-1)1/2 at last cutting. Thus, there was a decrease in SAR at the last cutting. Correlation between soil ECe and volume/fresh yield of Atriplex lentiformis was positive and generally significant. However, all other correlations like between soil pHs and plant parameters, SAR and plant parameters.

HEAVY METAL ANALYSIS OF DRINKING WATER IN KORANGI, LANDHI AND MALIR TOWNS OF KARACHI

A. A. Langah 1, Qamarul Haque 2, Z. T. Maqsood3 and Shahnaz Perveen4

1Environmental Protection Agency, Government of Sindh Karachi, Pakistan
2Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, University Road Karachi, Pakistan
3Department of Chemistry, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan
4PCSIR, Laboratories complex, Karachi, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted for the investigation the status of drinking water of various towns of Karachi city from various sources including municipal water supply. The present study conducted to evaluate the suitability of surface water/ tap water provided by the KW&SB water quality for drinking purpose with respect to the levels of heavy metals Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Fe, Zn, Pb, Mn, The city has been divided in 18 towns and samples of the drinking water were collected from each town at the consumer end. Quality of drinking water was examined by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer as per method described in APHA (1998) and it was found that municipal water is almost contaminated with the organisms of public health importance in a higher than any permitted standards. This is an acute problem in Karachi city. Where free style of disposal of toxic industrial waste water/effluents into the natural water bodies contaminate the surface and ground water.

EFFECT OF ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS ON CHANGES OF RBC, WBC CORTISOL HORMONE AND IMMUNE SYSTEM IN GUINEA PIGS

Samad Zare1, A. F. Sanaz1, 2, Hayatgeiby Hossein3, Alipour Samad4 and Sadeghi Hassan5

1Department of Biolog , Faculty of Science, Urmia University
2Bonab Research Center, 56515-196, Bonab, Azerbaijan, Iran
3Department of physiology, Faculty of Veterinary, Urmia University
4Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, Urmia University
5Department of Physics ,Faculty of Science, Urmia University

ABSTRACT

Electromagnetic field have various effects on living organisms such as blood composition or enzymatic changes. The effects devoted on the electromagnetic magnitude and time of exposure. This study is carried out to measure variations of RBC, WBC, Lymphocyte and Cortisol Hormone level in 36 adult male Guinea pig. Group A as control group exposed to nil electromagnetic field for 2 h per day for 5 days duration , group B exposed to 0.013 µT in 5 Hz to the same duration period , group C exposed to 0.207 µT in 50 Hz in similar condition , group D exposed for 4 h per day for 5 days in 0.013 µT, group E tested in 0.207 µT as group D , group F used as controlled group exposed for 4 h per day in nil electromagnetic field. Blood of Guinea pig tested after 5 days then data analyzed by Dunnett test and one way ANOVA that indicated a significant difference between control group and tested group of four hours, RBC, WBC and Lymphocyte level decreased , only WBC in group C increased but Cortisol Hormone in group C decreased .


 
Home  |  Aboutus  |  Editorial Board  |  Instruction  |  Contents  |  Subcribe  |  Feed Back
Copyright 2011 - 2012 IJBB. All rights reserved.
Design by Citi IT Solution