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Abstract July 2013

Abstract 2013
+ Abstract July 2013

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BIOLOGY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY
VOLUME 10, NUMBER 3, JULY, 2013

 

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 10 (3): 327-330, 2013.

IN VITRO CALLUS INDUCTION OF SALVIA SANTOLINIFOLIA BOISS

Tour Jan1, Beena Naqvi2 and Raiha Qadri1

1Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan
2PCSIR Laboratories Complex, Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan
*Corresponding author email: tour_jan@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

An efficient callus induction protocol through nodes, internodes and leaves explants were established in Salvia santolinifolia, a medicinally important herb belonging to the family Lamiaceae. Calli were initiated on Murashige and Skoog  (1962) (MS) medium supplemented with various concentrations of Napthalenacetic acid (NAA) (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 mg/l) and Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 mg/l) and BA (0.5). Maximum fresh weight (5.25 ± 2.39 g) of callus was achieved on MS medium containing 1.5 mg/l of NAA from leaf explants. It was observed that the combination of cytokinins and auxin suppressed callus induction.

 

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 10 (3): 331-338, 2013.

CLONAL PROPAGATION AND HISTOLOGICAL STUDIES OF ANTHURIUM ANDRENUM LIND. THROUGH SOMATIC EMBRYOS

Saifullah Khan1*, Sheeba Naz1, Mariam Raziq2, Nurul Kabir1 and Sadia Galani3

1Biotechnology Wing, H.E.J. Research Institute of Chemistry, Dr. Panjwani Center for Molecular medicine and drug research, International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.
2Department of Biomedical Engineering,  Sir Syed University of Engineering and Technology, Karachi.
3Karachi Institute of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (KIBGE), University of Karachi, Karachi-75270.

ABSTRACT

Anthurium industry plays a significant role in the global floriculture trade. To overcome the demerits of conventional vegetative propagation, micropropagation of Anthurium, through tissue culture is the most alternative techniques to increase the production. Somatic embryogenesis is the maximum expression of cell totipotency in plant cells. Somatic embryos initiation has been studied by using different explants, growth regulators and basal salt media in Anthurium andraenum Lind.. By using mid, proximal and distal end of young leaves on full, half and ¾ strength of MS media by reducing only the macro nutrients. The media were supplemented with benzylaminopurine (BAP) and 2, 4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2, 4-D) - in combinations.
The embryoids were harvested at various stages and examined macro- and microscopically. Histological analysis of the somatic embryo initiation and development from embryogenic mass derived from leaf explants of Anthurium andreanum were conducted. Embryogenic mass along with somatic embryos at different developmental stages were fixed for histological examination, stained with hematoxylin-eosin and observed under a microscope. Embryos showed a sequence of developmental patterns from globular to heart and finally cotyledon stages. Only BAP 1mg/L and 2, 4-D 0.1 mg/L combination with ¾ strength MS was found to be the best for somatic embryogenesis using mid and distal region of the leaf. Shoot multiplication was observed best on MS medium supplemented with BAP 1mg/L and Kinetin 1mg/L. Optimum number of roots were obtained on simple MS medium without plant growth regulator. The regenerated plants were shifted to green house for acclimatization. Various potting mixtures were also studied, only coconut husk and charcoal in 1:1 ratio gave the best result for acclimatization of Anthurium.

 

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 10 (3): 339-352, 2013.

SOME PARAMETERS OF GROWTH OF RIVER COOBA SEEDLINGS UNDER SALT STRESS

Zulfiqar Ali Sahito, D. Khan and Naeem Ahmed

Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.

 ABSTRACT

The experiment was conducted to observe the influence of Sea salt salinity (0, 0.15, 0.3, 0.6, 0.9 and 1.2% corresponding to ECiw of 0.6, 3.51, 5.24, 9.23, 12.81 and 16.67 dS.m-1, respectively) on seedling growth and the physiological, biochemical and mineral parameters of growth in Acacia stenophylla A. Cunn. Ex. Benth. On average basis, 50% reduction in seedling growth performance corresponded to 12.51 ± 1.51 dS.m-1. Phyllode concentrations of protein, sugars, proline and phenols increased significantly with the salt stress and the pigments (chlorophylls and carotenoids) concentrations declined. There was substantial increase in Na and Cl contents of phyllode (303.9 and 145.9 % over control, respectively) in extreme salinity. There was very low variation in K contents – only 4.74% decline over control under extreme salinity.  A. stenophylla appeared to be potassiophillic as K / Na ratio was always much higher than one in magnitude although declined from 10.20 in control to 2.26 under extreme salt stress of ECiw: 16.67 dS.m-1. The results are discussed in physiological context.

 

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 10 (3): 353-362, 2013.

COMBINED EFFECT OF UV-B RADIATION AND ALLELOPATHY ON GERMINATION, SEEDLING GROWTH AND PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF VIGNA UNGUICULATA (L.) WALP.

S. Shahid Shaukat1, Sahar Zaidi2 and Moazzam Ali Khan1

1Institute of Environmental Studies, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.
2Department of Botany, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, Gulshan-e-Iqbal Campus, Karachi, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

This study examines the effect of supplemental UV-B radiation and allelochemical stress alone and in combination on growth and biochemical responses of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata). UV-B irradiation alone (20-40 min. exposure) suppressed the final percentage germination as well as speed of germination. Both root and shoot growth of cowpea were also retarded. The effect of allelopathy was tested using the allelochemical gallic acid which at 40-80ppm inhibited final germination percentage as well as speed of germination, but root and shoot growth were reduced at 20-40ppm concentrations.. Greater final germination percentage and speed of germination were reduced when both allelochemical and UV-B irradiation were applied together. Likewise, root and shoot growth in the combined stress were suppressed to a greater extent compared to the influence of either stress applied alone. UV-B alone or in combination with gallic acid treatment resulted in accumulation of total soluble phenols and greater accumulation was observed in the combined stress. Likewise, phenyl ammonia lyase (PAL) and tyrosine ammonia lyase (TAL) activities were remarkably increased when both the stresses were applied simultaneously compared to UV-B stress alone. The implications and mechanisms of biochemical responses to UV-B and allelopathy together are discussed. 

 

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 10 (3): 363-369, 2013.

EFFECTS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS (CREATED BY HIGH TENSION LINES) ON SOME INDIGENOUS PLANT SPECIES – VI. COMMELINACEAE, CONVOLVULACEAE, CUCURBITACEAE, CYPERACEAE, EUPHORBIACEAE, GENTIANACEAE AND MALVACEAE

Sahar Zaidi1*, Surayya Khatoon2, Muhammad Imran2 and Sadaf Zohair2

 1Department of Botany, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Sciences & Technology, Gulshan-e-Iqbal Campus, Karachi. Pakistan.
2Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270. Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

The genotoxic effects of electromagnetic fields of high voltage power lines were studied in 33 specimens of thirteen species belonging to seven angiospermic families, i.e. Commelinaceae, Convolvulaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Cyperaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Gentianaceae and Malvaceae. The plant specimens were collected from under the high tension lines of different intensities (66 kV, 132 kV, 220 kV and 500 kV). Collection of the same species as control specimens was made from areas where there was no electromagnetic field. The aspects studied were PMC meiosis, meiotic products and pollen fertility. The study showed that with the increase in voltages and strength of magnetic field, the meiotic abnormalities and pollen sterility also increased. During the study of PMC meiosis quite higher percentages of meiotic abnormalities were observed, such as stickiness, pairing disturbances, precocity, laggards, bridges and multipolar divisions etc. These abnormalities were found to be significantly higher in test plants as compared to their respective controls. The meiotic products also showed abnormal products in few specimens. The study of pollen fertility showed significantly higher percentages of sterile pollen grains in test plants in comparison with their controls in most of the cases.

 

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 10 (3): 371-382, 2013.

ALIEN AND INVASIVE PLANT SPECIES OF THE INDUS DELTA

M. Imran1, Surayya Khatoon2, Sahar Zaidi3, Qadeer M. Ali4, and Ghulam Akbar5

1Government Degree Science College, Gulzar -e- Hijri, Karachi, Pakistan.   
Email: imranbotanist@gmail.com
2Botany Department, University of Karachi, Karachi – 75270, Pakistan.
Email: surayyakhatoon@yahoo.com
3Botany Department, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, Gulshan-e- Iqbal, Karachi, Pakistan. Email: saharzee@hotmail.com
4Marine Reference Collection and Resource Centre, University of Karachi, Karachi – 75270, Pakistan.
Email: taxonomist@hotmail.com
5Pakistan Wetlands Programme – WWF, House No. 62, St. No. 25, Sector F-10/1, Islamabad, Pakistan.
Email: akbarwwf@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

Floristic survey of the Indus delta was conducted over ten years from 2001 to 2011. During this work, 31 alien or non –native species were collected for the first time from the study area, of which three species, viz. Prosopis juliflora, Salvinia molesta, and Eichhornia crassipes were found to be highly invasive; the first one in the terrestrial habitats and later two in freshwater to brackish aquatic ecosystems. Another 3 species were also found to be invasive, while 10 showed tendency to become invasive in future. Invasive species are recognized as a big threat to the native biodiversity. They also create many other environmental problems and even threaten the health of human beings and livestock. A comparison with the old records showed that the number of alien species has steadily increased in the recent decades. Before the present work, only 25 alien or non-native species were known from the study area and none of them was invasive. The total number of alien species is now 56.The factors responsible for the spread and establishment of alien species include increased and faster human travel, increased international trade, and destruction, fragmentation, or modification of the natural habitats. The current global climatic change may be another contributing factor in the future; therefore an effective strategy is needed to check further import and establishment of alien species.

 

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 10 (3): 383-394, 2013.

VERTEBRATE BIODIVERSITY OF NARA GAME RESERVE, SINDH, PAKISTAN

M. Zaheer Khan, Iqbal Saeed Khan, Syed Ali Ghalib, Darakhshan Abbas and Tanveer Jabeen

Department of Zoology (Wildlife and Fisheries), University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.
E-mail: zaheerk2k@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

The Nara Game Reserve area having a number of wetlands and Nara Canal forms a Wetland Complex in the Nara Desert. More than 200 wetlands have been listed during the present study from 2007 – 2011. The area was surveyed particularly for the 22 important wetlands of the area to record their vertebrate biodiversity. 129 species of birds, 21 species of mammals, 20 species of reptiles, 02 species of amphibians and 37 species of fishes were recorded from the Nara Game Reserve area. The important wildlife species of the area are the Smooth-coated Otter (Lutrogale perspicillata), Fishing Cat (Prionailurus viverrina), Hog Deer (Axis porcinus), Black Partridge (Francolinus francolinus), Black Ibis (Pseudibis papillosa), Indian Darter (Anhinga rufa), Marbled Teal (Marmaronetta angustirostris), Ferruginous Duck (Aythya nyroca), Grey Partridge (Francolinus pondicerianus), Houbara Bustard (Chlamydotis undulata), Ruddy Shelduck (Tadorna ferruginea) and the Marsh Crocodile (Crocodylus palustris). It was found that more than 16 wetlands support marsh Crocodile. The threats to the biodiversity include developmental activities, disturbance, livestock grazing, and land reclamation for agriculture and human settlements. The wetlands of the area may be managed for their ecological significance for supporting important biodiversity, and the Reserve may be specially managed for Hog Deer, Fishing Cat, Smooth-coated Otter and Marbled Teal. Action may also be taken to develop ecotourism in the area due to its unique wetland ecosystem.

 

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 10 (3): 395-400, 2013.

DEGRADATION OF 2,4-DICHLOROPHENOXY ACETIC ACID IN SOIL BY BACTERIAL CONSORTIUM

Nisar Ahmed1*, Ameer Ahmed Mirbahar2, Ghulam Sarwar Markhand3, Abdul Hussain Shar1, Syed Tatheer Alam Naqvi4 and Safia Ahmed5

1Department of Microbiology, Shah Abdul Latif University Khairpur, Pakistan.
2,3Plant Tissue Culture and Biotechnology Section, H. E. J. Research Institute of Chemistry, University of Karachi, Pakistan
3Department of Botany, Shah Abdul Latif University Khairpur, Pakistan.
4Department of Environmental Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Abbottabad, Pakistan.
5Department of Microbiology, Quaid-I-Azam University Islamabad, Pakistan.
*Corresponding author email, n­_a_kanhar@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

A consortium was developed of the bacterial isolates showing growth and resistance to  2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2, 4-D) in nutrient agar and mineral salt medium with and without glucose up to concentration of 3500-6000 ppm. This consortium was used to check the degradation of 2, 4-D, when applied in soil (Sterilize and Unsterilized). The laboratory scale experiment was setup at two temperatures (30°C and 50°C) for four weeks. Effect of the addition of external carbon source (glucose) was also studied. Analysis of 2,4-D in soil (acetone extract) was done weekly for four weeks. Results showed that in sterilized soil 2,4-D was reduced up to 95.8%, in sterilized soil with glucose up to 63.0%, and in unsterilized soil up to 85.5% at 30°C in four weeks. Where as at 50°C reduction of 2,4-D was observed up to 70.0% and 50.8% in sterilized and unsterilized soil respectively after four weeks. Isolated bacterial strains have potential for bioremediation of chlorinated pesticides polluted soil.

 

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 10 (3): 401-404, 2013.

EFFECT OF POLYETHYLENE GLYCOL-6000 ON WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) SEED GERMINATION

Ameer Ahmed Mirbahar1,2*, Rafat Saeet3 and Ghulam Sarwar Markhand1

1Date Palm Research Institute, Shah Abdul Latif University, Khairpur (Mir’s), Sindh, Pakistan
2Biotechnology Wing, H.E.J. Research Institute of Chemistry, University of Karachi-Karachi, Pakistan
3Department of Botany, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, Karachi, Pakistan
Corresponding author: amir_salu@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

The response of twenty-five wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties to different water stress levels were studied in a series of experiments conducted in the laboratory on Polyethylene glycol-6000. The experiments on germination with twenty-five wheat varieties were conducted in a growth cabinet maintained at 30/250C day/night temperature with 16 hours photoperiod. Seeds were germinated in glass tray lined with filter paper moistened with polyethylene glycol (PEG-6000) solutions of 0.0, -0.25, –0.50, -0.75 and –1.0 MPa osmotic potential. Germination percentage decreased with decrease in water potential of the medium. The water uptake reached at a peak value within 48 hours in all the genotypes under all the water stress conditions. The varieties Sarsabz and Kiran-95 showed comparatively better performance of germination under water stress than other wheat varieties.

 

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 10 (3): 405-410, 2013.

PHOSPHATE SORPTION BY RUSTUM, MIANI AND SULTANPUR SOIL SERIES AS AFFECTED BY PHOSPHORUS APPLICATION, INCUBATION PERIOD AND TEMPERATURE

Sohail Ahmed Qureshi1, Ambreen Rajput2, Muhammad Roshan Waggan3 and Muhammad Azam Solangi4
                                                                                
1, 2 & 4 Agriculture Research Sindh Tandojam, Agriculture Department, Government of Sindh, Pakistan          
3Department   of Soil Science, Sindh Agriculture University Tandojam Pakistan                          
Corresponding Author: E-mail. ambrin2004@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

Phosphate sorption studies were conducted on Rustum, Miani and Sultanpur soil series at 25 and 35 ± 1°C and incubation periods of 1 to 60 days with phosphorus levels from 2.5 to 1000 µg g־ ¹ soil. For Rustum soil series after the incubation of 1 and 60 days; incubation temperature of 25± 1°C and phosphorus levels of 2.5 and 1000.0 µg g־ ¹ soil the phosphate sorption was 0.5 and 363.0 and 943.0 µg g־ ¹ soil, respectively and at the incubation temperature of 35 ± 1°C the phosphate sorption for same phosphorus levels and incubation period was 1.8 and 2.0 and 485.0 and 987.0 µg g־ ¹ soil, respectively. For Miani soil series after the incubation of 1 and 60 days; incubation temperature of 25 ± 1°C and phosphorus level of 2.5 and 1000.0 µg g־ ¹ soil, the phosphate sorption was 0.7 and 0.8 and 320.0 and 941.0 µg g־ ¹ soil, respectively and at the incubation temperature of 35 ± 1°C the phosphate sorption for same phosphorus levels and incubation period was 1.0 and 1.3 and 465.0 and 986.0 µg g־ ¹ soil, respectively. For Sultanpur soil series after the incubation of 1 and 60 days; incubation temperature of 25 ± 1°C and phosphorus level of 2.5 and 1000.0 µg g־ ¹ soil the phosphate sorption was 0.3 and 0.8 and 293.0 and 949.0 µg g־ ¹ soil, respectively and at the incubation temperature of 35 ± 1°C the phosphate sorption for same phosphorus levels and incubation period was 1.2 and 1.4 and 452.0 and 983.0 µg g־ ¹ soil, respectively. The results demonstrated that the increasing phosphorus levels, higher incubation temperature and increasing incubation period resulted in higher phosphate sorption for the same soil series. The phosphate sorption by soil series was of the order: Rustum> Miani> Sultanpur, for both the phosphorus levels and incubation temperatures.

 

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 10 (3): 411-416, 2013.

ASSESSMENT OF PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND FUNGAL CONTAMINATION IN PLASTIC BOTTLES AND TETRA PACKED MANGO JUICES MARKETED IN KARACHI CITY

Anila Anwar1*, Rubina Perween1, Kanwal Nazim2, S. Shahid Shaukat3, Talat Mehmood1 and Qamar-Ul-Haque1

1Department of Chemistry, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, Karachi, Pakistan
2Marine Reference Collection and Resource Center, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan
3Institute of Environmental Studies, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan
*Corresponding author: khan.anilaanwar@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

Local market is full of various fruit juices, which are packed in different packing materials for this purpose as they keep unspoiled for a long period of time, some preservative agents and different methods of pasteurization process to keep these packages uncontaminated. In this study, physicochemical properties (pH, conductivity, density, dissolved oxygen, salinity and TDS) and fungal contamination were measured. For this task mango juices in tetra packs and bottles of 16 companies were purchased from different localities of Karachi city. The following fungal species; Aspergillus candidus, A. fumigate, A. flavus, A. niger, A. wentii, Rhizopus sp., Penicillium sp., Saccchromyces, Curvularia lunata were recorded in mango juice samples of tetra packs whereas none of the fungus was recovered in mango juice samples in plastic bottles. The influence of physico-chemical parameters on fungal species has also been discussed.

 

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 10 (3): 417-424, 2013.

DETERMINATION OF STRESS RESISTANCE IN BIOSURFACTANT-PRODUCING BACTERIAL ISOLATES

Erum Shoeb1*, Uzma Badar1, Faiza Akhlaq1, Faiza A. Ansari1, Samina Imtiaz1 and Jameela Akhter2

1Department of Genetics, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.
2Centre for Molecular Genetics, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.
*Corresponding Author: erumsh@uok.edu.pk

ABSTRACT

Most of the commercially available surfactants are produced from petroleum but concern about the environment has stimulated the search for microbially produced surfactants for the industrial utilization and bioremediation of hydrocarbons. Biosurfactants are more effective, environmentally friendly, and stable than many synthetic surfactants. In previous work, we determined that biosurfactant-producing microorganisms were naturally present at contaminated soil of automobile workshops. In this study, we examine the potential of biosurfactant producers to tolerate other contaminants including heavy metals and antimicrobial compounds for the effective utilization of such microorganisms for the bioremediation of hydrocarbons at heavy metal and antimicrobial contaminated regions.  For the present study seven heavy metals (NiCl2, CuSO4, CdCl2, CoCl2, CrSO4, PbSO4, ZnSO4) and four different antimicrobial compounds (Ampicillin, Streptomycin, Erythromycin, Chloremphenicol) were tested. Biosurfactant-producing bacteria were found to constitute a significant proportion (up to 35%) of heavy metal tolerant and up to 25% were found to resist antimicrobial compounds. Isolates were further characterized for colonial and cellular morphologies and analyzed through different screening methods such as oil spreading method, drop collapse method, CTAB agar plate method, BATH assay and emulsification capacity methods. Resistance against heavy metals and antibiotics has made these isolates ideal for bioremediation under stressful environmental conditions.

 

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 10 (3): 425-430, 2013.

MAJOR POTATO VIRUSES IN POTATO CROP OF PAKISTAN: A BRIEF OVERVIEW

*M. Fahim Abbas1, Aziz-ud-Din2, Abdul Ghani3, Abdul Qadir3 and Raees Ahmed1

1Department of Plant Pathology, Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi, Pakistan
2Department of Genetics, Garden Campus, Hazara University Mansehra, Pakistan
3Crop Disease Research Institute, National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad, Pakistan
*Corresponding author email: fahimqurashi007@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

Potato is one of the main cash crops for the farmer and also contributes a considerable amount in Gross Domestic Product of Pakistan because it is cultivated as a garden vegetable and also on commercial scale. In high altitude valley, potatoes are grown as summer crop while in the plains and low valleys three consecutive crops can be grown per year. Potato crop provides 12-15 times more yield and calories production is also higher than wheat maize and rice while the average yield of potato crop in Pakistan is low as compared to other potato growing countries. Potato growers introduced high yielding foreign potato varieties which have significantly enhanced the yield of potato crop along with new viral problems and among these, Potato Virus A (PVA), Potato Virus M (PVM), Potato Virus S (PVS), Potato Virus X (PVX), Potato Virus Y (PVY), Potato Leaf Roll Virus (PLRV) and Potato Mop-top Virus (PMTV) have been reported in spring, summer and autumn potato crop along with 83% yield losses. In Pakistan, a large number of potato germ-plasms were certified through Enzyme Linked Immunosorbant Assay (ELISA) which is unable to detect the virus at initial stage of infection and new molecular tools like Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) assay were introduced for successful, sensitive and more reliable confirmation of viruses. Different percentage incidence of PVA and PVM was reported from main potato growing areas of Pakistan and no molecular optimization along with nucleotide evidence of these two viruses was reported from Pakistan. PCR assay were developed for molecular detection of PVX, PVY, PMTV, PVS and PLRV while no nucleotide evidence of PVS is still reported from Pakistani while coat protein (CP) gene sequence of PVX, PVY and PLRV from Pakistani isolates is available at the data bank of National Center for Biotechnology Information. The increasing incidence of PVY is getting an alarming position in potato crop of Pakistan and nucleotide sequence of CP gene reveals the presence of new strain in Pakistani potato while the nucleotide evidence of CP gene of PVX from a Pakistani isolate exhibiting the maxim homology with USSR isolate.

 

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 10 (3): 431-436, 2013.

STUDIES ON THE FECUNDITY AND SEX RATIO OF STRIPED PIGGY FISH, POMADASYS STRIDENS (FORSSKAL, 1775) (FAMILY; POMADASYIDAE) FROM KARACHI COAST, PAKISTAN

Amtyaz1 and Muhammad Atiqullah Khan2

1Dept. of Zoology, Sir Syed Govt. Girls College Nazimabad, Karachi-74600, Pakistan.  Cell No.0092-3212374804.

Email; imtiazsafi76@gmail.com

2Dept. of Zoology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.                     

ABSTRACT

Pomadasys stridens (Forsskal, 1775) is excellent food fish and widely distributed in the Indo- pacific region. It inhabits higher part of rocky tide pools, and shallow waters. The fecundity and sex ratio of Pomadasys stridens (Forsskal, 1775) has been described. The occurrence of mature specimen of Pomadasys stridens (Forsskal, 1775) was found in different size groups. The minimum size of maturity was found in 136 mm and the maximum size of maturity was 210 mm of total length, which is supported by the results obtained from the studies of mature ovaries. Fecundity determined that the relationship between the size of fish, weight and length were directly related to the size of ovary. The frequency distribution of ova suggests that the spawning periods are twice in a year i.e. August to October and January to March in a year. The sex ratio has been obtained during the period of January 2001 to April 2002. The numbers of male and female were calculated. The overall male- female ratios were found to be 1: 1.5. Log-log relationship between fecundity and total length, body weight and ovary weight was reported. It is observed that the right is slightly larger than the left. The number of ova depends on the difference in size of the ovary. Therefore it may be mentioned that the fecundity is generally proportional to the size of the ovary, which in turn is related to the size of the fish. The mean fecundity calculated was 17810.22. The minimum and maximum being 8114.4 and 38494.75 respectively. The mean number of ova/g body weight and mean number of ova/g ovary weight were found to be 231.63 and 4170.57 respectively. The gonads are two lobed; the right lobe is more fecund than the left one.

 

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 10 (3): 437-440, 2013.

INSECTICIDAL ACTIVITY OF PHYTOPESTICIDES AS COMPARERD TO PYRETHROID BY DIRECT APPLICATION METHOD ON PULSE BEETLE CALLOSOBRUCHUS ANALIS (FABRICIUS, 1781)

Samina Arif1, Viqaruddin Ahmad2, S. Naimul Hassan Naqvi3 and R.M. Tariq1

1Department of Zoology University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.
2HEJ Research institute of Chemistry University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.
3Baqui Institute of Pharmaceutical Science, Baqui Medical University Toll Plaza Karachi Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

Insecticidal activity of two phytopesticides Acorus calamus (AC) essential oil  Biosal® (Neem formulation-NF) (Neem pesticide registered by (APTA) and Pyrethroid Deltamethrin (DM) was tested against Callosobruchus analis by Direct application method (DAM). The LC 50 values of (AC) and (NF) was found to be 0.15608 µl/cm2, 1.338504 µl/cm2 and the LC 50 value of (DM) was found to be 0.03352 µl/cm2.

 

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 10 (3): 441-448, 2013.

EVALUATION OF DYSMENORRHOEA AND ASSOCIATED PHYSIOLOGICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL DISTURBANCES IN PAKISTANI WOMEN

Lubna Naz*, Sehar Fatima, Ghazala Yasmeen, Nazish Iqbal Khan and Aliya Maqsood

Department of Physiology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

Menstrual cycle is an essential feature of female reproductive system. Changes in the hormonal levels around ovulation are associated with dysmenorrhea followed by negative attitude, lost time from school and work, stress and depression in majority of females. This observational study included 1800 female subjects, divided in to 3 age groups and asked for the status of their menstrual cycle through a detailed questionnaire. Dysmenorrhea and its severity along with prevalence of various physiological and psychological disturbances were chiefly investigated. BMI, Waist to hip ratio were also determined as risk factors for dysmenorrhea. Blood pressure, hemoglobin and random sugar were also estimated. Dysmenorrhea was reported by 82% of the study subjects of which about 65% were having moderate to severe dysmenorrhea. More than 90% complained for associated symptoms before and especially during menstruation. Physiological disturbances like loss of appetite, lack of sleep, diarrhoea, constipation, nausea were reported by 68% of subjects. Disorientation, stress, mood fluctuation, anxiety, agitation and depression were found in 41% subjects. blood haemoglobin and random sugar did not show any significant change. Although this data is limited, it provided the mean values for the length of menstrual cycle, duration and flow of menstruation, age of menarche and  pain during menstruation in this population and  the association between dysmenorrhea and mental and physiological disturbances. 

 

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 10 (3): 449-458, 2013.

MULTIPLE ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE IN VIRIDANS GROUP STREPTOCOCCI ISOLATED FROM ORAL CAVITY OF APPARENTLY HEALTHY INDIVIDUALS

Nazia Masood, Asma Naim* and Perween Tariq

Department of Microbiology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.
*Corresponding author: anaeem@uok.edu.pk
                                          
Abstract

A total of 525 isolates belonging to 10 different species of Viridans Group Streptococci (VGS) viz., Streptococcus anginosus (196), S. morbillorum (85), S. mutans (76), S. mitis (60), S. uberis (34), S. intermedius (24), S. sanguis (20), S. oralis (18), S. salivarius (07) and S. acidominimus (05) were used for determination of antibiotic susceptibility pattern against 24 different antibiotics by standard disc diffusion method. Overall, the highest incidence of resistant strains was noted against Erythromycin (48.4%), followed by Streptomycin (39.0%), Gentamicin (39.0%),  Doxycycline (36.6%), Tobramycin (33.1%), Amoxicillin (32.4%), Tetracycline (31.6%), Levofloxacin (31.2%), Chloramphenicol (26.1%), Rifampicin (25.3%), Ciprofloxacin (24.8%), Penicillin (22.5%), Vancomycin (21.7%), Clarithromycin (21.1%), Clindamycin (19.0%), Azithromycin (16.6%), Linezolid (4.0%), Trimethoprim (2.7%), Ceftazidime, Cefazolin, Cefotaxime (2.0%, in each case), Teicoplanin (1.5%), Cephalothin (1.7%) and Imipenem (1.1%). The present study also determined the incidence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) strains among VGS, only 5.5% isolates were found resistant to a single antibiotic, 4.0% isolates were resistant to 2 antibiotics while 41% isolates were resistant to more than 3 antibiotics. The emergence of multi-drug resistance was also noted with respect to species. The highest incidence rate was found among S. salivarius (85.7%, 6/7), followed by S. mutans (80.3%, 61/76), S. acidominimus (80.0%, 4/5), S. uberis (79.4%, 27/34), S. intermedius (79.2%, 19/24), S. morbillorum (70.6%, 60/85), S. oralis (61.1%, 11/18), S. anginosus (50.0%, 98/196), S. sangius (45.0%, 9/20) and S. mitis (41.7%, 25/60).

 

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 10 (3): 459-464, 2013.

EFFECTS OF MOBILIZATION TECHNIQUES ON PAIN AND CERVICAL RANGE OF MOTION IN CERVICAL PAIN

Ulia Shakeel1 and Syed Hasan Abbas2

1Department of Physiotherapy . Liaquat National Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan
2Department of Physiotherapy and Liaquat National School of Physiotherapy, Liaquat National Hospital and Medical College. Karachi-74800.

ABSTRACT

Neck pain or cervicalgia is a common disorder, disabling the individual to various degrees. Two-thirds of the population has neck pain at some point in their lives. Neck pain may arise due to muscular tightness in both the neck and upper back, or compression of the nerves emanating from the cervical vertebrae. The aim of present study was to analyze the effectiveness of mobilization techniques in neck pain and the effectiveness of mobilization techniques in increasing neck range of motion. The study design was randomized controlled trial. It was used to examine the effects of mobilization techniques on neck pain and active cervical range of motion. This study was conducted at the out-patient physiotherapy department, Liaquat National Hospital. Thirty female patients with nonspecific neck pain were included in the study from department of physiotherapy. Data collection included demography, treatments and active ranges of motion.  Data were analyzed for the treatment effects of mobilization on cervical pain and range of motion (ROM).  Clinical outcome variables were analyzed within group with a paired t-test. None of the participants reported any adverse effects from mobilization. Thirty percent patients had acute neck pain while rest had chronic pain. Significant difference (p< 0.05).was found on pain and cervical ROM pre and post treatment. The study provides the evidence that cervical mobilization techniques are effective in any kind of neck pain and to increase ROM and that there is no risk of serious adverse effects from mobilization techniques.

 

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 10 (3): 465-470, 2013.

GENERATION MEAN ANALYSIS FOR EAR CHARARCTERS IN MAIZE

Muhammad Irshad ul Haq1, Naveed Kamal 2, Saeeda Khanum1, Muhammad Siddique1 and Muhammad Zameer Kayani3

1Millets Research Station, Shamasabad,  Murree Road, Rawalpind
2Maize Breeding Sub Station, Chharrapni (Murree)
3Agriculture Officer (Green Belt) Rawalpindi.

ABSTRACT

The choice of an efficient breeding procedure mainly depends upon the knowledge of the type of gene action controlling the inheritance of a particular trait to be improved.  Present study was conducted to ascertain genetic parameters for ear characters using generation mean analysis. Analysis of variance showed significant differences among all the crosses of each character. Generation mean analysis suggested that non additive genetic effects were responsible for the inheritance of ear height, ear length and number of grain rows per ear. Dominance x dominance type of allelic interaction was observed for ear height while both additive x additive and dominance x dominance interaction played significant role in the manifestation of ear length and number of grain rows per ear. The opposite sign of h and l indicated the presence of duplicate epistasis. Significant role of dominance variance along with duplicate epistasis favour the use of research material for the development of hybrid varieties.

 

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 10 (3): 471-474, 2013.

LENGTH-WEIGHT RELATIONSHIP IN POMADASYS MACULATUM (BLOCH) FROM KARACHI COAST, PAKISTAN

Muhammed Atiqullah Khan1, Amtyaz1 and Shahla Siddique2

1Department of Zoology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.
2Department of Statistics University of Karachi. Karachi-75270, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

The regression parameters for intercept (a) and slope (b) of the length (L)-Weight (W) relationship for the model W = a.Lb were determined in Pomadasys maculatum (Bloch 1797) (family: Pomadasyidae). Data on fish size was gathered for 221 male and 231 females fishes collected from Karachi coast and analyzed with correlation and regression to determine relationship of fish weight with standard (SL) and total (TL) lengths in male, female separately and with pooled data for the two sexes.  The magnitude of exponents (b) varied only slightly in the regression equations. The t-test for various pairs (male vs. female, male vs. pooled sexes and female vs. pooled sexes) for SL or TL as independent variables indicated the differences among the values of b statistically insignificant at p < 0.05. The regression lines were therefore parallel in this species. The magnitude of b was in all cases near 3 which indicated that that this fish grew symmetrically and isometrically.

 

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 10 (3): 475-478, 2013.

INFLUENCE OF SPIRULINA PLATENSIS POWDER ON VIABILITY OF LACTOCOCCUS STRAINS IN PROBIOTIC UF FETA CHEESE CONTAINING MENTHA LONGIFOLIA L.

Vajiheh Fadaei1, Sedighe Mazinani1* and Kianoush Khosravi-Darani2

1Departmernt of Food Science and Technology, Shahr-e-Qods Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
2Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Faculty of Nutrition Sciences and Food Technology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medicinal Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

ABSTRACT

The objective of this research was to determine the effect of the powdered Spirulina platensis on viability of cheese starter cultures, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris, under refrigeration conditions. Retentate inoculated with the cheese starter cultures (1%w/v) and L.acidophilus (2%w/v) was enriched with Mentha longifolia L. (0.5 and 1%) and Spirulina platensis (0, 0.3, 0.5 and 0.8%). The samples of cheeses produced were stored at 4ºC for 45 days. The results showed the positive effect of S. platensis powder on the survival of Lactococcus strains during storage of cheese (P<0.05). It was found that the effect of 0.8% S .platensis powder addition on the viable counts was comparable to that of 0.3 and 0.5% addition. No differences were observed between cheeses manufactured with the different levels of Mentha longifolia L.

 

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 10 (3): 479-482, 2013.

SOUND PRODUCING ORGANS OF BRACHYTRYPES PORTENTOSUS (LICHTEINTEN) (ORTHOPTERA:GRYLLIDAE) AND THEIR IMPACT ON CLASSIFICATION

Imtiaz Ahmad1 and Nasreen Khan2*

1Department of Agriculture, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.
*2Department of Zoology, Jinnah University for Woman, Karachi, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

The specimens of Brachytrypes portentosus (Lichteinten) described on the basis of their sound producing structures i.e. tegmina, plectrum, stridulatory file and teeth for the first time in Pakistan. Specimens were collected from Quetta in Baluchistan was subjected to Scanning technique of Electron Microscopy following the techniques of  David et al. (2003) to study these structures The pars stridulum pattern, the stridulatory file and the number of teeth on file appear as important characters to identify males of B. portentosus (Lichteinten) from other related taxa found in Pakistan.

 

 

 
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