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Abstract July & October2008

Abstract 2008
+ Abstract July & October 2008

 


GENETIC STUDIES OF FAMILIAL HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIA: A REVIEW

Sobia Rafiq1, Nuzhat Ahmed and  Raheel Qamar2

1Centre for Molecular Genetics, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan
2COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan.
Email: sobiarafiq@gmail.com and nahmed@uok.edu.pk

ABSRTACT

Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is characterized by raised serum LDL cholesterol levels, which result in excess deposition of cholesterol in tissues, leading to accelerated atherosclerosis and increased risk of premature coronary heart disease. FH results from defects in the hepatic uptake and degradation of LDL via the LDL-receptor pathway, commonly caused by a loss-of-function mutation in the LDL-receptor gene (LDLR) or by a mutation in the gene encoding apolipoprotein B (APOB). FH is primarily an autosomal dominant disorder with a gene-dosage effect. An autosomal recessive form of FH caused by loss-of-function mutations in LDLRAP1, which encodes a protein required for clathrin-mediated internalization of the LDL receptor by liver cells, has also been documented. The most recent addition to the database of genes in which defects cause FH is one encoding a member of the proprotein convertase family, PCSK9. Rare dominant gain-of-function mutations in PCSK9 cosegregate with hypercholesterolemia, and one mutation is associated with a particularly severe FH phenotype. Expression of PCSK9 normally downregulates the LDL-receptor pathway by indirectly causing degradation of LDL-receptor protein, and loss-of-function mutations in PCSK9 result in low plasma LDL levels. Thus, PCSK9 is an attractive target for new drugs aimed at lowering serum LDL cholesterol, which should have additive lipid-lowering effects to the statins currently used.

 

A NEW SPECIES TUBULOVESICULA MICROCAUDUM(TREMATODA: HEMIURIDAE LOOSS, 1899) FROM THE FISH OTOLITHUS ARGENTEUS OFF KARACHI COAST

Neelofer Shaukat1,  Fatima Mujib Bilqees1 and *M. Farooq Haseeb2

1Department of Zoology, Jinnah University for Women, Karachi-74600, Pakistan.
2Department of Zoology,Shipowners College, Karachi, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

A new species of the genus Tubulovesicula Yamaguti, 1934 is described here and named Tubulovesicula microcaudum n.sp.from the stomach of the fish Otolithus argenteus (Sciaenidae) off Karachi coast. The new species is different from the previously described species found in Pakistan in having long soma and small ecsoma with varying degrees of small curved tail. Suckers are unequal. Seminal vesicle long and pre-testicular in position. Pars prostatica very long. Hermaphroditic duct enclosed in muscular pouch leading to prominent cirrus sac. Genital pore beneath intestinal bifurcation. Ovary oval, kidney-shaped in the middle of soma. Vitelline tubules lying immediately behind the ovary. Uterus passes in close coils, slightly intruding anterior of ecsoma. Eggs moderate-sized. Excretory pore terminal.

 

STUDY OF FEMALE GENITALIA OF SICCIA TAPROBANIS WALKER (LEPIDOPTERA : ARCTIIDAE : LITHOSIINAE) FROM PAKISTAN

S. Nargis Viqar1,  S. Kamaluddin2 and Aliza Ali3

1Government Degree College for women, Block-M, North Nazimabad, Karachi, Pakistan
2Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, Gulshan-e-Iqbal Campus, Karachi, Pakistan
3Jinnah Medical and Dental College, Shaheed-e-Millat Road Karachi, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

Siccia taprobanis Walker is recorded from Pakistan and redescribed in detail with special reference to its head appendages, venation of fore and hind wings and female genitalia.

 

TAXONOMIC STUDIES  OF PHLEBOTOMUS  PAPATASI (SCOPOLI) (DIPTERA: PSYCHODIDAE) IN SINDH, PUNJAB AND N.W. F. P. AND ITS  PHYLOGENETIC  RELATIONSHIP  WITH  ITS  CLOSEST ALLIES

Juma  Khan  Kakarsulemankhel

Investigator of Sand flies, Leishmaniasis, Helminths, Mosquitoes,  & Ticks, Center for Advanced Studies in  Vaccinology & Biotechnology,  Brewery  Road, Quetta, Pakistan.
 dr.jumakhankakarsulemankhel@yahoo.com; Cell. # 0333-7841004

ABSTRACT

In the survey, the work was done to develop taxonomic record of sand fly Phlebotomus (Phlebotomus)) papatas i (Scopoli)  collected for the first time from new epidemic localities of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Sindh, North West Frontier Province (NWFP) and Punjab provinces. In view of the published reports about the detection of Leishmania major in these flies in the neighboring countries, the correct identification of this species becomes of significant value in the study of epidemiology of leishmaniasis. Therefore, in order to facilitate Zoologists and Medical researchers in its correct identification, taxonomic characters of P. papatasi (Scopoli) are studied in details with special reference to its mouth parts, male and female genitalia and findings are presented in this paper. A key is also given to P. papatasi (Scopoli)and its closest allies and its relationship with them is also briefly discussed.     

 

IN VITRO MAST CELL STABILIZATION ACTIVITY OF VIOLA ODORATA L.

G.P. Choudhary, S.C. Chaturvedi and S. Bharti

School of Pharmacy, Ring road,  Devi Ahilya University, Indore-452017, INDIA
Email address: choudhary.gp@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

The influence of the ethanolic extract of the flower of Viola odorata L. on degranulation of rat peritoneal mast cell induced by compound 48/80 and Egg albumin was studied. The inhibitory effect of the extract was significant in immunologically  induced degranulation of mast cells.

 

THREE DIMENSIONAL QUANTITATIVE STRUCTURE ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIPS OF 3-[3-(N-4-FLUROBENZYL-N-2 PYRIDYLAMINO) PROPYLAMINO]-4-ETHYLAMINO-1, 2, 5- THIAZOLE-1-OXIDE (HISTAMINE H1 RECEPTOR ANTAGONIST) AS AN ANTI-ULCER AND ANTI-ALLERGY

Atia Masood Ahmed Chaudhary 1’ 2 and Naheed Akhtar1

1Biophysics Research Unit, Department of Biochemistry, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan
2Bioassays and Plant Screening Section, H. E. J. Research Institute of Chemistry, International Center of Chemical
 and Biological Sciences (ICCBS), University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan
 atiamasoodahmedchaudhry@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

This computer aided drug design based conformational and potential energy quantitative structure activity relationship established to find out best fit conformations with minimum potential energy, active structural and molecular sites for strong binding of 3-[3-(N-4-Flurobenzyl-N-2 pyridylamino) propylamino]-4-ethylamino-1, 2, 5- thiazole-1-oxide (C19H23FN6OS) as Histamine H1 receptor antagonist which is previously derived from Cimetidine and extracted by leaves of Espinheria santa.  Potential energy calculated for lower limit by Kitagorodasky potential energy function and in-silico approaches. This compound crystalline in monoclinic system, with unit cell dimensions a = 6.686 A˚, b = 14.717 A˚ and c = 20.850 A˚, β = 97.83˚. Present work find out new bond pair (N21--C15) with strong bonding site and suggests that 3-[3-(N-4-Flurobenzyl-N-2 pyridylamino) propylamino]-4-ethylamino-1, 2, 5- thiazole-1-oxide has shown minimum potential energy -0.00000983 Kcal/mole as Histamine H1 receptor antagonist at ω1 = 280˚ and ω2 = 340˚(Figure-9). It would supports stable and strong binding of antihistaminic compound to their receptors in allowed active region. The compound (C19H23FN6OS) in this active conformation would be helpful for the treatment of allergy and different kind of ulcers such as stomach and duodenum ulcers.

 

INCORPORATION OF ENTEROMORPHA PROCERA aHLNER AS NUTRITION SUPPLEMENT IN CHICK’S FEED

Abid Ali  and M. Saleh Memon

Institute of Biochemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan
abidbmu@yahoo.com 

ABSTRACT

Fresh water alga, Enteromorpha procera was used as nutrition supplement for broiler chicks. Four concentrations of algal material at 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% were mixed with commercial feed of chicks (starter and finisher feed). Feeding experiments were performed for ten weeks. Biochemical parameters (ash, carbohydrate, fat, protein and water content) of liver of chicks fed on different algal compositions as well as control feed were also examined. It was observed that the birds which were fed on higher concentration i.e. (20%) of algal feed showed best results in terms of quality and quantity of meat. The mortality rate was only 10%.

 

GENDER DIFFERENCES IN THE PROGRESSION OF ACUTE RENAL FAILURE

G. Yasmeen1., Z. Hussain1 and M.L. Bharwani2

1Department of Physiology, University of Karachi, Karachi. 75270, Pakistan
2 Department of Nephrology, JPMC, Karachi, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

The present study was planned to investigate the alteration in renal function of ischemic ARF patients and to compare the magnitude of these variations in men and women. The study was conducted in collaboration with the department of Nephrology, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi. The consent and personal history were taken from the patients of ischemic ARF. Then they were scrutinized to eliminate the influence of potential systemic disorders and blood samples from selected individuals were collected & tested for blood urea nitrogen, plasma urea, creatinine, and electrolytes. The percent elevation from the base line value in the plasma urea and creatinine concentration was found significantly higher in males. Moreover, men have insignificant high level of creatinine while difference in blood urea nitrogen and plasma urea reached the level of statistical significance when compared with women. The findings lead to the conclusion that worsening of renal function in ischemic ARF is more in men. Faster disease progression in males may be in part caused by the sex hormones. 

 

ASSESSMENT AND COMPARISON OF CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS AMONG SMOKERS AND TOBACCO CHEWERS

Qamar A., N.I. Khan,  L. Naz and  G. Yasmeen

Department of Physiology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

Many adverse health effects have been reported with the use of tobacco (smokeless) in populations, including CVDs, buccal cavity cancers, soft tissue lesions of mouth and gum recession. The purpose of Present study is to evaluate and compare specific cardiovascular risk factors in individuals using smoked and smokeless tobacco products. Total of 220 age matched , male subjects were selected to participate in the study, who had a history of smoking or tobacco chewing or both. Base line history was collected through a questionnaire and anticoagulated venous blood samples were collected and analyzed for plasma glucose, lipid profile and blood glutathione levels. Results showed that in Pakistan middle class socioeconomic group has high prevalence of both forms of tobacco use. Mean BMI and prevalence of obesity were low in three tobacco groups. Systolic and diastolic BP were high in tobacco users but prevalence of hypertension was more in subjects using both forms of tobacco. Marked lipid profile and glutathione variations were present in all tobacco users. Plasma glucose concentrations also showed a non significant increase in three experimental groups as compared to controls.

 

DETERMINATION OF PESTICIDE RESIDUES IN GROUND AND SURFACE WATER SAMPLES AND PERCEPTION OF FARMERS ABOUT PESTICIDES IN SINDH

Seema Tahir1, Tahir Anwar1 and Imtiaz Ahmad2

1Pesticide Research Institute, Southern-zone Agricultural Research Center, Pakistan Agricultural Research Council (PARC), Karachi University Campus, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.
2Department of Zoology, University of Karachi, Karachi- 75270, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

The continuous monitoring of pesticide residues in our food, drinking water, environment and biosphere at large is needed for creating awareness for the trends of level of contamination and building up a data base upon which future plan could be decided. In this paper monitoring requirements regarding the instrumentations, valid sampling, analytical protocols and its purpose are discussed in detail. Twenty nine water samples were analyzed and 22 were found contaminated with detectable level of 5 pesticides. These samples were found contaminated in the range of 0.0005-0.054 mg/L. The percentage of detection of Chlorpyriphos, Malathion, Dimethoate, Cypermethrin, and Endosulfan was respectively 7%, 14%, 17.8%, 35.8% and 25%. However, none of the samples were found above their Maximum Acceptable Concentrate (MAC) i.e. 0.1mg/L and 0.5mg/L for single and number of insecticides respectively set by EEC (European Economic Commission). Moreover, a survey of farmers’ perceptions in respect of effects on their health with pesticide exposure was conducted to find out farmers’ perception for the use of pesticides and how these may affect on their health with, identification of key issues those are relevant to farmers’ health for further training to increase farmer’s awareness about the use of pesticides.

 

HISTOPATHOLOGY OF POMEGRANATE ROOTS INFECTED WITH MELOIDOGYNE JAVANICA

Aly Khan1, F.M. Bilqees2, N. Khatoon3 and S.S. Shaukat4

1Crop Diseases Research Institute, PARC, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan
2Department of Zoology, Jinnah University for Women, Nazimabad,  Karachi-74600, Pakistan
3Department of Zoology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan
4Institute of Environmental Studies, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

Histopathological studies revealed that Meloidogyne javanica larvae entered roots by puncturing action of the stylet. The cells adjacent to nematode were severely damaged causing cell congestion. A number of cells had egg masses and sections of larvae. The medullary cells were unequal in size. Giant cells were present with broken cell walls. The pathological symptoms observed in the present findings, especially disruption of cortical tissue ultimately affected plant growth by reducing absorption of water and nutrients.

 

TOXICITY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACTS OF KAMINI (GUAICUM OFFICINALE L.) ON GERMINATION AND SEEDLING GROWTH OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L. VAR. KIRAN)

D. Khan and S. Hamid Nadeem Naqvi

Department of Botany, Government National College, Karachi, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

Aqueous extracts from various plant / litter components of Guaicum officinale L. significantly inhibited germination of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) except bark which had very mild inhibitory effect. The degree of germination inhibition was proportional to the concentration of the extracts. Bark extract was the least inhibitory. Suppression of germination under influence of the extracts employed was in the following order of toxicity as - Pericarp > Flowers > Yellow leaves > Green leaves > Green fruits > Bark.        
Seedling growth in terms of plumular elongation, number of seminal roots, average length of seminal root in a seedling, total length of seminal roots per seedling and the biomass accumulated over three days of growth in seedlings per Petri plate indicated significant reduction in seedling performance under influence of the extracts of plant components such as abscised yellow leaves, abscised floral parts, pericarp of the dehisced fruits, and green leaves. The abscised yellow leaves and floral parts were the highly toxic litter components. Bark, on the other hand had no inhibitory effect on seedling growth – rather it stimulated the plumular growth significantly. Extract of green fruit had very mild inhibitory effects on wheat seedlings.

 

AMBIENT AIR QUALITY OF SOME SELECTED SITES IN FAISALABAD, PAKISTAN 

M. A. Khan Shahid1, K. Hussain2 and Arif Mahmood3

1GC University, Faisalabad, Pakistan
2Department of Physics, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
3EPD, Faisalabad, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

The quality of air was investigated from different environmental backdrops such as residential, commercial, industrial and rural (control) areas in Faisalabad, Pakistan.  It was noticed that the SPM, NO2 and SO2 levels in all the locations were within the permissible limits but the raising levels were indicated in one residential-cum-industrial  and one industrial area. The source of these pollutants is primarily transport sector and secondly industrial. The ambient air quality was generally low.  Sociological survey revealed that pollution related diseases were quite prevalent and were compatible to the results reported by PPHE (Punjab Public Health and Engineering Department Lahore, Pakistan) 

 

BREAD WHEAT SELECTION AGAINST ABIOTIC AND BIOTIC STRESSES IN HIGHLAND BALOCHISTAN, PAKISTAN

Irshad Begum1 and Javed Afzal2
 
1Pluses Program, Crop Sciences Institute (CSI), NARC, Islamabad-45500, Pakistan.
2Rangeland Research Institute (RRI), NARC, Islamabad-45500, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. ssp. aestivum) lines were screened in multi-location trials in highland Balochistan, Pakistan from 1982(F2) to 1990 (fixed lines). Objective of the study was to select and evaluate desirable genotypes for winter planting. Of 816 entries, only four successfully passed through the observation nurseries and yield trials. After nine years of testing only genotype ICW81.1471 was selected for wide-scale agronomic testing. Although the yield potential of this genotype was not significantly higher than that of the local check, it had the important advantage of possessing good resistance to yellow rust (Puccinia striiformis West). The results showed that exposure of segregating population to the prevailing environmental stresses of cold and drought was an effective selection procedure for identifying genotypes which are resistant to such stresses.  Effective selection can be made for other desirable attributes such as disease and pest resistance, plant height and time to maturity.

 

SWARM FORMATION OF BLACK APHID, APHIS FABAE SCOP (HOMOPTRA: APHIDIDAE) IN KARACHI WITH REFERENCE TO THEIR BIOLOGY, ECOLOGY AND THEIR DAMAGE TO SUGARBEETS AND BEANS

M. Farhan ullah Khan1, Imtiaz Ahmad1 and Riazuddin2

1Department of Zoology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.
2Southern-zone Agricultural Research Center, PARC, Karachi University Campus Karachi, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

A swarm of black aphid, Aphis fabae Scop is reported in Karachi on March 15th, 2006 at about 1:30pm which has lasted until dusk. The collected specimens were identified as Aphis fabae Scop. Some studies were also conducted on their biology, ecology and damage to sugarbeets and beans.

 

ATTACK OF MEALY BUG ON SUNFLOWER AND ITS CONTROL

M. Jalaluddin, Sumaira Eid Muhammad and Maria Hamid

Department of Agriculture, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan
Correspd: <mjalaluddinku@hotmail.com.com>

ABSTRACT

Attack of mealy bug (Planococcoides citri ) on sunflower is described from Karachi and its control measures are suggested.

 

EMERGENCE OF A NEW WILT DISEASE ON COTTON CAUSED BY ASPERGILLUS JAPONICUM VAR. ACULEATUS IN PAKISTAN

S. Sarwar Alam1, M. Aslam, M. Hassan1, M. R. Sindhu2 and J.H. Mirza3

1Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology, Jhang Road, Faisalabad, Pakistan,
2Chief Leghari State, Disst Zareen, D.G.Khan,
3Department of Mycology and Plant pathology, University of Punjab, Lahore.
E-mail (drssalam@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

Cotton wilt diseases caused by Aspergillus japonicum var.  Aculeatus is reported from Derra Ghazi Khan, Pakistan.

 

 
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