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Abstract October 2005

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FAMILIAL HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIA AND LDLR GENE: A REVIEW

S. Rafiq and Nuzhat Ahmed

Centre for Molecular Genetics, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan.
Tel. # 0092-21-4966045, Fax. # 0092-21-4966045
Email: a_nuzhat@yahoo.com and sobyisonline@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal disorder characterized by increased levels of total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol. The FH clinical phenotype has been shown to be associated with increased coronary heart disease and premature death. Mutations in the low density lipoprotein receptor gene (LDLR) can result in FH phenotype. Mutations in the apolipoprotein B-100 (APOB) can result in a phenotype that is clinically indistinguishable from familial hypercholesterolemia, and mutations in the gene have also been shown to be associated with coronary heart disease. Preliminary research indicates that the FH phenotype is influenced by other genetic and environmental factors.


WHEAT AND RICE DISEASES IN PAKISTAN AND THEIR MANAGEMENT: A REVIEW

Arshad Javaid and Tehmina Anjum

Department of Mycology and Plant Pathology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and rice (Oryza sativa L.) are two important food crops of Pakistan. Both the crops are attacked by a number of diseases, which affect the economics of these crops in the country. About 50 diseases of wheat are known to occur in Pakistan and important economically of these are rusts (Puccinia spp.), loose smut (Ustilago tritici (Pers.) Rostrup), flag smut (Urocystic tritici Koern.), karnal bunt [Neovossia indica (Mitra) Mundkar], ear cockle (Anguina tritici Gerv. & Bened.), foot rot, leaf spot and black complex (Helminthosporium sativum Pamm. King and Bakke). Among the 74 rice diseases in the world, 14 have been reported in Pakistan. Among these bakanae (Fusarium moniliforme Sheld), blast (Pyricularia oryzae Cav.), stem rot (Sclerotium oryzae), and bacterial leaf blight [Xanthomonas campestris pv. oryzae (Ishiyama) Dye] are major diseases. These diseases can be controlled by cultivating resistant species, using chemicals and adopting cultural practices.

MAJOR DISEASES OF CITRUS IN PAKISTAN: A REVIEW

Tehmina Anjum and Arshad Javaid

Department of Mycology and Plant Pathology, University of the Punjab, Quaid-e-Azam, Campus Lahore, Pakistan; e-mail: anjum@mpp.pu.edu.pk

ABSTRACT

Among the citrus diseases in Pakistan citrus greening, citrus slow decline, citrus canker and citrus whither tip are most damaging and are gaining importance. Leaf mottling is the best foliar symptom for the diagnosis of greening. Fruits on severely affected trees are small, lopsided and poorly coloured, remaining dull green, hence the name greening given to the disease. Causal organisms of this disease has been remained the subject of debate. The highest incidence and severity of this disease has been reported in Peshawar followed by Sargodha. The first evident symptom of citrus slow decline (CSD) is drying of twigs and reduction in terminal growth. These trees are not killed but maintain life on a limited scale and produce a reduced crop of inferior fruit. Tylenchulus semipenetrans Cobb. and other nematode species are associated with the rhizosphere of diseased plants. Citrus canker is a bacterial disease incited by Xanthomonas campestris (Pammel) Dopws. Pv. citri (Hasse) Dye. Symptoms of the disease can appear on fruit, leaves and twigs of infected plants, and typically consist of small, round blister-like formations called lesions. These lesions are usually raised, crate-like and are tan to brown in colour and surrounded by an oily, water soaked margin. Citrus wither tip caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz. is one of the serious diseases throughout the country. Symptoms appear initially from top and transmit downward to bottom of infected tree. Diseased twigs start drying at tips and all affected parts become silvery gray and develop black dots. Defoliation and death of the entire plant also occur under severe conditions. Some other fungal diseases in Pakistan are Septoria spot (Septoria sp.), stem end rot (Phomopsis sp. and Diploidia sp.), Trunk gummosis (Phomopsis sp. and Diploidia sp), foot rot (Phytophthora sp.), root rot (water logging + fungi), damping off (Pythium sp., Rhizoctonia solani, Phytophthora sp.), and citrus quick decline [Fusarium solani (Mart.) Sacc.].


EXPLORING PRODUCTION AND EXPORT OPPORTUNITIES OF ORGANIC FRUITS IN PAKISTAN: AN OVERVIEW

Tahir Ali

Department of Commerce, Faculty of Business Administration and Commerce, University of Karachi, Karachi 75270, Pakistan; e mail: tahirali_217@hotmail.com

ABSTRACT

Although Pakistan has achieved quite a success in production of some fruits and vegetables, the marketing aspect has been grossly neglected. In addition another challenge to agriculture sector is to avail affluent international demand for organically produced fruits and vegetables. Considering the threat of globalization and challenges of the 21st century, Pakistan has not only to comply with international market standards for agricultural products in general and fruit in particular but also envisage their production organically.

REDUCING POST HARVEST LOSSES OF CITRUS FRUITS IN PAKISTAN THROUGH EFFECTIVE MARKETING PRACTICES: AN OVERVIEW

Tahir Ali

Department of Commerce, Faculty of Business Admiration and Commerce, University of Karachi, Karachi 75270, Pakistan; e mail tahirali_217@hotmail.com

ABSTRACT

Post harvest losses in agricultural products are almost unavoidable. Due to comparatively more sensitive and perishable nature, horticultural products are usually more exposed to post harvest losses than other agricultural products. Furthermore citrus, being the leading fruit of Pakistan contributing around 40 to 45 percent of the total fruit production of the country also shares in the post-harvest losses substantially. Although production of citrus fruit has been increased considerably over the time, the significance of this growth have never been reflected in terms of real income in our economy. Besides increase in consumption and export, it has also been observed that a notable quantity of citrus fruit has been wasted during and after harvesting every year. According to some estimates over 45 percent of citrus fruits is lost annually because of ineffective marketing practices. Inadequate storage, non technical picking, packaging and handling contribute high post harvest losses of citrus fruits in Pakistan.

PLEUROGENOIDES AMINI N.SP., (TREMATODA:LECITHODENDRIIDAE) FROM THE FROG (RANA TIGRINA DAUDIN, 1803)

F.M. Biiqees1 and Aly Khan2

1Jinnah University for Women, Karachi, Karachi-74600, Pakistan
2Crop Diseases Research institute, PARC, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

A new species of the trematode genus Pleurogenoides Travassos, 1921 is described from the frog (Rana tigrina Daudin, 1803) collected from Karachi University Campus, This species is characterised by having a small, body, pharynx small; esophagus very short, caeca short terminating at preacetabular level. Acetabulum small; testes symmetrical on the sides of acetabulum; ovary small; submedian and preacetabular. Cirrus pouch claviform, large, well-developed; seminal vesicle tubular, winding prostate complex well-developed. Genital atrium large, rounded, genital pore also large on left of oral sucker. Seminal receptacle present. Vitellaria numerous in neck and shoulder ragion. Excretory vesicle V-shaped. Eggs small, measuring 0.020-0.028 by 0.010-0.11.


RAPHIDASCAROIDES ELONGATUS SP.N. (NEMATODA: ANISAKIDAE) FROM THE FISH PELLONA ELONGATA (BENNETT) OF KORANGI CREEK, KARACHI, PAKISTAN

F. M. Bilqees1, Neelofer Shaukat1, S.M.H. Medi Naqvi2 and Muti-ur-Rehman3

1Department of Zoology, Jinnah University for Women, Nazimabad, Karachi-74600, Pakistan
2VPI, Southern Zone Agricultural Research Council, Karachi University Campus, Karachi-75270, Pakistan
3Department of Zoology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

A new nematode Raphidascaroides elongatus is described here from the fish Pellona elongata (Bennett) of Karachi coast. The species is separated from the previously described species of the genus on the basis of diagnostic features such as male body length 11.22-22.4 mm, ventricular appendix 2.1-4.56 x 0.054-0.068 mm in size, spicules subequal, 1.69-2.00 mm in length, 7-8 pairs of caudal popillae including 5-6 pairs preanal one adanal and one postanal. Female body length 11.81-23.80 mm, ventricular appendix 2.95-4.49 x 0.054-0.61 mm, eggs thin-shelled, relatively large 0.04-0.05 x 0.04 mm in size.

BIODIVERSITY OF HOMOEOCERINE SQUISH BUG HOMOEOCERUS PUNCTICORNIS BURMEISTER SUBGROUP: REDESCRIPTION OF H. PUNCTICORNIS AND H. ALBIVENTRIS DALLAS (HETEROPTERA: COREIDAE) FROM ORIENTAL REGION WITH REFERENCE TO THEIR GENITALIA AND ITS BEARING ON RELATIONSHIPS

Imtiaz Ahmad and Rokhsana Perveen

Department of Zoology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

Homoeocerus albiventris Dallas and H. puncticornis Burmeister of H. puncticornis subgroup are redescribed with reference to their practically unknown characters of genitalia from Philippines and Thailand and Indonesia, Burma and India respectively and in this light their phytogenetic relationships within their genus are also briefly discussed.

BIODIVERSITY OF RED COTTON BUGS: REDESCRIPTION OF DYSDERCUS DECUSSATUS BOISDUVAL (HEMIPTERA: PYRRHOCORIDAE) WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO ITS CLADISTIC RELATIONSHIP


S. Salahuddin Qadri1 and Imtiaz Ahmad2

1Department of Zoology, Jamia Millia Government Degree College, Malir, Karachi, Pakistan
2Department of Zoology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

Dysdercus decussatus Boisduval is redescribed in detail with special reference to its metathoracic scent auricle, male genitalia including inflated aedeagus and female genitalia including spermatheca. The species is also compared with its closest allies and its cladistic relationship is also briefly discussed in the light of its apomorphic characters.

REVISION OF THE SPECIES HYDATICUS GRAMMICUS GERMAR (COLEOPTERA : DYTISCIDAE) FROM SINDH, PAKISTAN

Tabinda Attique and Syed Kamaluddin

Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, Gulshan-e-Iqbal Campus, Karachi, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

The water beetle Hydaticus grammicus Germar is recorded from Sindh, river Indus and first time recorded and described in detail with special reference to its male genitalia. The systematic position with in the genus is also briefly discussed using apomorphic characters.

ERETES STICTICUS (L.) (COLEOPTERA: DYTISCIDAE: ERETINI): FIRST TIME DESCRIBED WITH REFERENCE TO IT’S CLADISTIC RELATIONSHIP FROM PAKISTAN

Tabinda Attique and Syed Kamaluddin

Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology. Gulshan-e-Iqbal Campus, Karachi Pakistan.


ABSTRACT

Eretes sticticus (L.), water beetle is described first time with reference to it’s male and female genitalia from Sindh, Thatta and Dadu, Pakistan. The systematic position with in the genus is also briefly discussed using apomorphic characters.

RHANTUS PULVEROSUS (STEPHENS) (COLEOPTERA:DYTISCIDAE):FIRST TIME DESCRIBED WITH REFERENCE TO ITS MALE GENITALIA FROM PAKISTAN

Tabinda Attique and Syed Kamaluddin

Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, Gulshan-e-Iqbal Campus,Karachi, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

The water beetle Rhantus pulverosus (Stephens) is recorded from sindh, Malir river and Thatta , Pakistan and first time described in detail with special reference to its male genitalia. The systematic position with in the genus is also briefly discussed using apomorphic characters.

A NEW SPECIES OF MELANOTUS ESCHSCHOLTZ (COLEOPTERA: ELATERIDAE) WITH REFERENCE TO ITS MALE GENITALIA FROM PAKISTAN

S. Anser Rizvi1, M. A. Akhter1 and Zubair Ahmed2

1Department of Zoology, University of Karachi, Karach-75270, Pakistan.
2Department of Zoology, Federal Urdu University of Arts , Sciences and Technology, Karachi, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

A new species of Melanotus Eschscholtz is described with reference to its male genitalia from Sindh, Pakistan. The species is compared with its closest allies.

NEWLY RECORDED SPECIES OF COSMOPSALTRIA SATURATA WALKER (HOMOPTERA: CICADIDAE) FROM PAKISTAN WITH THEIR TAXONOMIC CHARACTERSTICS

Zubair Ahmed1, T.F. Siddiqui1, M.A. Akhter2 and S. Anser Rizvi2

1Department of Zoology, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, Karachi,Pakistan
2Department of Zoology, University of Karachi, Karachi- 75270, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

Cosmopsaltria saturata Walker species is newly recorded from Pakistan. This species is found on high altitude from Murree Hills about 3500 feets on twigs. The species is described and compared with its closet allies

FLORISTIC AND VEGETATION STUDIES OF GHALEGAY HILLS, DISTRICT SWAT, PAKISTAN

Farrukh Hussain, Ilyas Iqbal and Parveen Akhtar

Department of Botany, University of Peshawar, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

The flora of Ghalegay Hills, District Swat consisted of 92 species that belonged to 56 families. Of them, 49 families were dicotyledonous, 3 monocotyledons, 3 pteridophytic and one gymnospermic Based on the number of species, Rosaceae (10 Spp.), Asteraceae (6 Spp.), Lamiaceae (6 Spp.) and Poaceae (6 Spp.) were important families. But on the basis of FIV Pinaceae (267), Lamiaceae (244), Poaceae (167), Rosaceae (151), Papilionaceae (150), Acanthaceae (123) and Oleaceae (93) were important. Nanophanerophytic (33.6%) and microphyllous (46.6%) were dominant. The 7 plant communities were classified into subtropical semi-evergreen forest (Adhatoda-Cynodon-Olea, Olea-Cynodon Adhatoda, Plectranthus-Indigofera-Dodonea communities); subtropical pine forest (Pinus-Indigofera- Themeda, Pinus-Plectranthus-Indigofera communities) and blue pine temperate forests {Quercus-Stachiopsis-Fragaria, Pinus-Fragaria-Dryopteris communities). The vegetation was highly degraded due to deforestation and overgrazing. The local populace depends on these forest and range resources. The area needs ecological management for the sustainable use of the resources.

STUDIES ON THE PLANT BIODIVERSITY OF HUB RIVER ESTUARY

Surayya Khatoon1, Q. M. Ali2 and M. Imran1

1Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi – 75270, Pakistan.
2Marine Reference Collection and Resource Centre, University of Karachi, Karachi – 75270, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

Hub river is an important river of Balochistan whose estuary lies on the Sindh – Balochistan border. The present studies involved the inventorying of plant biodiversity of the vicinity of estuary and monitoring of the changes due to anthropogenic pressure. A total of 35 plant species has been collected and identified from the Hub estuary area, belonging to one algal, fifteen dicot, and three monocot families. These species include 13 aquatic/wetland species, the rest were terrestrial species occupying the dry or damp exposed margins of river bed or the higher ground on river banks. Most of the species were halophytes or salt tolerant species. One species, i.e. Paspalum vaginatum Swartz is recorded for the first time from Pakistan, while another, i.e. Suaeda acuminata (C. A. Mey.) Moq., is a new record for the southern part of Pakistan. Two hitherto unknown hosts of Cistanche tubulosa (Schrenk) R. Wight, viz. Aeluropus lagopoides (L.)Trin. Ex Thw. and Sporobolus sp. have been recorded. Among the life forms, phanerophytes showed the highest frequency followed by the cryptophytes. Species with values of ‘n’ chromosome number higher than 9 were found in higher frequency than the species with lower numbers, indicating that polyploids are better suited to this environment. During this 18-month long study, steady decrease in the number of species was observed due to habitat destruction by the stone and sand extraction activities which have totally transformed the estuarine ecosystem.

PUBLIC AWARENESS REGARDING FISH CONSUMPTION IN DIET OF KARACHI CITY, PAKISTAN

Mohammad Shoaib1, Nazia Mahmood1, Faisal Ameer2, Mohsna Ali 1 and Saadia Kazmi1

1Department of Zoology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan
2Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (PCSIR), Laboratories Complex Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

A questioner based survey was carried out with special reference to fish consumption in different districts of Karachi City. It has been concluded that about 43% respondents dislike eating fish only due to presence of spines, smell, Leucoderma fear and taste. Those who used fish on weekly, monthly and bimonthly basis have better eye sight, good memory, no fear from heart attack, blood pressure, cancer, depression and arthritis.

CYST PRODUCTION IN NATIVE STRAIN OF ARTEMIA PATHENOGENETIC

S.G. Abbas Shah1, Wajeeha Ali1, Khalid Jamil1, Musarrat Akhtar1 and Mohammad Shoaib2

1Food and Marine Resources Research Centre, PCSIR Laboratories Complex, Karachi, Pakistan
2Department of Zoology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

The Artemia parthenogenetic a native strain from Karachi Solar Salt Works was cultured in three ponds of 1.5m2, in the laboratory to study the cyst production during the period (2002-2004). The production of cysts was recorded every week and physico-chemical parameters, temperature, salinity, dissolved-oxygen concentration, pH, and water level were recorded. Individual Artemia released 35-500 numbers of cysts after every five to six days interval and lowest 15-50 cyst under adverse conditions e.g. high temperature, scarcity of feed etc. The life span of Artemia has been recoded to three and half months (115 days) and during this period 80-100g of cyst collected from each ponds/ month. In order to obtain a homogenous population with all females in the same mode of reproduction some abiotic conditions were manipulated very strictly. Artemia grew in 75 cm deep water level in ponds and were propagated extraordinary well, leading to a successful harvest of cyst and adult. Feed, temperature and salinity were found most important for propagation of Artemia and quality of cyst. The cyst production was low from May-July due to high prevailing temperatures and with decrease phytoplankton population in the ponds. During the study DAP (Di-Ammonium Phosphate) and Urea was applied as a fertilizer every week in each pond for maintenance of primary productivity (phytoplankton). The average size of hydrated and dried cyst was between 240+13.1µm to 258+9.7µm [n=250]. The temperature varied between 10-29oC. A total of 8 kg cysts were collected and processed during the study.

FOOD AND FEEDING HABITS OF SPOTTED GRUNT FISH POMADASYS MACULATUM (BLOCH, 1747) (FAMILY:POMADASYIDAE) FROM KARACHI COAST, PAKISTAN

A. K. SAFI and M. A. KHAN

Marine Reference Collection and Resource Centre, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

Pomadasys maculatum (Bloch, 1747) is an excellent food fish and widely distributed in the Indo- pacific region. It inhabits higher part of rocky tide pools, and shallow waters. The pattern of food and feeding habits of P. maculatum were studied during the period from January 2001 to April 2002 using points and frequency of occurrence methods. The fish was observed to be carnivorous, which constitutes the main food items are Crustaceans (17%), smallteleosts(10%), mollusks (6.20%) and pollychaets (1%) etc. Feeding intensities were higher in fishes of larger size groups (150-229mm) while poor feeding condition was exhibited in smaller size groups (70-149mm). The composition of food of different size groups and seasons was calculated. Crustaceans and semi digested food materials were the most frequent food items for smaller size groups (70-149mm) while the diet constituent shifted to mollusks, teleosts, miscellaneous, crustaceans and semi digested food materials respectively in larger size groups (150-229mm).

GENE DIVERSITY OF ABO AND RHESUS BLOOD GROUP SYSTEM IN THE POPULATION OF KARACHI, PAKISTAN

Fauzia Imtiaz*1 and I. H. Sheikh2

1Department of Pathology, Baqai Medical University, Karachi, Pakistan
2Department of Mathematics, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

The ABO and Rhesus blood group systems remain the most important blood group systems clinically. In order to provide gene frequency values for ABO and Rh (D) alleles in the population belongs to the metropolitan area Karachi, 2630 samples were collected for ABO and Rh (D) blood groups during the period of 2004. Overall, 37.3% were blood group O, 27.8% were A, 28.9% were B and 6.1 % were belongs to AB blood group. The distribution of ABO blood groups did not differ significantly from those expected under the Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium. The proportions of the samples belonging to the various ABO blood groups did not vary significantly over the period of the study. Overall, gene frequencies for O, A and B genes were found to be 0.607 ? 0.019, 0.200 ? 0.012 and 0.212 ? 0.021 respectively.

EVALUATION OF THE PREVALENCE OF OBESITY AND EATING HABITS AMONG STUDENTS IN ALEXANDRIA

S. I. M. Saleh and M. M. Shabayek

Departmnt of Nutrition, Central Lab. for Food and Feed, Agricultural Research Center, Alexandria, Egypt

ABSTRACT

The present study was conducted on male and female students in Alexandria. Weight, height body mass index and socioeconomic characteristics were measured. Daily dietary intake was recorded using 24 hours recall for three consecutive days. Nutritional habits and food frequency were also assessed. It was found that about 4.3% of the studied subjects were underweight, 63.5 % showed normal body mass index for age, 19.3 % were overweight and showed a body mass index for age above the 85th percentile and 12.9 % of subjects were obese. Obesity was found to be more common in higher socioeconomic level than in lower levels. Highly significant differences were recorded between energy, protein, carbohydrate and fat intakes of obese and non-obese subjects. All groups have daily energy, Calcium and Vitamin A intakes lower than the RDA. Vitamin C, riboflavin, thiamin and zinc intakes of all groups were adequate. Concerning the daily intake of food groups, it was found that there is no significant variation in bread, cereals and fruits consumption between obese and non-obese students. On the other hand a significant variation was detected in vegetables consumption between obese and non-obese males. A highly significant variation in the utilization of meat, poultry, fish and their products was detected between obese and non-obese males and females
It was recognized that obese subjects consume more fats and oils than non obese, and that males consume fats more than females. There are no significant differences encountered between obese and non-obese subjects in haw frequent they have the majority of food items like cereals, fruits, vegetables, meat, poultry, fish, egg, legumes, milk and milk products. A highly significant difference was found between obese and non-obese male students in the frequency of eating potatoes, sweets and snacks, while obese and non-obese females showed no variation. On the other hand, female subjects showed a highly significant difference in the number of times they have milk and dairy products while males didn’t.
It was found that there is no significant difference between obese and non-obese subjects in the number of meals per day. The main meal of the majority of students is lunch. The majority of both of them were found not to have breakfast. There was much dissimilarity between obese and non obese subjects in nutritional habits such as drinking tea after meals, deviation of food intake with seasonal variations, physical activity and sleeping after meals.

PRESENCE OF DIABETICS IN MIDDLE-INCOME URBAN PAKISTANI FAMILIES LIVING IN KARACHI*

A. H. Shaikh1, Rubina Hakeem2 , Farzana Asar2 and Shahid Jamal3

1Departmen. of Botany, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, Karachi-75300, Pakistan
2Department of Food and Nutrition, Raana Liaqat Ali Khan Government College of Home Economics, Stadium Road, Karachi-74800, Pakistan
3Department of Statistics, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, Karachi-75300, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

A survey was conducted to find out differences in Plant or animal food intake of families having or not having diabetics. It has been observed that mean plant: animal ratio of diet was much lower (1.51) among families having diabetics than in families where there was no diabetic (1.67) P=0.015. The difference was statistically non-significant for plant food intake whereas mean daily frequency of intake of animal foods was significantly higher (3.97) among families having diabetics than those not having diabetic (3.47) (P=0.001. Consumption of chicken, mutton, milk and curd was significantly higher among families having diabetics.

PUBLIC HEALTH PROFILE OF DRINKING WATER IN HUB RIVER CATCHMENT AREA, SINDH PAKISTAN

M. A. Khan*1, S. Raheel Zafar1, Sarah Arif1, N. A. Khan2 and S. J. H. Kazmi3

1Institute of Environmental studies, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.
2Department of Geology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.
3Department of Geography, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

This cross sectional study investigates the public health profile of drinking water at Hub river catchment area. The quality of water was examined by Most Probable Number Technique (MPN) using standard methods. Water from all the samples failed to meet WHO guidelines for the bacteriological quality of drinking water. This would mean that this important water resource is grossly polluted with the organisms of public health importance that could be a potential threat to the people that consumed water from the area.


A STUDY ON PREVALENCE OF ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANT AIRBORNE BACILLUS SPECIES

Sabahat Saeed, Nazia Masood and Perween Tariq

Department of Microbiology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

A total of thirty two (32) strains belonging to 14 species of the genus Bacillus were isolated from air of a classroom. These comprised B.megaterium (4), B.larvae (2), B.brevis (2), B.pasteurii (2), B.licheniformis (5), B.laterosporus (1), B.subtilis (3), B.coagulans (4), B.polymyxa (1), B.alvei (2), B.firmus (1), B.thuringiensis (2), B.cereus (2), and B.stearothermophilus (1). The antibiotic susceptibility was performed by disc diffusion method. In the present study 43.8 % airborne isolates were found resistant to augmentin, 9.4 % to amoxicillin and only 3.1 % isolates were found resistant to nalidixic acid while all isolates were found susceptible to remaining antibiotics i.e. ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, erythromycin, cephradine, ofloxin and doxycyclin. It was also observed that 10 strains were single-drug-resistant while 4 strains were resistant to 2 antibiotics.


ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF RHIZOME OF ZINGIBER OFFICINALE AGAINST SPECIES OF ORAL VIRIDANS STREPTOCOCCI

Sabahat Saeed*, Perween Tariq*, and Nargis Fatima*

Departement of Microbiology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

Forty (40) isolates belonging to 7 different species of viridans streptococci group were used for evaluation of antibacterial activity of aqueous infusion, decoction and fresh juice of rhizome of Zingiber officinale (ginger) by well diffusion assay. All isolates were found resistant to aqueous infusion and decoction while fresh juice of Z. offficinale exhibited weak antibacterial activity against tested organisms.

NEMATODES ASSOCIATED WITH MANGO IN SINDH

Aly Khan1, Mian Sayed1 and S. Shahid Shaukat2

1Crop Diseases Research Institute, PARC, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan
2Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

A survey of nematodes associated with mango in Karachi and Hyderabad district, Sindh, Pakistan was conducted in 2005 season. Ten localities were surveyed and samples of rhizosphere soil were collected. In all nine genera and twelve species were recorded. The population densities were measured and highest density was that of Tylenchorhynchus sp. (65 per 200 g soil). A cluster analysis of nematode data of localities was performed that yielded two groups of localities. The first group was characterized by the high densities of Meloidogyne javanica and Helicotylenchus indicus while the second group is marked by high densities of Hemicriconemoides mangiferae and Helicotylenchus mangiferae.

SEASONAL EFFECTS ON POPULATION OF CHICKEN LICE (MALLOPHAGA: INSECTA)

K. Sayeed, S. Anser Rizvi and Saima Naz

Department of Zoology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

The poultry lice are very common on their host especially in Karachi region belonging to the order Mallophaga (Insecta). Their population rate and the climatic conditions have been studied in the present paper.

EFFECT OF GRADED INOCULUM OF RHIZOCTONIA SOLANI ON ROOT, SHOOT LENGTH AND YIELD OF THREE POTATO VARIETIES

C. A. Rauf1, M. Ziaullah1, S. I. Yasin2 and F. Rahman3

1Department of Plant Pathology, University of Arid Agriculture, Rawalpindi, Pakistan.
2Rice Research Institute, Kala Shah Kaku, Sheikhupura, Pakistan.
3Graduate Student, Department of Statistics, University of Arid Agriculture, Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

The relationship between different inoculum levels 5, 10, 15 and 20 g of Rhizoctonia solani AG 3 isolate SL-41 in soil and their effect on root, shoot length and yield were investigated by using potato varieties cardinal, diamant and desiree against root length, shoot length, number and weight of potato tubers. It was found that 20 g inoculum level dose of the fungus was the best for pathogenicity determination against R. solani, the cause of black scurf disease Moreover, cv. Desiree was found to be a susceptible variety.

EFFECTS OF GRAVITY SEPARATION AND SEED TREATMENT ON SEED QUALITY IN WHEAT

M. Qasim Khan and B. C. Keith

Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, USA,

ABSTRACT

Studies were undertaken to evaluate the effect of gravity separation and seed treatment on three quality levels of wheat. Seeds of three quality levels of wheat Coker 9877 (High A), Arthur (Medium B) and Cardinal (Low C) were separated into three density classes by a gravity separator and treated with Vitavax 200+Lsp. Generally, gravity separation and seed treatment with fungicide was found to be effective in improving the seed quality by increasing the germination percentages, accelerated aging response and reducing specific disease pressure.

EFFECT OF SEED-DRESSING WITH BACILLUS CIRCULANS ON GROWTH OF GUAR (CYAMOPSIS TETRAGONOLOBA) AND NEMATODE POPULATION

Aly Khan1, S. A. Shaikh2 and S. Shahid Shaukat3

1Crop Diseases Research Institute, PARC, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270
2PCSIR Laboratories Complex, Off University Road, Karachi-75270
3Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270 - Pakistan

ABSTRACT

The present study examines the effect of seed dressing with Bacillus circulans on growth of guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) and the associated nematodes. The population of Helicotylenchus indicus was significantly reduced but that of Meloidogyne sp. and Tylenchorhynchus brassicae remained unaffected. The shoot growth of guar was significantly increased by the seed dressing. The utility of the bacterium B. circulans is discussed.

USE OF RHIZOPHORA MUCRONATA POIR AGAINST THE GROWTH OF SOME ATMOSPHERIC FUNGAL ALLERGENS

M. Afzal, F.S. Mehdi, Z.S. Siddiqui and S.S. Shaukat

Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi –75270, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

In vitro, antifungal bioassay of Rhizophora mucronata Poir was performed. Bark extract was prepared in DMSO, DW, chloroform, ethanol, acetone and 2000, 4000 and 6000 ppm of the extracts were tested against seven allergenic fungi viz., Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, A. niger Cladosporium herbarum Penicillium notatum and Saccharomyces cerevisae. Data was compared with negative control against different aforesaid solvents, most of the results were found as significant (P<.05). The inhibition in the growth of A. niger was greater followed by A. Alternata, and A. flavus except in the case of S. cerevisae, where, the growth inhibition was comparatively ineffective. Overall concentration dependent increase in the growth inhibition of fungi was observed during the study. Results are discussed in relation to antifungal potential of Rhizophora mucronata stem.

EFFECT OF DIFFERENT MOISTURE AND STORAGE TEMPERATURE ON SEEDBORNE MYCOFLORA OF SOYBEAN

Marium Tariq, Shahnaz Dawar and F.S. Mehdi

Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

Soybean seed with 8, 12 and 16 % were stored at 4, 25 ,30 and 40°C showed that infection of Aspergillus flavus was highest at 16% moisture level where as infection of pathogenic fungi was maximum at 8 and 12% moisture levels when stored at 25°C. Infection of mold fungi increased with the increase in storage time whereas germination of seed decreased with the increase in storage time.

EFFECTIVENESS OF CYPERMETHRIN 10 E.C. AND ACORUS CALAMUS EXTRACT IN COMPARISON WITH DANITOL, METHOPRENE, AND NEEM EXTRACT AND THEIR EFFECT ON TOTAL PROTEIN CONTENTS OF SITOPHILUS ORYZAE L.

Tanveer Ahsan, Imtiaz Ahmad, Nikhat Yasmeen, Rahila Tabassum, Arshad Azmi, and M. Shoaib

Department of Zoology, University of Karachi, Karachi – 75270, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

Sitophilus oryzae rice weevil is considered as a devastating stored grain pest through out the world. It causes complete destruction of stored grain in warehouses, godowns and on board commodities. Rate of destruction depends upon the humidity and other environmental factors. LC50 values for cypermethrin was 19 µg / cm2 and 3500 µg / cm2 for Acorus calamus extract (Ahmad et al., 1998) in comparison to 0.39 µg / cm2 for Danitol, 6.28 µg / cm2 for neem extract formulation and 18.85 µg / cm2 for methoprene (Tabassum et al ,1992). Thus Dnitol has the highest toxicities followed by neem formulation, methoprene, cypermethrin and Acorus calamus extract in the descending order. The effect of cypermethrin (synthetic pyrethroid) and Acorus calamus extract (AC- HEX – 1) was observed following topical method (filter paper impregnation technique, Naqvi, 1987) on the total protein content of rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae. The activity in total protein content of Sitophilus oryzae was calculated as 95.76% in case of insects treated with acetone (check) only and 86.38% when treated with Butch fraction (AC- HEX-1) whereas it was 69.38% in case of cypermethrin, with the detailed statistical data and methodology highlighted.

DEVELOPMENT OF HYDROPERICARDIUM VACCINE FROM LOCALLY ISOLATED VIRAL STRAINS

Fozia Marjan1, Khalil-ur-Rehman1, T. Mahmood Chaudhry2 and M. Salahuddin2

1Department of Biochemistry, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan
2Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology, Jhang Road, Faisalabad, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

Poultry type includes chicken, ducks, turkey and geese. It is a cheap and easy method of raising the dietary standard of people. However, disease problems posed a serious threat to the sound development and consolidation of the poultry industry in Pakistan. One of these diseases is hydropericardium syndrome (HPS), especially in forms of broiler and broiler breeder birds. HPS has high mortality in broilers, usually between 3 and 6 weeks of age with some birds showing previous sudden collapse. It is probably caused by Aviadenovirus-4. To control this disease, inactivated vaccines have been used. The present study describes a formalin inactivated vaccine for hydropericardium syndrome from suspension of liver homogenate of 20-25 day old chicks experimentally infected with HPSV collected during natural outbreaks. The infected livers were collected, homogenized and liver homogenate was centrifuged at 4000 rpm for 15 minutes. Supernatant was used for determination of biological titer LD50 after adding antibiotics (streptomycin, penicillin, gentamycin etc) which was 10-5.5. After inactivation of HPSV with formalin (3ml/liter), sterility and safety tests were performed which confirmed the absence of any type of bacteria and active HPS virus in formalin inactivated vaccine. Antibody response of this vaccine against HPS in broiler chickens was checked which showed that formalin inactivated vaccine evoked an earlier and persistent antibody response in broiler chicks. The studies showed that formalin inactivated vaccine was sufficient to protect broilers in case of experimental and natural outbreaks of hydropericardium syndrome.

SMALL-SCALE PRODUCTION OF COMMON GREEN LACEWING CHRYSOPERIA CARNEA

A.N. Syed, M. Ashfaq, K. Zia, R. R. Khan

Biological Control Laboratories, Department of Agricultural Entomology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

This paper outlines a system for the production of common green lacewings in the laboratory, using easily available and inexpensive equipments and producing a healthy surplus of insects on small scale to accommodate field needs by the farmer himself. An economic breakdown of costs is given.

TOXICITY OF THREE NEEM PESTICIDES AGAINST MOSQUITOES

R.M. Tariq1, S.N.H. Naqvi2, N. Yasmeen1, M.A. Azmi1, M. Aslam3, S.M.N. Zafar4, K. Gabol1 and M. Masood1

1Department of Zoology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.
2Baqai Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Baqai Medical University, Deh Tor, P.O. Box 2407, Karachi-74600, Pakistan.
3Department of Statistics, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.
4SGS Pakistan Pvt. Ltd. Agricultural Laboratory, Karachi-Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

Three species of mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti L. Anopheles stephensi & Culex) were treated by using WHO method, with three neem pesticides, Biosal, Nimbokil (from Pakistan) and Neem ark (from India). The LC50 of Biosal against 3 species was 400,1000 and 500 ppm, respectively for Aedes, Anopheles, Culex while LC50 of Neem ark against 3 species was 50,30 and 75 ppm, respectively for Aedes, Anopheles & Culex. Where as the LC50 of Nimbokil against 3 species was found 30 ppm. These results were compared with permethrin showing LC50 against 3 speices 0.125 ppm.

MEASUREMENT AND SURVEY OF ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES (OCPS) LEVEL IN MILK SAMPLES OF AGRICULTURAL WORKERS (MAZANDARAN –IRAN)

S.Zare1, A.G.Ebadi2 and M.Babaee2

1Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran
2Department of Biology, Islamic Azad University of Sari, Sari 48164-194, Iran

ABSTRACT

Organochlorine pesticides are compounds widespread in the environment due to their persistence and highly lipophilic nature and they accumulate in biological systems. Newborns are exposed to these organochlorine compounds across the placenta and through breastfeeding. The milk samples collected from breastfeeding women (agricultural workers) in two city, Sari and Babol, of Mazandaran province of Iran .
Routine determination of OCPs was performed with GC/ECD using generally two different GCs (Fisons Mega 2) with two columns of different polarity. The resulte showed that the fat amount of fresh weight was 4,2% for Sari and 4,9% for Babol city and In both samples, the highest amounts were found for p,p’-DDE, which was 0.596 µg/g fat in Sari and 0.155 µg/g fat in Babol, followed by beta-HCH, which was 0.027 µg/g fat and 0.022 µg/g fat, respectively.

EFFECT OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF FEED ADDED BERBERIS LYCIUM ON THE PERFORMANCE OF BROILER CHICKS

Chand, N., F. R. Durrani., M. A. Mian and Z. Durrani

Department of Poultry Science, NWFP Agricultural University, Peshawar, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

This study was planned to investigate the effect of Berberis lycium on the performance of broiler chicks. Six experimental rations designated as A, B, C, D, E and F having 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5% B. lycium were fed to 240 broiler chicks, randomly distributed into 24 replicates, so as to have 4 replicates per group and 10 chicks / replicate. The experiment lasted for 35 days. Average weight gain, feed consumption, feed efficiency, dressing percentage, mortality and weight of visceral organs, breast and thigh were used as criteria of response. Mean body weight gain / chick was 1403.9, 1424.7, 1429.3, 1438.4, 1486.1 and 1404.2 g for group A, B, C, D, E and F respectively. Though the differences in body weight gain were statistically non significant yet apparent body weight gain was quite high in group E (1486.1g) as compared to the control (1403.9g). The increased body weight gain in group E increased gross return by Rs.3.8 per bird as compared to the control. The average feed consumption per chick was 3296.2, 3165.4, 3134.3, 3127.7, 3028.0 and 3165.9 g for group A, B, C, D, E and F respectively. Non significant differences were revealed in mean feed consumption. However, numerically feed consumption was lowest (3028.Og) in group E as compared to the control (3296.2). The lower feed consumption resulted in saving of 268.2g of feed / chick in group E as compared to the control which amounted to a saving of Rs.3245.6 / 1000 broilers in feed cost. Feed efficiency (feed/gain) was 2.4, 2.2, 2.2, 2.2, 2.0 and 2.3 for group A, B, C, D, E and F respectively. Statistically the differences were non significant, however, numerical differences were important from economic point of view. The feed efficiency was most favorable in group E. Mean dressing percentage, weight of breast and thigh were not significantly influenced by B. lycium. Average dressing percentage was 57.0, 57.1, 57.76, 57.6, 58.1 and 57.1, mean breast weight was 247.1, 266.0, 247.2, 256.7, 277.0 and 267.6 g and mean thigh weight was 123.6, 127.0, 120.2, 128.1, 138.9 and 125.3 g for group A, B, C, D, E and F, respectively. Mean percent mortality was 7.5, 5.0, 5.0, 5.0, 0.0 and 7.5 for group A, B, C, D, E and F respectively. Mortality was lower in group E (0.0 %) as compared to other groups. It was concluded that B. lycium added to feed @ 2.0% can be used in broiler production for optimum performance from economic point of view. It is further suggested that research trials may be conducted to investigate the effect of B. lycium on the immune system of the birds.

RESPONSE OF BARLEY (HORDEUM VULGARE L.) TO INDOLE ACETIC ACID UNDER VARYING SOIL ENVIRONMENT

Nazila Azhar2, Mumtaz Hussain2, M. Yasin Ashraf1, S. Mahmood2 and S. Sarwar Alam1

1Stress Physiology Lab, Salinity and Environmental Management Division, Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology (NIAB), P.O. Box 128, Jhang Road, Faisalabad, Pakistan (E.mail: niabmyashraf@yahoo.co.uk).
2Department of Botany, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

Effect of different concentrations of indole acetic acid (IAA) was investigated under varying soil environments on cultivars of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), B-99094 and Jau-87 in soil filled earthen pots during the year 2001-2002. Three concentrations of IAA (0, 15 and 30 mg L-1) were applied as foliar spray 30 days after germination. After hormone application, half of the pots were subjected to one cycle of water stress, followed by regular watering till incipient wilting. Plant height, flag leaf area, photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, sub-stomatal conductance, relative water content, dry biomass, 100-grain weight and grain yield/plant were significantly reduced by water stress. However IAA treatments compensated the negative effect of water stress to some extent.

CHANGES IN CHLOROPHYLL, PROTEIN AND CARBOHYDRATE CONTENTS OF VIGNA RADIATA, CICER ARIETINUM AND LENS CULINARIS AFTER IRRIGATION WITH SEWAGE WASTE WATER

H. Rija, Z.S. Siddiqui and Arif-Uz-Zaman

Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi, 75270 Pakistan

ABSTRACT

Changes in total chlorophyll, protein and carbohydrate contents of Vigna radiata, Lens culinaris and Cicer arietinum were examined by the sewage water irrigation on alternate days up to a period of four weeks. All biochemical parameters showed considerable increase in treated samples than controls. Results are discussed in relation to the presence of probable organic and inorganic substances.

GENOTYPE AND ENVIRONMENT INTERACTION FOR GRAIN YIELD IN NON-AROMATIC RICE

H.R. Bughio, A.M. Soomro, A.W. Baloch, I.A. Khan, M.A. Sial, A. Khatri and M.S. Bughio

Rice Breeding Group, Plant Genetics Division, Nuclear Institute of Agriculture, Tando Jam, Sindh
E-mail: niatjam@hyd.paknet.com.pk

ABSTRACT

Environment exhibits an important force in the degree of expression of any trait. Quantitative trait like grain yield in rice (Oryza sativa L.) highly depends on the magnitude of genotype x environment interaction (G x E). To understand possible interaction between genotype and environment for rice grain yield, 11 genotypes were evaluated at 9 locations of Sindh. Combined analysis of variance suggested that genotype, location, year and their interactions were highly significant. The regression coefficient (b) and deviation from regression (S2d) showed significant differences among the mutants/varieties. The mutant variety Sarshar, IR6-25/A and IR6-15/A were superior in yield to all the entries under evaluation. On the basis of stability parameters, the mutant variety Sarshar has shown good adaptation potential under favourable as well as unfavourable environments.

KARYOLOGICAL STUDIES OF THREE CULTIVARS OF SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS)

Farah Naz1 and M. Ashraf2

1Department of Plant Pathology, University of Arid Agriculture, Rawalpindi, Pakistan
2Department of Biological Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam Universiry, Islamabad, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

The sunflower cultivars viz Hysun-33, SF-177and SF-187 have shown similar “2n” chromosomes number i.e. 34. The total length of the chromosomes complements of Hysun-33and SF-177 have shown slight variation where as SF-187 was found with much smaller chromosomes length as compared to the first two cultivars. Based on the centromeric positions, karyotype formula and ideograms are constructed. In SF-177 and SF-187 formulas are similar (i.e. 2n=34=26m+4sm+4st) and in Hysun-33(i.e. 2n=34=20m+12sm+2st).

GENETIC VARIABILITY, HETEROSIS, CHARACTER CORRELATION AND PATH ANALYSIS OF YIELD COMPONENTS IN WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L. EMP. THELL)

Qaisar Mahmood1*, A. S. Qureshi1, M. R. Khan1, M. A. Tajammal2 and Yousaf Hayat3

1Department of Biological Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan
2Federal Seed Certification and Registration Department (FSC&RD), Islamabad, Pakistan
3Department of Maths/Stat/Computer Science NWFP Agricultural University Peshawar, Pakistan.
*Email: qaisar1996@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

Studies were conducted on six commercial cultivars of wheat viz; Inqilab, Khyber 87, Soghat, Sarsabz, Rohtas 90 and Pak 81 and their three F1 hybrids; Khyber 87 X Inqilab, Rohtas 90 X Pak 81, and Soghat X Sarsabz. The experiment was conducted at National Seed Registration Department (NSRD), Rawalpindi, Pakistan during 1996/97. Data on various agronomical traits were taken and analyzed for heterosis, correlation and path co-efficient studies. Analysis of variance revealed significant amount of genetic variability for all the characters. Significant heterosis for grain yield, biomass, plant height, flag leaf area, spike length, spikelets per spike and 1000-seed weight except harvest index was recorded in F1 for all the three crosses. In general more correlation coefficient was recorded at the genetic level as compared to phenotypic correlation coefficients. Positive and significant correlation of grain yield was recorded with plant height, spike length and biological yield at the genotypic level. However, correlation between grain yield and 1000-seed weight was negative and highly significant. Biomass had maximum direct contribution to grain yield followed by plant height and 1000-seed weight while spike length and flag leaf area had negative direct contribution to grain yield. Therefore, these characters should receive maximum attention while selecting high-yielding wheat breeds.

COMPARISON OF CHEMICAL FERTILIZER WITH ORGANIC MANURES BY USING EFFECTIVE MICROORGANISMS UNDER MAIZE CROPPING IN RAINFED AREAS

A. N. Chaudhry, M. I. Latif, Ghulam Jilani, A. A. Khan and Tanveer Iqbal

Department of Soil Science and Soil & Water Conservation, University of Arid Agriculture, Rawalpindi, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

Low crop yields in Pakistan due to poor soil fertility emphasize the need to explore all such possible strategies which can increase crop production with minimum use of chemical fertilizers. The present study was conducted to investigate the usefulness of effective Microorganisms (EM) in combination with chemical fertilizer and organic manure for maize fodder production. Comparison of chemical fertilizers with FYM with and without EM on growth parameters of maize such as plant height, leaf area, fresh biomass yield, nutrient uptake by maize and nutrient contents in soil were investigated. The treatments were: Control, NP @ 120-90 kg ha-1, FYM @ 20 t ha-1, FYM @ 10 t ha-1 in main plots and all these with and without EM treatment in sub-plots, under split plot design with three replications. The data was statistically analyzed and it was found that EM had significant increasing effect on plant height, leaf area and fodder yield of maize crop. Highest values for plant height and leaf area were obtained with NP fertilizer with EM as compared to other treatments. Similarly EM inoculation had positive effect on soil nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and organic matter contents. Addition of EM along with farm yard manure @ 20 t ha-1 and 10 t ha-1 has also increased soil nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and organic matter contents and has similar values as with chemical fertilizers without the application of EM. However, the overall effect of EM on soil characteristics was statistically non-significant. NPK uptake was also increased with the application of FYM along with EM application and was comparable with chemical fertilizers. EM application also increased the NPK uptake by maize. It can be concluded that application of FYM @ 20 t ha-1 with EM inoculation can compensate the chemical fertilizers use.

PROFITABILITY INCREASE IN MAIZE PRODUCTION THROUGH FERTILIZER MANAGEMENT AND DEFOLIATION UNDERRAINFED CROPPING

A. N. Chaudhry1, M. Imran Latif1, M. Haroon-ur-Rasheed2 and Ghulam Jilani1

1Department of Soil Science and Soil & Water Conservation, University of Arid Agriculture, Rawalpindi, Pakistan.
2Department of Agronomy, University of Arid Agriculture, Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

Two maize hybrids (Hycorn-82 (Hl) and Tayawadeha-77 (H2)) at four NP fertilizer rates (O-O (Fl), 100-75 (F2), 150-125 (F3) and 200-175 (F4) Kg ha-1) and with three defoliation levels (no defoliation (Dl), defoliation of all leaves below cob at 2 weeks after mid-silking (D2) and removal of tassels plus top four leaves at 4 weeks after mid-silking (D3)) were compared in a split-split plot design. During growth after mid-silking leaves biomass was taken according to the treatments mentioned earlier. It was noted that H2 gave statistically higher leaves biomass. Comparison of defoliation levels showed that D3 gave more biomass of defoliated leaves as compared to D2 and the difference was statistically significant. Similarly, fertilizer levels gave biomass as F4> F3> F2> Fl, all being statistically different. The interactions of HXF, DXF, DXH and DXFXH were also significant. At crop maturity, plant height, number of grains per cob, grain weight per cob, 100 grain weight and cob diameter were recorded and statistically analysed. Number of grains per cob remained unaffected by defoliation treatments. However, the yield determining parameters like grain weight per cob and 100 grain weight were affected significantly by defoliation treatments. Without defoliation (Dl) produced the maximum grain weight per cob and 100 grain weight than the other levels of defoliations. Grain yield was significantly affected by defoliation treatments. The maximum grain yield was produced in Dl (control), whereas the minimum grain yield was obtained in D2 plots. All the growth and yield determining parameters were significantly affected by various NP application rates. The maximum grain yield was produced by the application of 200-175 kg NP ha-1 (F4) and the minimum was recorded in control (Fl). The maize hybrids showed significant differences from each other only for plant height, leaves biomass and 100-grain weight. Hycorn-82 was superior for plant height and 100 grain weight while Tayawadeha-77 for leaves biomass. The three-way interaction for weight of defoliated leaves appeared to be highly significant. Two-way interactions (DXF and DXH) were found non¬significant, for all parameters except leaves biomass, whereas, HXF was non¬significant for only plant height and number of grains per cob. The economic analysis of data revealed that D3 gave significantly higher total productivity over D2 and Dl. It was concluded that D3 treatment was better for foliage fodder yield and compensated for yield loss.

DETERMINATION OF SUITABLE MEDIUM AND OPTIMUM TEMPERATURE REQUIRED FOR THE GROWTH OF SEED BORNE FUNGI OF SORGHUM

Ishrat Niaz1, M. Jalaluddin2 and S. A. R. Kazmi1

1Grain Storage Research Laboratory (SARC), Pakistan Agricultural Research Council, Karachi University Campus, Karachi-75270, Pakistan
2Department of Botany University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan

ABASTRACT

The suitable medium and temperature required for the growth of seed-borne fungi, isolated from Sorghum was determined. Twelve fungal species belonging to five genera of seed borne fungi were isolated from various samples of Sorghum and cultured on three media namely, Potato Dextrose agar (PDA), Czapek’s-Dox agar (CDA) and Sorghum grain extract (SGE) separately. All the species were incubated at three different temperatures viz. 20, 25 and 30 C. It was observed that for most of the species PDA was the best medium. However, for Drechslera sp., and Curvularia penniseti CDA was more appropriate and 25 ?C was the optimum temperature required for the growth of fungi.

DETERMINATION OF CAFFEINE CONTENTS IN DIFFERENT SORTS OF TEA IN IRAN

M. A. Ebrahimzadeh1, M. Azadbakht2 and K. Khani2

1Department of Medicinal Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Medical Sciences University of Mazandaran, Sari, Iran. Email: zadeh20@yahoo.com
2Pharmaceutical Research Center, Medical Sciences University of Mazandaran, Sari, Iran.

ABSTRACT

Tea is grown in about 30 countries, including Iran, and is the most widely consumed beverage worldwide. The widespread availability and use of herbal medicine raise the potential for adverse effects in some conditions e.g. cardiovascular diseases or epilepsy populations. Thirteen different tea sorts that consumed routinely in Iran were collected. Caffeine content was determined with simple extraction method. Caffeine ranged from 0.7- 4.2%. The highest amount found in green Golestan and the lowest one in Bahareh.

REAPPRAISAL OF THE IDENTIFICATION OF VOUCHER SPECIMENS FOR EARLIER REPORTED CHROMOSOME COUNTS IN ERIOCHLOA (GRAMINEAE)

Surayya Khatoon

Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi – 75270, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

A critical examination of the voucher specimens in the Karachi University Herbarium for the chromosome counts reported as Eriochloa procera (Retz.) C. E. Hubbard by some previous workers has revealed error in their identification. Out of the four specimens, two are correctly identified as E. procera, but the other two are indeed Eriochloa fatmensis (Hochst. & Steud.) W. D. Clayton; which were misidentified as E. procera by those workers. The chromosome numbers based on these specimens are also different. Misidentifications like this are one of the sources of a false impression of the presence of cytotypes within species.



 
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