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SOYBEAN DISEASES IN PAKISTAN -A REVIEW

Irum Mukhtar and Shakil Ahmed*

Department of Mycology and Plant Pathology, University of the Punjab, Quaid e Azam Campus, Lahore-54590, Pakistan; *E.-mail:shakil@mpp.pu.edu.pk; shakil786gcl@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

Soybean diseases have been intensively studied in soybean-growing countries. In Pakistan, research on diseases and their control is limited so far. Different diseases damage the crops and result negligible and sometimes 100 percent loss in out put. Oil seed crops are subjected to various mechanical, physiological and biological stresses in all stages of growth and in all natural environments, which interfere with their normal growth and development. Weather, toxicants, pollutants, insects, viruses, fungi, nematodes, bacteria and weeds are primary hazards to the production. An account of the most important diseases of soybean crop in Pakistan was discussed.

POLLUTION SCENARIO IN THE COUNTRY

S. Manzoor Alam and A. H. Shaikh

Department of Botany, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, Gulshan-e -Iqbal Campus, University Road, Karachi-75300, Pakistan..

ABSTRACT

Pollution is the contamination of the atmosphere and land by gaseous , liquid, or solid wastes that can endanger human or plant health or can attack the surrounding materials. During the first 90 years of the Industrial Revolution, the world burnt about 60 billion metric tons of fossil fuel (Mahmood.1987). Industrialization led to urbanization and its attendant problems of pollution. A phenomenal growth in world population has been taken since man took to industry.
It is necessary to maintain a good air quality to protect human health and environment from adverse effects of pollutants. This can be achieved by controlling the emission of pollutants at source, for emissions and regular monitoring of pollution levels in air. We should discourage smoking. Science provides many practical solutions to minimize the present levels at which pollutants are introduced into the environment and for creating up environmental problems. In our everyday lives, a great deal can be done to minimize pollution, if we take care to recycle materials whose production creates pollution. From the religious point of view, Islam teaches us to use available resources effectively and efficiently and to keep our surrounding neat and clean.

BUCEPHALUS HEXALOBATUS N.SP. (GASTEROSTOMATA ODHNER, 1905: BUCEPHALIDAE POCHE, 1907: BUCEPHALINAE NICOLL, 1914) FROM THE FISH POMADASYS OLIVACEUS OF KARACHI COAST

F.M. Bilqees1, N. Khatoon2 and M.F. Haseeb2

1Department of Zoology, Jinnah University for Women, Nazimabad Karachi-74600, Pakistan
2Department of Zoology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

A new trematode belonging to the genus Bucephalus Baer, 1926 is described here from the intestine of the fish Pomadasys olivaceus of Karachi coast. The new species Bucephalus hexalobatus is characterized by having body slender anteriorly, broader behind and tapering to a rounded posterior end. Rhynchus is weakly muscular with 6 lobed at anterior extremity, mouth opening is post equatorial, testes oval to rounded in posterior half of the body, obliquely tandem, anterior testis large, immediately pot ovarian, posterior testis dorsal to cirrus pouch. Cirrus pouch is cylindrical and confined to posterior third of the body, seminal vesicle elongate, pars prostatica well developed, genital lobe occupying the genital atrium, genital pore ventral, close to posterior extremity. Ovary is ovoid, pretesticular, close to anterior testis. Vitelline follicles are relatively large, centrally located anteriorly, nearer to rhynchus, 26-28 in number, in the anterior third of the body, these are 0.71-0.82 mm from anterior extremity. Uterus is extensive reaching to almost posterior half of vitelline field and occupying almost all available space posterior to vitellaria. Eggs are numerous, small, 0.020-0.024 by 0.017-0.019 in size. Excretory vesicle not prominent but appears to extend anterior to vitellaria.

EFFECT OF LIGHT AND DARK CULTURE CONDITIONS ON CALLUS INDUCTION AND GROWTH IN CITRUS (CITRUS RETICULATA BLANCO.)

J. A. Khan1’*, M. J. Jaskani1, Haider Abbas2 and M. M. Khan1

1Institute of Horticultural Sciences, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad-38040, Pakistan
2Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

Explants such as hypocotyls, epicotyls and cotyledons obtained from germinated seedlings, and juice vesicles and albedo tissues from immature citrus (C. reticulate) fruits were cultured under light and dark culture conditions to record any effect on callus initiation and growth. The seedling emergence was observed to be higher in Early Feutrall than Kinnow; andit was found to be lower under light incubation. Callus initiation was maximum in cotyledon and epicotyl explants of both cultivars and culture conditions. Juice vesicle explants of Kinnow yielded maximum callus under dark incubation. For callus development the same pattern was followed. Maximum callus growth and embryogenic callus was noticed in cotyledon, juice vesicle, albedo and epicotyl explants.

GENETIC DIVERSITY ANALYSIS OF LOCAL DATE PALM (PHOENIX DACTYLIFERA L.) CULTIVARS OF PAKISTAN THROUGH MOLECULAR MARKER (RAPD)

Ghulam Raza, Saboohi Raza, Imtiaz Ahmad Khan and Abdullah Khatri

Agriculture Biotechnology Division, Nuclear Institute of Agriculture, Tando Jam, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was applied to analyze the genetic diversity among six female date palm cultivars (Asseel, Fusli, Khupra, Kurblane, Punjmail, Pathri) and one male. Young leaves of these cultivars were collected from Khairpur. Seventeen arbitrary primers were used for this study. Among these primers, only 9 revealed polymorphic and unambiguously scorable bands. A total of 75 bands were generated with an average of 8.33 bands/primer. Out of 75 amplified fragments, 65 (86.66%) were polymorphic. Cluster analysis by unweighted paired group method of arithmetic mean (UPGMA) showed two groups Group ‘A’ and Group ‘B’. Group ‘A’ consists of Khupra, Kurblane l, Fusli and Pathri while Group ‘B’ consists of Asseel and Punjmai. Maximum genetic similarity (77%) was present between Khupra and Kurblane while minimum genetic similarity (58%) was present between Asseel and Punjmail. Cultivar male did not belong to any group. It was 48% genetically similar to the rest of 6 cultivars. This study may be helpful to know the genetic difference present among local date palm cultivars cultivated in the province of Sindh.

COMPARISON OF SOME SATURJA SPECIES BY PHYLOGENETIC AND CHEMOTAXONOMIC ANALYSIS

Z. Sepehrizadeh1, S. Saeidnia2, A.R. Gohari2*, M. B. shapourabadi1, M. Tabatabaei yazdi1 and A. Hadjiakhoondi2

1Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2Medicinal Plants Research Center,Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran

ABSTRACT

In this study, the phylogenic relationship between five species of Satureja was investigated by RAPD-PCR. Genetic distance was calculated in order to construct phylogenic dendrograms of closely related samples. Results indicate that S atropatana has the closest relationship with two samples of S. mutica and also S. spicigera. Phylogenetic distances show that S. macrantha not only is far from S. mutica and S.spicigera but also, has different patterns of RAPD-PCR compare to others. The taxonomical classification, supported by GC and GC/ MS analysis of the leaf components, show that thymol is the major compound in the oils of S mutica, S. atropatana and S. spicigera. The oils of these three species are enriched of monoterpenes (more than 70%) compare to sesquiterpenes and a high amount of oxygenated compounds. The main component in the volatile oil of S. macrantha is a sesquiterpene, spathulenol.

ISOLATION OF CITRIC ACID PRODUCING STRAINS OF ASPERGILLUS NIGER USING TANNIC ACID MEDIUM AND PRODUCTION PARAMETERS

Ikram-ul-Haq, Uzma Hameed, Hamid Mukhtar and M. A. Qadeer

Institute of Industrial Biotechnology, Government College University, Lahore, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

Thirty one strains of Aspergillus niger were isolated using a new approach which describes the selective isolation of A. niger using tannic acid medium. Twelve strains, selected after qualitative screening using Bromocresol green dye, were further screened quantitatively for citric acid production by submerged fermentation. Of all the strains, A. niger GCBT-7 gave the maximum citric acid production (8.27±0.95 g/l). The optimal production of citric acid by the isolate GCBT-7 (11.91+0.76.23 g/l) was achieved 168 h after the conidial inoculation, in the fermentation medium containing 150-g/l sugar. The initial pH of the medium was also optimized and a pH of 5.5 was found to be the best for citric acid production.

EXOPOLYSACCHARIDE PRODUCTION BY INDIGENOUS SOIL BACTERIUM PSEUDOMONAS STUTZERI CMG1436

Muhammadi1, Nuzhat Ahmed1* and B. Fatima2

1Centre for Molecular Genetics, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan
2Pakistan Council for Science & Industrial Research Laboratories, Karachi, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

Bacterial strain CMG 1436 identified as Pseudomonas stutzeri was found to produce an extracellular anionic heteropolysaccharide in growth medium. By acid hydrolysis exopolysaccharide was depolymerized into glucuronic acid, D-glucose and D-arabinose monomers. Their separation on Whattman paper No. 3 revealed that the number of D-glucose and D-arabinose monomers was found to be concentrated whereas that of glucuronic acid was lower. Further, like other bacterial polysaccharides, this exopolysaccharide was found to be high molecular weight polymer and its molecular weight was estimated in the range >20,000 and <250,000 Dalton.

PHYTOCHEMICAL AND BIOACTIVITY INVESTIGATIONS OF MACFADYENA UNGUIS-CATI L. (BIGNONIACEAE)

E.A. Aboutabl1, F.A. Hashem2, A.A. Sleem3 and A.A. Maamoun2

1Pharmacognosy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Kasr-El-Aini Street, Cairo, Egypt.
2Pharmacognosy Department, National Research Centre, Tahrir Street, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt.
3Pharmacology Department, National Research Centre, Tahrir Street, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt.

ABSTRACT

Gas chromatography / Mass spectrophotometer of the volatile components of the aerial part of Macfadyena unguis-cati L, revealed 74 compounds, 52 of them (representing 75.97%) were identified. The major compound is n-decane (12.21%) followed by phytol (12.19%). The saponifiable fraction of the petroleum ether extract showed 21 fatty acid identified as methyl esters. 37 compounds were identified in the unsaponifiable fraction;representing 93.26%. ß-amyrin, squalene, ß-sitosterol and 3?,5-cyclo-ergosta-7,22-dien-6-one were identified in the USM.Determination of LD50 of different extracts showed that total ethanol extract is the safest (4.9 g/kg) followed by petroleum ether extract, (4.5 g/kg) and ethyl acetate extract having the least LD50 (3.1 g/kg). The total ethanol extract was revealed to be the most potent as antipyretic, followed by ethyl acetate extract. The ethanol extract, as well as the coumarin containing fraction exhibited significant analgesic activity.

TOXICITY AND EFFECT OF CYHALOTHRIN ON DNA IN DUSKY COTTON BUG OXYCARENUS HYALINIPENNIS COSTA (HEMIPTERA: LYGAEIDAE)

Aisha Perveen and Imtiaz Ahmad

Department of Zoology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

Cyhalothrin (2.5 E.C) was used to determine its lethal effect against Oxycarenus hyalinipennis Costa after 24 h of treatment by using filter paper impregnation method. The LC50 value was found to be 0.020?g/cm2. The DNA content of these insects was inhibited 77.07% as compared to that of control batch after the executing LC50 dose of this compound.

INTERLABORATORY COMPARISON OF UNKNOWN SAMPLES OF INSECTICIDES ON GAS CHROMATOGRAPH USING CAPILLARY COLUMNS

Tahir Anwar1,3, Seema Tahir1,3 and Imtiaz Ahmad2

1 Now at Pesticide Research Institute, Southern-zone Agricultural Research Center, Pakistan Agricultural Research Council (PARC), Karachi University Campus Karachi-75270, Pakistan.
2Department of zoology, University of Karachi, Karachi- 75270, Pakistan.
3Earlier Ecotoxicological Research Institute, National Agricultural Research Center, PARC, Islamabad, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

The unknown samples S1, and S2 were analysed on Gas Chromatograph (GC) equipped with Electron Capture Detector (ECD) and Nitrogen Phosphorous Detector (NPD) using the capillary column. The sample S1 was found to contain ?-endosulfan (14.8 + 02.3 mg ) and ?-endosulfan (17.0 + 13.2 mg). S2 was found to contain primicarb (13.8 + 07.8 mg) and azin phosmethyl (32.6 + 03.5 mg). The result of all four pesticides were found to be satisfactory except primicartb, hanging little bit for residue analysis, when compared with actual amount i.e. ?-endosulfan (11.0 mg), ?-endosulfan (16.9 mg), primicarb (24.0 mg) and azin phosmethyl (32.0 mg) furnished by the Danish Institute of Plant and soil science, Denmark.

PRELIMINARY REPORT ON TREE DIEBACK IN BALOCHISTAN

Arshad Javaid, Asad Shabir and Salik Nawaz Khan

Department of Mycology and Plant Pathology, University of the Punjab, Quaid-e-Azam Campus Lahore, Pakistan
E-mail: arshadjpk@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

A survey of Quetta, Pashin and Ziarat, Balochistan, Pakistan was undertaken in April 2006 and tree dieback incidence in these areas was recorded. In Quetta the most affected angiospermic tree species was ash [Fraxinus xanthoxyloides (G. Don) DC] showing about 20% dieback incidence. Trees of all ages were found victim of the disease. However, older trees were found more susceptible to dieback than the younger. The other highly affected tree species was Morus alba showing about 10% dieback incidence. The lowest disease incidence of about 1% was recorded in Robinia pseudoacacia L. Some root infecting fungi may be the cause of dieback in these tree species. Among the gymnosperms, Afghan pine (Pinus eldarica Medw) exhibited about 10% dieback incidence. An unidentified aphid species is response for dieback in this pine. In Pashin, the most fertile district of the Balochistan, dieback incidence was almost zero. Generally apple is cultivated in the area and because of management practices, plants were healthy. In Ziarat Juniper (Juniperus excelsa M.B.) forests were severely suffering from dieback where about 20% trees were showing the disease symptoms. Drought, mistletoe Arcethobium oxycedri and fungus Pyrofomes demidoffii (Lev.) Katl. & Pouz are among the causes of juniper dieback in Ziarat.

EFFECT OF DOSAGES AND DECOMPOSITION PERIOD OF NEEM DERIVATIVES FOR THE CONTROL OF ROOT-KNOT NEMATODES (MELOIDOGYNE JAVANICA) IN TOMATO PLANT

Muhammad Abid1, M. Javed Zaki2 and Shahnaz Dawar2

1Depatment of Botany, Federal Urdu Univ. of Arts, Sciences and Technolgy, Karachi, Pakistan.
2Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

The effect of dose and period of decomposition of neem seed powder, neem cake and neem dry leaf power on root-knot infection and growth of tomato plant was studied. It was observed that all neem derivatives significantly not only reduced the intensity of root-knot disease but also improved plant growth. The significant effects of these organic amendments increased gradually as the dose and period of decomposition increased. Maximum reduction in the reduction of root-knot index and improvement in plant growth was recorded where neem cake was used @ 1.0% and allowed to decompose for 20 days.

BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF NOXIOUS ALIEN WEED PARTHENIUM HYSTEROPHORUS L. IN PAKISTAN

Arshad Javaid, Sobiya Shafique, Rukhsana Bajwa, and Shazia Shafique

Department of Mycology and Plant Pathology, University of the Punjab, Quaid-e-Azam Campus Lahore, Pakistan. E-mail: arshadjpk@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

Parthenium hysterophorus L., a native of tropical America, is rapidly spreading in Pakistan and replacing the local flora. Among the various causes of its rapid spread in the country, lack of natural enemies of this weed is perhaps the most important one. There is not any earlier report of fungal or bacterial pathogen, or insect pest of this weed from Pakistan. During field surveys of different Parthenium growing areas in the province of Punjab from 2003-2005, we found severe attack of a mealy bug species in an undisturbed area in Punjab University, Quaid-e-Azam Campus Lahore. The mealy bugs were found feeding on leaves, stems and flower heads of Parthenium. The infected plants first showed symptoms of dieback and ultimately dried to death. Five other weed species namely Boerhavia diffusa L., Achyranthes aspera L., Malvestrum tricuspidatum A. Gray, Sida spinosa L. and Xanthium strumarium L. were found to be attacked by the mealy bug. No field crop in Lahore was found to be attacked by the mealy bug.

EFFECT OF DIFFERENT DOSAGES OF BACTERIA AFTER MULTIPLICATION ON SEAWEED IN THE CONTROL OF ROOT ROT OF SUNFLOWER AND MASHBEAN

Shahnaz Dawar1 , Sadia Arjumand1, M. Javed Zaki1 and Muhammad Abid2

1Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan
2Department of Botany, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, Gulsahn-e-Iqbal, Karachi, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

Bacteria viz., Rhizobium meliloti, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis were multiplied on sea weed like Cystoclanium purpuraeum. After 15 days of multiplication soil was amended with different dosage of inoculum. There was a significant enhancement of plant growth and significantly control the infection of root infecting fungi viz., Macrophomina phaseolina, Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium spp on mash bean where soil was amended with P. aeruginosa inoculum on Cystoclonium purpuraeum used @ 1% w/w whereas B. subtilis inoculum on C. purpureum used @ 1% w/w showed greater plant growth and significant reduction of root infecting fungi on sunflower and mashbean.

EFFECT OF HERBAL TREATMENT ON HAEMATOLOGY OF BRIOLER CHICKENS INFECTED WITH ENTEROPATHOGENS

M. Salahuddin1, Kishwar Sultana2, T. M. Chaudhry1, Shahid Mahboob2, Asma Ashraf 2 and
M. F. Shah3

1Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology (NIAB) P. O. BOX 128, Jhang Road, Faisalabad
2Department of Zoology, Government College University, Faisalabad, Pakistan
3Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad

ABSTRACT

Tinospora cardiofolia based herb extract was used to improve the haematological values that were negetively affected during the bacterial enteritis in the broiler chickens. Bacterial enteritis was experimentally produced in 60 chickens by oral administration of 2ml bacterial suspension of enteropathogenic E. Coli and Salmonella (109 organisms / ml) to each chick while 30 chicks were kept as control (Group C). Thirty out of these 60 chicks were treated with herbal mixture @ 100g/50kg feed for 7 days post infection (Group A) while 30 chicks were kept untreated (Group B). Blood samples for haematological analysis (Hb, ESR, DLC and TLC) were collected from each group at interval of 5 days i.e 18th, 23rd, 28th and 33rd day of age. The results showed that Hb in Group B was significantly lower than Group A and C at 23rd day of age while ESR value was significantly lower in Group B as compare to other groups on all sampling days. Significant lower no. of TLC was also observed at 23rd day of age in Group B where as there was no significant difference on other sampling days. DLC demonstrated that there was increased no. of Neutrophil, Eosinophils and Basophils in Group B while Group A and C showed same patterns. Monocytes and Lymphocytes were significantly lower in number in Group B as compare to Group A and C which was indicative of immunosupperssion. This study demonstrated that herbal treatment of infected chicks had rectified the immunosuppressive & anemic effects of enteropathogens.

PHENOTYPIC DIVERSITY AMONG INDIGENOUS SOIL BACTERIAL STRAINS FROM DIFFERENT GEOGRAPHICAL REGIONS OF KARACHI

Muhammadi and Nuzhat Ahmed

Centre for Molecular Genetics, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

In order to study the phenotypic response of indigenous soil bacterial community to soil diversity, fifty bacterial strains were isolated from four geographically different sites of Karachi. Among the soil bacterial strains, mostly were found to be gram-negative, facultative and lactose non-fomenter rods. Diversity in colonial morphology and antimicrobial tolerance phenotype was markedly found. Fourteen percent strains showed phenotypic characteristics specific for exopolysaccharides and cellulose production. Twenty four percent bacterial strains showed tolerance to different antibiotics, heavy metals and NaCl. These characters have indicated pollution in the sampling sites.

PREVALENCE OF ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANT BACTERIAL PATHOGENS ISOLATED FROM CONJUNCTIVITIS

Sahar Afshan, Asma Naim and Sabahat Saeed

Department of Microbiology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

Antibacterial susceptibility tests against 108 strains belonging to 9 genera, isolated from conjunctivitis, were carried out by disc diffusion method. These comprised Staphylococcus warnei (13 strains), S. intermedius (10), S. epidermidis (10), S. lugdunensis (10), S. simulans (7), S. auricularis (6), S. schleiferi (4), S. aureus (6), S. haemolyticus (2), S. capitis (2), S. saprophyticus (1), Micrococcus nishinomyaensis (5), M. varians (4), M. kristinea (2), M. sedentarius (1), Streptococcus morbillorum (4), S. pyogenes (1), Bacillus coagulans (1), B. sphaericus (2), B. firmus (4), Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum (4), C. mycetoides (1), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (3), P. mallei (1), Moraxella osleonsis (2), Haemophilus aphrophilus (1), and Branhamella catarrhalis (1). In the present study 36.1% isolates were found resistant to ampicillin, 2.7% to chloramphenicol, 8% to clindamycin, 0.9% to gentamicin, 50% to polymyxin B, 14.8% to tetracycline and 1% to vancomycin while all isolates were susceptible to sulfonamides and trimethoprim. It was also observed that 28.7% strains were single-drug-resistant, 7.4% strains were resistant to 2 antibiotics while 0.9% strains were multi-drug-resistant.

SOME HYDROGRAPHIC FEATURES OF KORANGI-PHITTI CREEK

Zakia Khatoon1 and S. Makhdoom Hussain2

1Food & Marine Resources Research Centre, PCSIR Labs. Complex, Karachi. 75280. Pakistan
2Centre of Excellence in Marine Biology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan
E-mail: huss@cyber.net.pk

ABSTRACT

Present study describes for the first time some hydrographic features (temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and pH) and their seasonal variations in Korangi-Phitti Creeks based on data collected during 1999-2001. Results showed that surface water temperature generally varied from 25-34°C during summer months (March–October), 19-27°C during winter months (November–February). Low temperature 19°C was recorded in the month of February 1999 at Port Qasim. Higher surface water temperature 34°C was recorded in May 2000 at Korangi Creek and in September 2001 at Port Qasim. In general high atmospheric temperature correspond with the high surface water temperature however at some stations during low tides the surface water temperature was slightly higher than the atmospheric temperature. Salinity in the Korangi creek ranged from 34‰-45‰ with maximum 45‰ at Port Qasim area during the SW monsoon in the month of September 2000. Lowest salinity 34‰ was observed at Port Qasim in the transitional period (April). Dissolved oxygen ranged from 2.2 mg/l to 10.75 mg/l with minimum of 2.2 mg/l in the month of February 2001 at Port Qasim during the NE monsoon and maximum 10.75 mg/l in the month of February 2000 during the NE monsoon.

EFFECTS OF SOIL SALINITY ON THE YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS OF MUNGBEAN

Shakil Ahmed

Environment and Myco-technology Research Lab., Department of Mycology & Plant Pathology, University of the Punjab, Quaid e Azam Campus, Lahore-54590, Pakistan; E.-mail: shakil@mpp.pu.edu.pk; shakil786gcl@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

Experiment was conducted with five mungbean genotypes with the aim of ascertaining the effects of salt stress on the yield and its component. The decrease in seed yield per plant under salt stress was more pronounced associated with a reduced number of seed per pod and 100 seed weight. Consequently salt stress was more effective at vegetative, flowering and seed filling stages rather than seed development stage in all the five genotypes. NM-92 was less affected which showed its adaptability under saline conditions. Delayed maturity due to salt stress pushes the plant also be desiccation stress causing shriveled seeds.

BIODIVERSITY IN BENTHIC COMMUNITIES OF GHARO CREEK

Moazzam A. Khan1, Omm-e-Hany1 and S. Shahid Shaukat2

1Institute of Environmental Studies, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan
2Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

The imbalance in the ecosystem of coastal region of Pakistan has undergone serious stress due to changes in Indus river regime as well as unchecked industrial discharge into the coastal region. This study aimed to demonstrate the ecological imbalances at Gharo Creek, one of the productive coastal zone of Karachi in the past. A total of 48 species of flora and 155 species of fauna were found in the samples of 7 different sampling sites of Gharo Creek. The most abundant group was Mollusca (37.39%), followed by Crustacea 15.64 % and Nematoda 16.52 %. Egg mass, unidentified specimen, empty mucous tubes and Porifera constituted 2.37%, 1.25%, 1.00% and 0.75 % respectively. In Mollusca the most abundant group was Gastropoda (20.90%) followed by Pelecypoda (16.77%) and Annelida (21.27%). No significant number of floral species was obtained except the members of the genus Chlorophyta( 33%).

OBSERVATIONS ON THE WATERFOWLS OF JIWANI WETLAND COMPLEX (JIWANI, GAWATER BAY, PISHUKAN AND AKARA RIVER ESTUARY) BALOCHISTAN

Karim Gabol1 and Abdul Rahim2

1Department of Zoology, University of Karachi, Karach-75270, Pakistan
2International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), Gwadar Office, Balochistan, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

The present study deals with the observations on waterfowl of Jiwani wetland complex (Jiwani Gawater Bay Pishukan and Akara river estuary) during January 2006 to June 2006. During the study 31 species of waterfowls were observed at three different site of Jiwani wet land complex.

DISTRIBUTION AND BURROW DENSITY OF FIELD RAT NESOKIA INDICA IN NON-CROPPED AREAS OF CENTRAL PUNJAB

M. Akhtar1, S. Nadeem2, and M.A. Beg3

1Department of Biology, Govt. Degree College For Women, Sargodha, Pakistan.
2Biological Chemistry Division, NIAB, P.O. Box – 128, Faisalabad, Pakistan.
3Deptt. Zoology & Fisheries, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

Rodents are important pests of agriculture in Pakistan. Short-tailed mole rat, Nesokia indica, is one of the most destructive and widely distributed species. The present work attempts to estimate the population density of this rat through its burrow count in non-cropped areas of central Punjab. An area of 378.5 hectares of such land in the districts of Jhang, Faisalabad, Sheikhupura, Gujranwala, Lahore and Kasur was sampled. The overall per hectare density of N. indica for all types of sub-habitats was 0.8. The structure of the burrow system was nearly the same in all types of sub-habitats. From the density data it is quite clear that the mole rat attained high density in banks of irrigation ditches (16.2 burrow system per hectare) and banks seepage drains (13.5 burrow system per hectare). On the average, N. indica made 0.9 fresh and 2.6 old mounds per burrow system. The maximum number of fresh mounds and open burrow mouths were observed between 08:00 to 10:00 a.m. and between 06:00 to 06:30 p.m.

INTERACTION OF DIAZOTROPHS WITH PHOSPHORUS-SOLUBILIZING BACTERIA: THEIR EFFECT ON SEED GERMINATION, GROWTH AND GRAIN-YIELD OF MAIZE, UNDER RAINFED CONDITIONS

S. N. Khokhar *, M. A. Khan, Aftab Afzal and Rizwan Ahmed

INRES, National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad, Pakistan; *sbb233@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

Interaction between two diazotrophs (Rhizobium and Azospirillum) and one phosphorus -solubilizing bacterium (PSB), Pseudomonas was studied in laboratory using soil extract agar plates and carrier models. On soil extract agar medium, the three microbes grew without inhibiting each other. In the carrier, all three microorganisms sustained their population equal or more than 107cfu/ g of carrier (effective enough for successful inoculation) after eight weeks storage at 28°C, irrespective of in what combination they exist. Rhizobium maintained highest population at the end of 8 weeks and seems to play a probiotic role for PSB, as population of PSB was higher in the presence of Rhizobium as compared to PSB alone after 8 weeks. Maize seed germination was 25% higher than in control after 24 h of inoculation when seeds were inoculated with coinoculant, Azospirillum + PSB or with Azospirillum+Rhizobium + PSB than in un-inoculated seeds. In field maize crop model was used to study the performance of three microbes in the presence of each other. Increase in grain yield ranged from 27%-50% over the control due to inoculation. Of all the inoculated treatments, highest increase was recorded when inoculant containing all three microbes Rhizobium, Azospirillum and Pseudomonas were inoculated in the presence of nitrogen @30kg/h and phosphorus @20kg/h. The grain yield in this case was equal to that when 120kg N and 80kg P was applied without bacterial inoculation. Highest seed nitrogen as well as seed phosphorus was recorded when Pseudomonas was applied in the presence of 120kg nitrogen and 40 kg phosphorus. Grain yield showed good correlation with straw Phosphorus (r0.0= 0.58) and leaf nitrogen (r0.0=0.63).

GERMINATION CAPACITY, VIABILITY AND MAINTENENCE OF STORED POLLEN OF VIGNA MUNGO L.

S. A. Khan and Anjum Perveen.

Department of Botany University of Karachi, Karachi 75270, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

Germination and viability of stored pollen of Vigna mungo L., was examined up to 48 weeks in different concentrations of sucrose and boric acid solutions. Viability under storage was determined by storing pollen in different conditions as refrigerator (+4?C), freezer (-20?C, -30?C), freeze drier (-60?C), in vacuum and in organic solvents. Pollen stored at low temperature showed better germination percentage compared to pollen stored at +4?C and fresh. Freeze dried pollen (-60?C) showed the highest germination percentage, while in vacuum pollen showed good germination compared to organic solvents, where benzene showed reasonable germination in early hours but later lost viability.

SCREENING AND SELECTION FOR ADAPTATION OF WHEAT GENOTYPES IN NATURALLY SALT-AFFECTED SOILS

Yousuf Ali and J. Akhter

Nuclear institute for Agriculture and Biology P. O. Box 128, Jhang Road, Faisalabad, Pakistan
Email: Yousaf_sem@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

Wheat cultivars of diverse origin were tested against different salinity levels in laboratory as well as in naturally saline fields in different ecological zones. Ten Genotypes were studied for germination test at 6 different salinity levels ranging from 0-25 dSm-1 (2, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, EC= dSm-1). Then were studied for the relative growth rate at different levels of salinity and after their study in the laboratory, were tested in the naturally saline areas of Punjab province. Under germination percentage study, the varieties viz. NR-243, Sarsabz, Sarcc-3 and Sarcc-6 were found less affected than other varieties. As regards the relative plant growth, varieties viz. Sarcc-3, NR-243 and Sarsabz were tolerant to salinity at seedling stage while Inqlab was graded as sensitive to salt stress. Regarding field performance, significant differences were observed in the varieties grown under different saline environments and varieties x environment interaction. Varieties x environment (Lin) interaction was non significant. Based on overall yield performance, the Sarcc-3 genotype produced the highest seed yield (2.969 t/ha) followed by NR-243 (2.624 t/ha) and Sarcc-6 (2.587 t/ha). Regression coefficient values showed non significant differences to unity while standard deviation to regression also showed significant differences to zero. These results indicated that the genotypes viz. SArcc-3, NR-243 and Sarcc-6 are better tolerant to saline environment as compared to others.

EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT IRRIGATION SYSTEMS FOR ECONOMIZING WATER USAGE AND ENHANCING CROP PRODUCTIVITY

Saleem-ul-Haq Siddiqui, Muhammad Imtiaz, Parvez Khan, M. Yousuf Memon, Muhammad Aslam and S. K. Hussain Shah

Soil Science Division, Nuclear Institute of Agriculture, Tando Jam-70060, Pakistan
Email: moeedaslam@gmail.com, Telephone No. 022-880868, 2765750

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted to study of different irrigation systems for economizing water usage and enhancing crop productivity. The biomass obtained, on average basis by bed and furrow method of planting amounted to be 7256 kg ha-1 by ridge sowing method 7069 kg ha-1 . The Bed and furrow system of planting gave numerically better grain yield for both the years and averaged to 2525 kgha-1. Ridge planting technique was ranked second 2442 kg grain ha-1. The maximum quantity of water was applied through basin irrigation, which amounted to be 10.42 acre inch. The bed and furrow system of planting proved economical as in this method the crop was applied with 4.78 acre inch during its growth period to get even better yield. The moisture contents of the field under all the planting systems were monitored for 15 days to check any change in moisture level of the soil where similar moisture contents were found in all treatments.

SOME SEED AND SEEDLING CHARACTERISTICS (TRICOTYLEDONY) OF OPUNTIA FICUS INDICA (L.) MILL. (CACTACEAE)

D. Khan

Department of Botany, Govt. National College, Karachi. Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

The seeds of Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill. are rounded in outline with convex surfaces. The seed coat is hard and shiny. The seed weight follows normal distribution i.e., few seeds had very low weight (< = 14 mg), few had larger weight (> or = 22.1mg) and most of the seeds had weight ranging from 14.1 to 19.9 mg. Hardness and imperviousness of testa to water imposes dormancy. Germination of seeds is slow and very low but enhanced on H2SO4 scarification. Majority of seedlings had two cotyledons but few of them (11 in 140 seedlings i.e., 7.86%) exhibited tricotyledony. In dicotyledonous seedlings major spurt in expansion of both large and small cotyledons of the seedlings took place from 4 to 6 days after emergence – later the expansion curve became more or less asymptotic. In case of tricotyledonous seedlings expansion of the large, medium and small cotyledons appeared to be somewhat slow but continuous as observed during initial 15 days of growth. Tricotyledonous seedlings didn’t differ significantly from dicotyledonous ones in radicle and hypocotyl growth but had somewhat larger cotyledonary area per seedling.

EVALUATION OF NEW COTTON (GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L) LINES FOR SEED COTTON YIELD AND LEAF CURL VIRUS INFECTION

Mahmood-ul-Hassan1, M. A. Haq, M. Aslam,2 M. Maqsood1 and S. S. Alam1

1Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology (NIAB), Faisalabad, Pakistan
2 Department of Agronomy University of Agriculture, Faisalabad. Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

New candidate varieties/strains of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) different research stations/institutes were tested for their yield performance. NIAB-111, NIAB-98 and NIAB-999 were significantly higher fruit bearing varieties at 90 days by completing 59.5, 48.3 and 46.0% fruiting, respectively. Seed cotton yield of VH-142 was the highest with 5312 kgha-1 having 52.05 bolls per plant with maximum value as compared to other lines. DNH-57 and NIAB-999 remained second and third with 51.28 and 4989 kg ha-1 seed cotton yield, respectively. BH-160 and CRIS-467 were found to be second and third highest boll bearing varieties with an average of 51.0 and 40.2 bolls plant-1, respectively. NIAB-98 gave the highest yield among short stature varieties. In case of cotton leaf curl virus (ClCuV), highest infection was recorded in two lines CRIS-168 and CRIS-467 with 9.77 and 6.03% damage respectively.

ASSESSMENT OF VARIATION FOR SALINITY TOLERANCE IN GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM (L.)

M. Arshadullah1 and S. A. Raza Zaidi2

1Rangeland Research Programme, NARC, Islamabad-Pakistan.
2Agriculture Extension Department, Jehlum, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

The study was conducted to access the response of eighteen cotton varieties to four NaCl levels i.e., 100, 150, 200, 250 mM and one without added salt. Based upon six characters i.e. root, shoot length, fresh root, fresh shoot weight, dry weight and dry shoot weight examined for preliminary varietal comparison which significantly affected by salinity. Varieties were ranging from more tolerant to highly sensitive were identified base upon relative and absolute salt tolerant. Cultivars NlAB-78, B-821, MNH-93, BH-36, BH-74, CIM-434, S-12 and S-14 were categorized most tolerant to NaCl and cultivars CIM-1100, CIM-109, CIM-240 and FH-682 were proved to be moderately tolerant. The cultivars Karishma, Raishmi, SLS-1, and RH-1 were identified as the most sensitive to salinity. This data revealed differing tolerant of the cultivars and consequently existence of variation in salt tolerance in Gossypium hirsutum (L) .On the basis of high broad sense heritabilities, a potentially useful advance in NaCl tolerance seems possible to achieve by the selecting individual plant at the seedling stage.

DACTYLIANDRA (HOOK.F.) HOOK.F. (CUCURBITACEAE) --- A NEW GENERIC RECORD FROM PAKISTAN

Surayya Khatoon

Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi – 75270, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

Dactyliandra welwitschii Hook.f. (Cucurbitaceae) is collected and identified, in the Hub river vicinity in Kirther Range, Pakistan. This constitutes the first record of the genus Dactyliandra from Pakistan.

CONVOLVULUS STOCKSII BOISS. (CONVOLVULACEAE) REDISCOVERED IN PAKISTAN

Surayya Khatoon

Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi – 75270, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

Convolvulus stocksii Boiss. (Convolvulaceae) is collected after a gap of more than 180 years in Pakistan.

IPOMOEA TUBERCULATA KER-GAWL. – NEW TO FLORA OF PAKISTAN

Surayya Khatoon

Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi – 75270, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

Ipomoea tuberculata Ker-Gawl. (Convolvulaceae) is collected for the first time from Pakistan, from the part of Kirther Range lying along the Hub river.



 
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