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Abstract October 2007

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BIODIVERSITY IN PAKISTAN: STATUS CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES FOR ITS CONSERVATION

Mirza B. Baig1 and Moinuddin Ahmed2

1Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad
2Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, Gulshan-e-Iqbal Campus, Karachi.

ABSTRACT

Pakistan possesses a variety of world's ecological regions due to its immense latitudinal and altitudinal variations. These regions include the coastal mangrove forests of the Arabian Sea as well as some of the highest mountains of the world, where the western Himalayas, Hindu-Kush and Karakoram ranges meet. This diversity contains diversified habitats and landscapes that support a rich biodiversity of both fauna and flora. Arid and semi-arid regions covering almost 80% of the total land area of the country possess significant portion of country's biodiversity.
During the last two-three decades, a number of animal and plant species have become threatened or endangered mainly due to over-exploitation and loss of natural habitat. Rapid human population growth is increasing pressure on the country's natural resource base. Increased poverty has forced rural people to exploit biodiversity at unsustainable rates. Factors like deforestation, overgrazing, soil erosion, salinity and water logging are posing major threats to the remaining biodiversity of the country. The continuing loss of forest habitat, with its associated fauna and flora, will have serious implications for the nation's other natural and agricultural ecosystems. Protected Areas System has been established for in-situ conservation of biodiversity in the country.
Pakistan Environmental Protection Act 1997, provides legal protection to the overall environment in Pakistan. A number of other laws do exist relating to conservation of various components of biodiversity. All efforts to reverse losses and promote diversity would be in vain without local participation. The key to protecting the biological diversity is involving local communities and obtaining support from relevant institutions in sustainable use initiatives.
The Government of Pakistan recognized the value and importance of the country's valuable treasure and prepared the National Conservation Strategy (NCS) in 1992. Biodiversity conservation has been treated as an essential component in the NCS. Pakistan also became a party to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) in 1994. Under the obligation of CBD, a Biodiversity Action Plan (BAP) has also been prepared and approved by the Government of Pakistan in 1999. The plan deals with the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity in all ecological regions of Pakistan including arid and semi-arid regions. It is proposed to all the government agencies, local communities and NGOs to work together as partners in the noble task of biodiversity conservation.

BACTERIAL BIODEGRADABLE PLASTIC: BIOSYNTHESIS, BIOCHEMISTRY AND GENETICS OF POLYHYDROXYALKANOATES

Muhammadi

Department of Genetics, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.
Tel/Fax: +92-21-9243131. E-mail: muhammadi12@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

Bacterial biodegradable plastic, polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) composed of hydroxy fatty acids, are carbon storage intracellular polymers synthesized by various bacteria and archaea. These carbon storage polymers are accumulated as water insoluble cytoplasmic nano-sized inclusions in response to nutrient limitation and degraded when limiting nutrient is supplied again. The PHA particles are spherical and composed of a polyester core surrounded by phospholipids and proteins. The key enzymes of PHA biosynthesis and particle formation are the PHA synthases, which catalyze the formation of PHA. Various metabolic routes have been identified and established in bacteria to provide substrate for PHA synthases. Based on their functions, the genes which encode these PHA synthases are grouped into pha biosynthetic, regulatory, and granule associated proteins and depolymerizing genes. In most of PHA producing bacteria, pha genes especially biosynthetic genes are colocalized in operons but not under transcriptional control of a single promoter and diversity is there in this respect. Bacterial PHAs are currently considered as biocompatible and biodegradable biomaterials with numerous potential applications particularly in medicine, medical and packaging. Thus offering a solution for the existing ecological and environmental problems caused by conventional plastic and petroleum-based products.

NON- OCCURRENCE OF CYSTOSEIRA KÜTZING OF THE NORTHERN-ARABIAN COAST (PAKISTAN)

Sadaf Gul and Mohammed Nizamuddin

Department Of Botany, University Of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan.
e-mail:sadafgpk@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

Stokeyia indica is endemic to north Arabian Sea coast. It is dioecious, oogonia branch and segmented. The development of vesicles in the ultimate vegetative branchlets.

DESCRIPTION OF A NEW ACANTHOCEPHALAN SPECIES NEOECHINORHYNCHUS LONGIORCHIS N.SP., (NEOECHINORHYNCHIDAE) FROM THE FISH OTOLITHUS ARGENTEUS (SCIAENIDAE) FROM KARACHI COAST, KARACHI, PAKISTAN

Shahina Khatoon and F. M. Bilqees

Department of Zoology, Jinnah University for Women, Karachi, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

An acanthocephala Neoechinorhynchus longiorchis. n.sp of family Neoechinorhynchidae based on male specimens is described from the fish Otolithus argenteus (Sciaenidae) of Karachi Coast, Pakistan. The body size of specimens, number of proboscis hooks, size of leminisci, testes, cement glands, cement reservoir, saefftigen's pouch and seminal vesicle morphology serve to distinguish Neoechinorhynchus longiorchis.n.sp from previously described species of the genus.

REDESCRIPTION OF AGAPE FICUS FELDER (LEPIDOPTERA: ARCTIIDAE: AGANAINAE) FROM PAKISTAN

S. Kamaluddin1, Saeeda Nargis Viqar2, Aliza Ali3 and Isma Yasir1

1Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, Gulshan-e-Iqbal Campus Karachi, Pakistan
2Department of Zoology, Government Degree College for Women, Block-M, North Nazimabad, Karachi,Pakistan 3Jinnah Medical and Dental College Shaheed-e-Millat Road, Karachi, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

Agape ficus Felder is recorded from Pakistan and redescribed in detail with special reference to its head appendages, venation of fore and hind wings and female genitalia. Its systematic position is also briefly discussed.

A MUTATION IN THE TROPOMYOSIN GENE IS POSSIBLY RESPONSIBLE FOR SUPPRESSING THE EFFECTS OF TROPONIN-I MUTATION IN THE DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER MUSCLES

M. A. Ansari 1*, Upendra Nongthomba2, Mark Cummins2 and John Sparrow2

1Department of Genetics, University of Karachi, Karachi 75270, *Corresponding author
2Department of Biology, University of York, York, YO10 5DD, United Kingdom,

ABSTARCT

Striated muscles like the indirect flight muscles (IFM) of the Drosophila are made up of thick and thin filaments that slide pass each other to generate contraction. Many proteins are involved in the structure as well as the regulation of the muscles. The IFM of the Drosophila is used in many studies to understand the muscle regulation. The presences of IFM specific proteins/isoforms are thought to be of relevance to the specific structure and function of the IFM. heldup2 (hdp2) is a point mutation in the constitutive exon of troponin (Tn)-I gene, that shows effects in the structure and function of all the muscles including the IFM. We have created mutants in the lab, designated as 3A and 3D that were found to suppress the effects of hdp2. In this research we are reporting the details of the molecular and behavioural analysis of the suppressor mutations and their affects on the TnI mutation hdp2.

GENETIC DIVERSITY OF ANTAGONISTIC BACTERIA AGAINST SHEATH BLIGHT AND BAKANAE RICE DISEASE BY RAPD

Mostafa Niknejad Kazempour1, Seyed Mehdi Tabatabaei2 and Nader Hassanzadeh2

1 Depatment of Plant Pathology, Faculty of Agriculture, Guilan University, P.O.Box. Rasht – Iran
2M.Sc. student and Associated Professor respectively , Azad University, Science and Research Campus, Tehran, Iran

ABSTRACT

In this research genetic diversity of 19 antagonistic bacterial strains were isolated from rice field contaminated with Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium moniliforme. Based on morphological, biochemical, physiological and pathogenicity characteristics, total cellular protein profiles ¬(SDS-PAGE) and PCR with specific primers the antagonistic strains were identified. The antagonistic strains of R.solani included B4, B6, B17, B18, B22, B24, B41 and B42 and that of F.moniliforme included F1, F6, F12, F15, F16, F18, F21, F24 were identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens and F14, F19, F32 and F35 were identified as Bacillus cereus. Out of fifteen RAPD primers, five primers were selected based on their ability to amplify all antagonistic strains. Twenteen strains were grouped based on RAPD analysis. Intra population gen diversity and distributed genetic diversity were assessed by POPGENE software. Nei’s genetic distance for A, B and C population is 0.22, 0.28 and 0.29 respectively. RAPD analysis revealed that strains B18 and F12 formed distinict group compared to other strains and showed maximum similarity with B24 and F18 strains. Other strains were placed in separated subgroups. Strains B41 and B6 showed maximum genetic distance. Molecular analysis using PCR based RAPD method is thus useful to differentiate such strains at the intra specific level.


COMPOUTER AIDED DRUG DESIGN OF NF-033 FOR AIDS TREATMENT

Atia M. A. Chaudhry1, Naheed Akhtar2, Zaheer-ul-haq Qasmi3, M.A.Haleem4

1, 2 Biophysics Research Unit, Department of Biochemistry, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan.
1Bioassays and Plant Screening Section, H. E. J., Institute of Chemistry, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan.
1, 3 Dr. Punjwani Center for Molecular Medicine and Drug Research, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan.
4Sir Syed University of Engineering and Technology, Karachi, Pakistan.
atiamasoodahmedchaudhry@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

The computer approaches are use to identify new, novel drugs, drug-like compounds, optimize lead models for specific targets, calculate molecular properties for drug designing in more rational way and assist experimental programs in bringing potential drugs to clinical trial. This called as Computer Aided Drug Design (CADD) (Tommy Liljeforl., 2004; Munikumar Reddy Doddareddy et al., 2004). It has been most successful in those areas, where it has been effectively integrated into a broad interdisciplinary drug research and development program. Conformational analysis and structural information have already support this process in many therapeutically areas (Manuel A. Navia., 1992).
This research describes the computer aided drug design with conformational and potential energy determination of NF-033 (8-[4’-(3”- Nitrobenzamido) Benzamido] Naphthalene-1, 3, 6-Trisulfonate) as HIV Reverse transcriptase (HIV-RT) inhibitor. It’s a suramin like drug. It has strong inhibiting activity against the AIDS and Kaposi Sarcoma (Arthur Camerman et al., 2000; George I. Birnbaum et al., 1987).
In this paper, the potential energy was calculated and predicted effective low energy conformation in to the allowed region of the compound. Results shown that the atomic pair (C14-S6) has minimum potential energy (-0.000366 Kcal/mole) at ?1 = 0° and ?2 = 0° (Figure-6) from all the individual pairs. The drug in this conformation may interact with receptors on target cells and show strong potent inhibition activity against HIV-RT/AIDS.

EFFECTS OF IRRIGATION WITH AMENDED DILUTIONS OF SEAWATER ON GERMINATION, GROWTH AND IONIC DISTRIBUTION IN PENNISETUM DIVISUM (GMEL.) HENR – AN ARID PSAMMOPHYTIC PERENNIAL GRAMINOID

D. Khan1 and R. Ahmad2

1Department of Botany, Government National College, Karachi-5, Pakistan.
2Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi-32, Pakistan


ABSTRACT

Germination, growth and ionic distribution in Pennisetum divisum (Gmel.) Henr. were investigated using 10-30% amended sea water (ECiw: 4.5-14.0 dS.m-1 ) for irrigation. Fifty percent reduction in germination (in petriplates) corresponded with ECiw: 10.44 dS.m-1 and threshold ECiw corresponding with 50% reduction in growth (in drum pot culture) was around 10.13 ± 1.01 dS.m-1 (ranging from 8.57 to 12.25 dS.m-1 when assessed in terms of root, residual shoot, harvested shoot and total plant biomass). The plant showed decline in regeneration after bi-monthly clipping around the year. The growth was extremely reduced during winter season (dormancy period). The cumulative forage biomass harvested per annum under 30 % amended seawater (14.0 dS.m-1) was 1267.67 ± 234.67 g.drum-1 (FW). It was 5467.0 ± 261.4 g.drum-1 (FW) in control (1.2 dS.m-1); reduction being c. 76.8%. The reduction in forage production in 10 and 20% seawater was c.48.3 and c.61.3%, respectively. The plant showed flowering throughout the year.
The plant irrigated with saline water showed decrease in chlorophyll and water content. Sugar contents remained statistically indifferent in leaves up to 20 % seawater irrigation but increased in 30% seawater. Although proline level increased considerably, protein concentration remained quite unaffected. Sodium increased in the roots as well as shoots. Potassium concentration which increased in roots of plants irrigated with 10% seawater, declined in 20 and 30 % seawater. It didn’t vary in leaves up till 20% seawater. In leaves calcium declined at higher salinity. Mg concentration which increased in leaves (63.5%) of plants irrigated with low salinity declined in higher salinity but didn’t vary significantly from that in the control plants. K / Na ratio was much higher in shoot and Ca/ Mg ratio was relatively higher in roots. Mg concentration was relatively higher in shoot than root of the treated plants.

ROLE OF CALCIUM CARBONATE ON PHOSPHATE SORPTION IN SOIL

Ambrin Rajput1, M.R. Wagan2, Parvez Khan1 and Muhammad Imtiaz1

1Soil Science Division, Nuclear Institute of Agriculture, Tando Jam-70060, Pakistan
*Email: rambrin2004@yahoo.com, Telephone No. 022-880868, 2765750
2Department of Soil Science, Sindh Agriculture UniversityTandoJam, Pakistan.

ABSTARCT

The results obtained showed that for all CaCO3 levels, the phosphate sorption was increased with the increase in the added phosphorus from 5.0 to 1000 µg g-1 soil. It was further observed that at 10% calcium carbonate no precipitation of calcium phosphate was noticed even at higher phosphorus additions. However, when the calcium carbonate level was increased from 20% to 50%, the calcium phosphate precipitation was apparent at the phosphorus additions of 500 and 1000 µg g-1 soil respectively.

COMPREHENSIVE INVESTIGATION OF SOLID AEROSOLS IN FAISALABAD (PAKISTAN) ATMOSPHERE

M. A. Khan Shahid1 and K. Hussain2

1Department of Physics, GC University, Faisalabad, Pakistan
2Department of physics, Punjab University, Lahore, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

The results obtained from an investigation of solid aerosols in the Industrial city of Faisalabad (Pakistan) are reported and analysed in this paper. X-ray diffraction studies of the va¬rious solid aerosols zones (residential, industrial / traffic and commercial zones) showed that non-clay minerals such as quartz, calcite and albite are contained in most of the samples in almost comparable amounts. Chemical analysis of some samples was carried out for complementing the X-ray diffraction data. The amount of quartz in the samples of industrial zones/ traffic zones was found to be IN an order of magnitude more than in the samples of relatively residential zones. As the dust particles of these compounds are poor substrate for promoting nucleation of ice in the atmospheric clouds, they are liable to stay steadily in the atmosphere as pollutant. The results of Solid aerosols collected from various sites show that the sources of quartz, calcite and albite in the Solid aerosols are both local and remote.

INFLUENCE OF LEAF EXTRACT OF COMMON PURSLANE (PORTULACA OLERACEA L.) AND SODIUM CHLORIDE SALINITY ON GERMINATION AND SEEDLING GROWTH OF RICE (ORYZA SATIVA, L.CV.IR-8)

S. M. Alam and A.H.Shaikh

Department of Botany, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, Karachi, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

Leaf aqueous extract of common purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) was evaluated alone or in combination with NaCl to see its effect on germination and seedling growth of rice. There was no effect of leaf extract or sodium chloride salinity on the rice seed germination. It was observed that leaf extract alone and also 0.2% NaCl alone had no significant effect on shoot and root lengths, but leaf extract in combination with NaCl reduced the shoot length by 45% and 55.6% over the control The growth of root was affected in a similar way and the leaf extract with NaCl levels reduced the root lengths by 67.0 and 90.8% over the control. The NaCl level (0.4%) alone reduced the root length by 40.1%.The two combined stresses were more deleterious on seedling growth than the single stress. Over all, the root growth was affected more than the shoot.

BACTERIAL CANKER CAUSE BY PSEUDOMONAS SYRINGAE PV. SYRINGAE ON STONE FRUITS IN GUILAN PROVINCE OF IRAN

M. Niknejad Kazempour1, Fahimeh Jamie2 and S. Ali Elahinia1

1Dept. Plant Pathology, Faculty of Agriculture, P.O.Box. 41635 – 1314, University of Guilan, Rasht – Iran
2Natural Resources Research, Alborz-Karaj, Iran

ABSTRACT

Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae causes canker, leafspots and necrosis of the bark of cherry, plum, and peach fruit trees. Symptoms caused by this pathogen on leaves, blossoms, and fruit, reported as common else where, are rare in Guilan cherry orchards. In this research, during survey from cherry, plum, and peach orchards in different areas of Guilan province (Talesh, Hashtpar, Astaneh-Ashrafieh and Lahijan), samples were taken from infected tissues of disease trees. For isolation of bacterial causal disease, infected tissue were crushed in pepton water then 100µL of juice were cultured on Nutrient Agar (NA) and King’s B medium containing Cyclohexamid antibiotic (50 µg mL-1). Strains of bacteria rod-shaped, gram negative and aerobic bacterium were isolated. The strains produced Levan on media including sucrose. All strains made Hypersensitive Reaction (HR) on tobacco and Geranium leaves. All of the isolated bacteria were oxidase, nitrate, tween 80 hydrolysis, indole and starch hydrolysis negative and could not rot potato tuber slices, produce H2S, and grow in 36°C. The isolates could use citrate and urease. The isolates produce acid from sorbitol, galactose, myo-inositol, manitol, xylose, maltose and sucrose. Their gelatin test were positive. Based on morphological, physiological, biochemical, pathogenicity properties, total cellular protein profiles (SDS-PAGE) and PCR method with specific primers the predominate pathogenic type was identified as P. s. pv. syringae. This is the first report of the existence of P. s. pv. syringae on stone fruit trees in Iran.

FREQUENCY AND SENSITIVITY PATTERN OF ESCHERICHIA COLI CAUSING URINARY TRACT INFECTION IN PREGNANT WOMEN OF GADAP, KARACHI, PAKISTAN

Batool Fatima1, Ambreen Khokhar2, Asif Iqbal Khan2 and Fauzia Imtiaz2

1Department of Medical Technology, Baqai Medical University, Karachi, Pakistan
2Department of Biochemistry, Dow International Medical College, DUHS, Karachi

ABSTRACT

A cohort of 139 pregnant women, attending the antenatal clinics of Baqai Medical University, was included in the study. All women underwent complete examination, their urine sample were collected. Those who had one or more urinary complaints had culture and sensitivity test of urine. Out of 139 pregnant women visited in the above duration the most common complaints were burning micturation, frequency and urgency. In this study 100 samples were positive (71.9%) for culture. Organisms isolated were Eschericia.coli 45% Staphylococcus.aureus 15%, Citrobacter spp 11%, Pseudomonas spp 6%, Klebsiella was found in 5% of the cases. Proteus.mirabilis, proteus.vulgaris, and Enterobacter spp each was was found in 2% of the cases. Apart from above mentioned bacterial growth, in 12% of the cases Candida species were isolated. The E.coli was highly susceptible to Ampicillin, Augmentin, Amoxil, Ampiclox, and Cloxacillin.

BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF PENICILLIUM DIGITATUM ON CITRUS WITH ANTAGONISTIC BACTERIUM PSEUDOMONAS FLUORESCENS

M. Niknejad Kazempour1 and H. Jahandideh Kodehi 2

1Department of Plant Pathology Faculty of Agriculture, University of Guilan. P.O.Box. 41635-1314, Rasht- Iran,
2Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Guilan University, Iran

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted to find out the effect of some antagonistics bacteria isolates on Penicillium digitatum the causal green mould of citrus, collected from infected fruits in Rasht, Lahijan, Some – Sara, Fouman, Talesh and Astara in the Guilan province, Iran under in vitro conditions. Eighty eight bacterial isolates, from the surface of citrus fruit (cvs. Tamson and Shahsavary) infected by P. digitatum and antagonistic ability of 6 isolates of these bacteria (Gram negative) was demonstrated by using the dual culture method. According to biochemical and morphological tests, the six isolates were identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens. The effect of volatile metabolites produced by antagonistic P.fluorescens was found that all isolates, inhibited growth of P.digitatum in vitro. Culture filtrate and antibiotics from these isolates inhibited growth of the pathogen. Under refrigerating room conditions at 4°C, citrus fruits were treated against green mould disease by dipping cell suspensions (1 × 108 cfu/ml) of the bacteria and in Benlate, Rovral TS. fungicides (1000 ppm). Statistical analysis of data indicated that there existed significant differences between all antagonistic isolates and the control (P< 0.01). Storage for 25 days at 15°C in vitro or after 4 months at 4°C in refrigerating room conditions, mixture of isolate C4 and Benlate fungicide reduced green mould disease by 71.66 and 82.66 percent respectively.

ROLE OF TINOSPORA CARDIOFOLIA FOR THE CONTROL OF MYCOTOXICOSIS IN BROILER CHICKENS

A. Ashraf1, S. Mahboob1, S. Fuad2 and M. S. Shah3

1Postgraduate Department of Zoology, Government College University, Faisalabad
2Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad
3Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology (NIAB), P.O. Box 128, Jhang Road, Faisalabad

ABSTRACT

Tinospora cardiofolia (herbal extract) was used to control the experimentally induced mycotoxicosis in broiler chickens. For this purpose experimental chicks were fed on mycotoxins contaminated feed. Where as 30 chicks (group Z) were kept as control. Half of the mycotoxicated chicks (Group X) were given Tinospora cardiofolia in feed @ 100gm/50kg feed for 11 days while others were kept untreated (Group Y). In Group X and Z dropping was normal and in Group Y there was loose dropping and chickens were sluggish. During post-mortem examination congestion in intestine and hemorrhages on various parts of intestine were observed. There were also changes in color of liver. In Group Y the color of livers was yellow while in Group X and Z the livers were brown. Blood sample of 5 chicks from each group were collected at the interval of 5 days. Hematological parameters (ESR, Hb. %, TLC and DLC) and weight of internal organs (liver, heart and spleen) of chickens were determined and differences were observed in mycotoxicated untreated chicks (Group Y).

EFFECT OF YIELD COMPONENT AND GENOTYPE- ENVIRONMENT INTERACTIONS IN KENAF

Rahima Khatun1, M.A. Hossain1, M.H.Rashid1, M.Al-Mamun2 and M.S.H. Bhuiyan1

1Breeding Division, Bangladesh Jute Research Institute, Manik Mia Avenue, Dhaka-1207, Bangladesh.
2Farm Management Unit, Bangladesh Jute Research Institute, Manik Mia Avenue, Dhaka-1207, Bangladesh.

ABSTRACT

The experiment was conducted at Manikganj, Kishoreganj and Faridpur during three years with three Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) varieties viz. HC-2, HC-4 and HC-95. Analysis of variance revealed that HC-95 was the best variety in respect of base diameter and fibre yield. Combined analysis of fibre under comparative yield trial showed significant differences among varieties (G), stations (L), years (Y) and interaction items: variety ´ station (G´L), variety ´ year (G´Y) and station ´ year (L´Y).

CORRELATION AND REGRESSION BETWEEN FIBRE YIELD AND OTHER PLANT CHARACTERS IN TOSSA JUTE

Rahima Khatun1, M.A. Hossain1, M.H.Rashid1, M.S.H. Bhuiyan1 and M.Al-Mamun2

1Breeding Division, 2Farm Management Unit, Bangladesh Jute Research Institute, Manik Mia Avenue, Dhaka-1207, Bangladesh.

ABSTRACT

Five cultivated varieties of Corchorus olitorius L. were studied for variability and correlations between 6 characters. Wide ranges of variability were observed for most of the characters. Simple correlation analysis revealed that plant height, base diameter, green weight and stripped weight had strong and positive correlation with fibre yield. Partial correlation analysis indicated that fibre yield was dependent on both plant height and base diameter with a high magnitude of correlation with base diameter. Multiple correlation analysis showed that the combined effect of plant height and base diameter on fibre yield was highly significant in all the cultivars.

EFFECT OF INCUBATION PERIOD OF SINGLE SUPER PHOSPHATE AND POULTRY LITTER ON PHOSPHORUS-FERTILIZER EFFICIENCY

S. M. Alam, and Shermeen Tahir

Corresponding author: shermeen234@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

The effect of incubation of Single super phosphate (SSP) along with poultry litter (PL) for various period of time was investigated by growing maize and measuring P-uptake when grown in a alkaline calcarious soils in a pot culture experiment. The dry matter yield of 49 days old plants showed that 3 days incubation of SSP along with PL produced maximum yield over SSP alone. This trend was closely followed by 21-day incubation time. Phosphorus uptake by maize tops and roots were also higher SSP and PL were incubated for 3 to 21 days before application and thereby resulted in significantly higher P-fertilizer efficiency than SSP applied alone.

RESIDUAL EFFECT OF COTTON-MUNGBEAN INTERCROPPING ON SUBSEQUENT WHEAT CROP

M. Yousuf Memon, Parvez Khan, Muhammad Aslam, Muhammad Imtiaz, Nizamuddin, S.H. Siddiqui and S. K. H. Shah

Soil Science Division, Nuclear Institute of Agriculture, Tando Jam-70060, Pakistan
Email: moeedaslam@gmail.com, Telephone No. 022-3880868, 2765750

ABSTRACT

A field study was conducted to assess the residual effect of cotton-mungbean intercropping on subsequent wheat crop. The treatments of the previous long-term experiment were cotton cultivar NIAB-78 alone, NIAB-78 intercropped with mungbean, Chandi alone, cotton CV. Chandi intercropped with mungbean, cotton CV. Sohni alone, Sohni intercropped with mungbean and cotton CV. AEHM-74 alone, and AEHM-74 intercropped with mungbean. Each plot of the previous experiment was divided in three sub-plots for the application of nitrogen at 0, 60 and 120 kg N ha-1. The maximum grain yield of 3.23 tons ha-1recorded with 120 kg N ha-1 was significantly higher than 2.74 tons ha-1 and 1.13 tons ha-1 obtained from 60 kg N ha-1 and control treatments, respectively. The wheat grain yield of 1.19 tons ha-1 obtained from the plot previously intercropped by cv. Sohni and mungbean gave an increase of 3.5% over its sole cultivation. Highest N uptake of 47.9 kg ha-1 was recorded in the treatment where NIAB-78 and mungbean were previously intercropped and was 6% higher than its sole cultivation.

GROWTH RESPONSE OF JOJOBA , SIMMONDSIA CHINENSIS (LINK.) SCHNEID. TO DIFFERENT IRRIGATION TECHNIQUES IN CHOLISTAN DESERT OF BAHAWALPUR, PAKISTAN

M. Muhammad Yousaf, Rukhsana Anjum and Amir Ahmed

Arid Zone Research Institute, Bahawalpur, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

Among a number of arid zone plant species, Jojoba, Simmondsia chinensis (Link.) Schneid., being an evergreen, perennial multistemmic and multipurpose plant has attracted attention due to its economical value, potential by products and ability to withstand the desert environment. The oil extracted from jojoba seeds usually called as "Liquid gold" is the alternative of sperm-whale fish's oil. As this plant was originated from the USA and was introduced in the country on trial basis, thus most of the farmers and even some of the scientists are not familiar with its cultivation. Realizing the situation, a pioneer study was conducted on the sand dunes of Cholistan desert under typical desert conditions. Six irrigation techniques i.e. PVC pipe, plastic bags pitchers, pits, furrows and drip irrigation were included in this study. The maximum plant height of 47.4 cm was recorded in plants raised in pits, followed by PVC pipe (47.4 cm) and drip irrigation (45.1 cm). The maximum crown diameter of 44.5 cm was observed in pits followed by PVC pipe (39.3 cm) and drip irrigation treatment (35.0 cm). The maximum number of branches (22.8) was found in plants raised in pits followed by PVC pipe (17.6) and drip irrigation (17.3). The root behavior varied among different treatments.

SELECTION INDICES FOR SEED YIELD IN MUNGBEAN

M. Siddique Sadiq and G. Abbas

Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology, Faisalabad, Pakistan.


ABSTRACT

Genetic parameters, correlation and path analysis were computed for days to flower and mature, plant height, seed yield, and yield related traits in mungbean germplasm originating from hybridization of exotic AVRDC accessions and NIAB MUNG 92. Highly significant differences were observed in all the characters. High heritability values (81-89%) were observed for days to flower, days to mature, plant height and 100 seed weight. Harvest index had 62.6 % heritability along with maximum value of genetic advance (41.13%). Harvest index showed positive and significant association with seed yield. Days to flower and plant height showed positive and significant relationship with biological yield. The magnitude of direct effect of harvest index was maximum and 100 seed weight had the highest indirect effect via harvest index. The results suggest that harvest index and 100 seed weight should be given the maximum consideration for yield improvement and that an appropriate selection indices should be formulated, so that advance in one yield component is not nullified by the deterioration in the others.

A SURVEY OF NUTRITIONAL DAILY INTAKE OF FOOD IN ADULTS

Abid Ali1 and Soleha Hasni2

1Department of Nutrition, Baqai Medical University, Karachi, Pakistan.
2Department of Biochemistry, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

Nutritional survey of daily intake of food was carried out at the department of biochemistry, University of Karachi, during 2000-2001. Nutrient intake for adult person was recorded 95 % confident limits of mean standard percentage of total energy intake for main macronutrient’s calories and proteins / kg body weight. The result shows that an average diet intake consist of higher value of energy i.e. 80.77 kcal / kg as compared to RDA (1989) findings which are up to 50 Kcal/kg. Considering overall food intake during one day, it is observed that the whole day energy is fairly higher than the normal. In Pakistan a large population is provided by more or less similar pattern of nutrient intake including cereals, meat, egg, milk, vegetable, fruit, oil and butter. The values of nutrient intake are fairly reliable with the exception of carbohydrates, niacin, vitamin A, B6, B12 and D which should be improved in general diet..

TRYPANOCIDAL COMPONENT OF THE ETHER FRACTION OF SATUREJA MACRANTHA

Soodabeh Saeidnia1, Ahmad R. Gohari1*, Abbas Hadjiakhoondi2

1Medicinal Plants Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical Sciences/ University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
2Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical Sciences/ University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

ABSTRACT

Ether extract of Satureja macrantha C. A. Mey, one of Iranian species of Satureja belonging to family Lamiaceae, has shown the trypanocidal activity against the epimastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of American trypanomiasis. In this study we aimed to isolate and identify the active component guided by in vitro bioassay. In order to fractionation, column chromatography and Lobar (Si-60) CC were used. Fractions and the separated compound were tested using in vitro anti- epimastigote activity test and then minimum lethal concentration (MLC) determined.
All the fractions, consisted of compound 1, have been observed active against epimastigotes of T. cruzi. Compound 1 was isolated and identified as thymol using 1H and 13C- NMR spectra.

CHEMICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF PREGNANT CAMEL URINE (CAMELUS DROMEDARIUS)

A. H. El-Nadi and A.I Al-Torki

Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Qassim University, P. O. 1482, Buraydah, Saudi Arabia

ABSTRACT

Twenty three pregnant camel urine samples were analysed employing gas chromatographic mass spectrum (GCMS) under optimum conditions. Thus sulphur, oxygen and nitrogen heterocyclic aromatic compounds belonging to thiophen, furan, pyridine and quinoline were identified along with their aliphatic non-aromatic derivatives; with the sulphur containing compounds being most dominant. Some aromatic hydrocarbons as well as their halogeno and alkyl derivatives were also identified including: benzene, naphthalene, anthracene and phenanthrene. Organometallic compounds namely chlorotrimethyl tin (CH3)3 SnCl, triethylfluorotin(C2H5)3 SnF and 2-methyl seleno-selenophene C5Se2H6 were also identified along with the constituents of the very complex matrix. The number of compounds identified exceeded 30 with molecular weight ranging between 220-490. However, none of the volatile fatty acids which are usually used for pheromonal function were detected in any of the urine samples analysed. An explanation is put forward to account for this finding.

ANTIATHEROGENIC EFFECT OF NIGELLA SATIVA L. (KALONJI) SEEDS IN RABBITS WITH EXPERIMENTALLY-INDUCED HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIA

Fatima S, *Khan NI, Naz L, Yasmeen G, Hajira B, Hussain Z

Department of Physiology, University of Karachi, Karachi.


ABSTRACT

The present paper investigates the hypolipidemic effect of Nigella sativa L. administration on diet-induced hypercholesterolemia. Sixteen age-matched rabbits were divided into two experimental groups. Base line values of the requisite parameters were observed and animals were then administered atherogenic diet for four weeks. 100mg/kg of body weight/ day N.sativa seed powder were fed to these hypercholesterolemic rabbits for another four weeks. At the end of experimental period, blood samples were collected and assayed for alterations. The administration of N. sativa seed powder in hypercholesterolemic animals significantly decreased plasma cholesterol, triglyceride and LDL-C concentrations and increased plasma HDL-C concentration. Beneficial effects were also observed on serum ALT, AST, glucose and GSH levels. These findings suggested cardioprotective effect of dietary supplementation of N.sativa.


 
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