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Abstract October 2009

Abstract 2009
+ Abstract October 2009

 

NEW SPECIES AND NEW RECORDS FOR THE FLORA OF GILGIT- BALTISTAN, PAKISTAN

Sher Wali Khan and Surayya Khatoon

Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan
sherwali2003@yahoo.com, surayyakhatoon@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

A thorough inventorying of the plant biodiversity of the Haramosh and Bugrote valleys of Gilgit-Baltistan during the years 2001-2007 revealed four species new to science, while five genera and seven species as new records for Gilgit-Baltistan, while another five species as new records for the district Gilgit. Notable are the records of Saharo-Sindian elements like Periploca aphylla Decne. and Withania coagulans (Stocks) Dunal from these high altitude localities.

SEED MORPHOLOGY OF THE GENUS SILENE: CARYOPHYLLACEAE FROM PAKISTAN AND KASHMIR

Anjum Perveen

Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

Seed morphology of fifteen species of the genus Silene: Caryophyllaceae has been examined by light and scanning microscope. Viz., Silene arenosa C.Koch, Silene brahuica Boiss., Silene citrina Boiss., Silene coeli-rosea (L.) Gordon, Silene conoidea L., Silene falconeriana Benth., Silene gonosperma (Rupr.) Bocquet, Silene indica Roxb. ex Oth., Silene longisepala E. Nasir, Silene moorcroftiana Wall ex Benth, Silene pseudo-verticillata E. Nasir, Silene staintonii S.A.Ghazanfer, Silene tenuis Willd., Silene viscosa (L.) pers., and Silene vulgaris (Moech) Garcke.
Seed generally small-medium, 0.3 -2.0 mm long, light-dark brown, black, light green or greyish green in colour. Shape mostly reniform or orbicular , rarely pyriform, mostly laterally compressed, hilum distinct, surface generally striate with distinct groove in between striae , striae broad-elongated, finely scabrate, mostly without tubercule rarely tuberculated. On the basis of surface pattern 16 species are divided into two seed types. Viz., Type-I: Silene arenosa and Type-II: Silene longisephala. Key is prepared based on Seed morphological characters. Seed morphology of the genus Silene is significantly helful at the specific level.

IN-VITRO POLLEN GERMINATION CAPACITY AND MAINTENANCE OF CUCUMIS MELO VAR. MELO L. (CUCURBITACEAE)

Shaukat Ali Khan and Anjum Perveen

Department of Botany University of Karachi, Karachi 75270, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

Pollen germination capacity and viability period of Cucumis melo var. melo was examined up to 48 weeks in different concentrations of sucrose and boric acid solutions. The collected fresh pollens were stored in different conditions as refrigerator (4ºC), freezer (-20ºC, -30ºC), freeze drier (-60ºC). The fresh pollens were also treated in vacuum over silica jell and in organic solvents (acetone, benzene & chloroform). Pollens stored at freeze dryer (-60ºC) showed better germination percentage as compared to pollen stored at freezer (-20ºC, -30ºC), refrigerator (4ºC) and fresh.

HETEROSIS AND INBREEDING DEPRESSION ESTIMATES FOR YIELD AND FIBRE COMPONENTS IN UPLAND COTTON (GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L.)

Khalid Hussain1, Ghulam Abbas3, Muhammad Aslam1, Hammad Hussnain4, Muhammad Naeem Akhtar2 and Muhammad Irshad1

1Arid Zone Research Institute , Bhakhar, Pakistan.
2Central Cotton Research Institute, Multan, Pakistan.
3Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan.
4Cotton Research Station, Multan, Pakistan.

ABSTARCT

Fifty nine varieties / genotypes of Gossypium hirsutum L. collected from various cotton research institutes in Pakistan were grown in the field. Five cotton cultivars were selected out of this germplasm contrasting for three fibre quality traits viz., staple length, fibre strength and fibre fineness. Three crosses were made using these five genotypes each between two varieties contrasting for one fibre quality trait, cross CIM-707 x 4-F for staple length designated as cross-1, cross NIAB-III x RH-1 for fibre strength designated as cross-II and MS-40 x 4-F for fibre fineness designated as cross-III. Four genotypes P1, P2, F1 and F2 of each cross were developed and evaluated in the field in triplicated RCB design. Measurements were made relating to seed cotton yield and fibre quality components. Results revealed significant differences observed for all the traits under study. The magnitude and direction of heterosis for different traits varied in three crosses. Significant and positive heterosis for number of bolls per plant, lint percentage, seed index and lint index in cross-I (CIM-707 x 4-F) and II (NIAB-III x RH-I) without influence of inbreeding depression could persist in later generations. Significant and positive heterosis for seed cotton yield followed by significant and positive inbreeding depression could be best exploited as first generation hybrids. Heterosis for fibre quality traits was relatively smaller in magnitude than those of yield and yield components. Significant positive heterosis followed by significant positive inbreeding depression for staple length in cross-I (CIM-707 x 4-F) and III (MS-40 x 4-F), for fibre fineness in cross-II (NIAB-III x RH-I) for fibre strength in cross-III (MS-40 x 4-F), indicating that hybrid vigour for these traits will not persist in later generations.

LATHYRUS GERMPLASM EVALUATION AND CULTIVATION IN PAKISTAN

Irshad Begum1, Javed Afzal2 and Naheed Ahktar3

1Pluses Program, Crop Sciences Institute,
2Rangeland Research Institute (RRI),
3 Insect Pest Management Program, National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad-45500, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

Fifteen improved, low toxin grasspea (Lathyrus sativus L.) genotypes received from the International Centre for Agricultural research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), Aleppo, Syria and a local check were tested for winter season (2006-07) in the rainfed conditions of National Agriculture research Centre (NARC), Islamabad. Aim of the study was to select the promising genotypes that would give high seed yield with low neurotoxin oxalyl-diamino-propionic acid (ODAP) content. Data on maturity days, plant height, biological yield, grain yield, 100-kernel weight, and harvest index were collected. The genotype Sel. 190 gave the highest grain yield 1265 kg ha-1 and significantly outperformed other genotypes. It was followed by the genotypes Sel.387, Sel. 390 and Sel. 736.

DETERMINATION OF FODDER POTENTIAL OF SORGHUM AND MILLET WITH MINIMUM IRRIGATION IN SOUTHERN PUNJAB

Irshad Begum1, Javed Afzal2 Naheed Akhtar3, and M. Imran4

1Pulses Program, Crop Sciences Institute (CSI),
2Rangeland Research Institute,
3Insect Pest Management Program
4Fodder Program (CSI), National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad-45500, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

Thirteen varieties of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench) and nine varieties of millet (Pennisetum glaucum [L.] R. Br.) were grown on heavy soil slightly affected with salinity having pH range 8.0 to 8.5 during the Kharif season, 2004 for determining fodder production in the hot conditions of Bahawalpur, Pakistan. Two flood irrigations, first before sowing and the other 15-day before harvesting were given. Minimum fertilizer dose was also applied at the time of each irrigation at a rate of 30-30-00 NPK kg ha-1. Crop was harvested at 50 percent flowering and a maximum above-ground dry mass of 15.70 and 20.30 tons ha-1 were recorded for the sorghum variety “JS-2002” and millet variety “Local Quetta”, respectively.

MONITORING OF HEAVY AND ESSENTIAL TRACE METALS CONTENTS IN WHEAT PROCURED FROM VARIOUS COUNTRIES BY THE GOVERNMENT OF PAKISTAN IN THE YEAR 2008-09

M. Abbas Bhutto, P. Zahida, Riazuddin, I. Sajid, A. Mubarik and N. Sahar

Grain Quality Testing laboratory, Southern Zone Agricultural Research Center, Pakistan Agricultural Research Council, Karachi University Campus, Pakistan.

ABSRACT

Government of Pakistan confined importers of wheat, both public and private to ensure acceptable quality of wheat meeting FAO and WHO standard. Monitoring of wheat quality i.e. physical, chemical and biological was carried out at Grain Quality Testing Laboratory, Karachi, Pakistan. The contents of heavy and essential trace metals were also assessed. Samples of wheat from various countries were imported through TCP (Trading Corporation of Pakistan). These samples were packed properly and forwarded to laboratory for analysis of some heavy (Cd, Pb, As, Hg) and essential trace metals (Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Mg) contents. The metals concentrations found in the samples were in order of Mg >Fe > Cu > Zn > Mn > Pb > Cd > Hg > As. The metals contents found were under the permissible limits.

USING L- TRYPTOPHAN TO INFLUENCE THE CROP GROWTH OF MAIZE AT DIFFERENT HARVESTING STAGES

Muhammad Muneer, Muhammad Saleem, Syed Haider Abbas, Imtiaz Hussain and Muhammad Asim

Crop Sciences Institute, National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad
Corresponding author: drsaleemyousaf@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

L-Tryptophan (L-TRP), a physiological precursor of Auxin, significantly affected the maize crop growth and dry matter accumulation in a laboratory experiment. The trial was conducted using completely randomized design (CRD). Four concentrations of L-TRP, 0.0025, 0.025, 0.25 and 2.5 mg kg-1 of soil were applied as soil drench along with a control. L-Tryptophan enhanced the leaf area plant-1, shoot length and shoot dry matter. L-Tryptophan did not increase the number of leaves per plant at first harvest but it increased the leaves at second, third, fourth and fifth harvests. At the start, crop growth rate (CGR) and relative growth rate (RGR) increased with a slower pace with L-TRP from 0.0025 to 0.25 mg kg-1 but these increased swiftly from 0.25 to 2.5 mg kg-1. Soil drenching @ 2.5 mg kg-1 of L-TRP produced maximum reflective effects on cell expansion, leaf area and shoot dry matter. At final harvest, L-TRP @ 2.5 mg kg-1 of soil caused 86.93 % increase in shoot dry matter over control. The associations of shoot dry matter with leaf area per plant, CGR and RGR were significant and linear.

WHEAT GROWTH AND YIELD IN RESPONSE TO COINOCULATION OF RHIZOBIUM, AZOSPIRILLUM AND PSEUDOMONAS UNDER RAINFED CONDITIONS

Muhammad Ali Khan, Shahida N. Khokhar, Rizwan Ahmed and Aftab Afzal

Soil Biology and Biochemistry, LRRP, INRES, NARC, Islamabad
Corresponding e-mail: sbb233@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

A wheat (GA 2002) field inoculation trial was carried out to evaluate an indigenous formulation comprising of Rhizobium( PAC-19/1) Azospirillum (ZS1) and P-solubilizing Pseudomonas (Psm-na) in single, dual and tripartite combination as supplement to chemical fertilizers. The effect on growth and yield indices was compared with full recommended dose of Nitrogen (N) and Phosphorus (P) at NARC experimental field area during 2006-07. The bacteria have previously been studied in laboratory. The treatments were, un-inoculated control with starter N and P; Rhizobium with half N and full P; Azospirillum with half N and full P; Pseudomonas with full N and half P; Rhizobium+ Azospirillum with half N and half P; Azospirillum + Pseudomonas with half N and half P; Rhizobium + Azospirillum + Pseudomonas with half N and half P; Full (recommended) N and P (100kg urea-N & 80kg P2 O5-P ha-1). Recommended dose of K (@ 75kg ha-1was applied to all the treatments. All the inoculated treatments except Rhizobium+ Azospirillum + ½ N + ½ P, produced significantly higher grain yield than un-inoculated control. Tripartite inoculation in the presence of half of recommended dose of N and P, brought 27% increase in grain yield over the uninoculated control, and it did not differ significantly from that where full dose of recommended N and P was given. The tripartite inoculation saved 50 % N and P without compromising on grain yield.

EFFECT OF GIBBERELLIC ACID ON GROWTH AND FRUIT YIELD OF GRAPE CULTIVAR ‘FLAME SEEDLESS’

Muhammad Ali Khan*, Hafeez-ur-Rahman, Mukhtar Ahmed, Ghulam Abbas and Niaz Ahmed

Fruit Crops Research Program, Horticultural Research Institute, NARC, Islamabad
*Corresponding Author E-mail: muhammadalikhan09@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

Gibberellic acid (GA3), a plant growth regulator is commonly used for berry enlargement in grapes. Flame seedless grapes vines, grown at NARC, Islamabad, were sprayed at bloom and fruit set (just after berry shatter) with GA3, ¬at the concentration of 15ppm, 20pp and 25ppm. For each treatment, GA3 was applied twice with the first spray at 80% blooming and second spray a week later just at fruit set. Water was sprayed to serve as a control. Average cluster and berry weight of sprayed vines increased significantly over the non-sprayed vines and the largest cluster weight depicted as fruit yield per vine (344.22g) was found in the treatment with highest concentration of GA3 (25ppm). Maximum berry weight, width, length and TSS i.e. 2.82g, 1.79cm, 1.85cm and 19.00% respectively, were recorded at 25ppm. Statistical differences were observed for cluster weight, berry weight, berry width, length and TSS with GA3 at 15ppm and 20ppm. Based on this research, 25ppm of GA3 is recommended for spray on the flame seedless grape cultivar for obtaining higher yield and better quality.

PERFORMANCE OF A VAM-FUNGUS (GLOMUS FASCICULATUM) ON GERMINATION AND GROWTH OF FOUR SUNFLOWER VARIETIES AT DIFFERENT SOIL MOISTURE REGIME

M. Jalaluddin1 and Maria Hamid2

1Department of Agriculture, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.
2Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

Sunflower seedlings of 4 varieties grew better on inoculation with Glomus fasciculatum at 10% soil-water regime as against lesser growth in uninoculated series of seedlings. There was no difference in percent germination of seeds between inoculated and uninculated series. Mycorrhizal infection in sunflower roots was visible under microscope in 15 days old roots of sunflower seedlings. The growth of sunflower seedlings was better at 10% soil water regime than at 5% soil-water regime. The better growth of mycorrhiza infected sunflower seedlings is related to the entry of extramatrical mycorrhizal hyphae of the soil into the intramatrical region of roots than without inoculation at different soil moisture content. The VAM inoculated sunflower seedlings produced arbuscules in the cortical cells of roots whereas in uninoculated series of pots mycorrhizal hyphae and arbuscules was not seen in roots of sunflower seedlings. The VAM-inoculated sunflower seedlings showed better growth because of mycorrhization and thus could meet up water stress more efficiently than non-mycorrhiza sunflower seedlings at different soil-water regimes.

IMMUNOMODULATORY EFFECT OF ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA NEES ON HUMAN PERIPHERAL BLOOD MONOCYTES


1Kasthuri, J., S. Poornima1 and G. Joy Padma Dinesh2

1Department of Zoology, The Standard Fireworks Rajaratnam College for Women, Sivakasi - 626 123, Tamil Nadu, India.
2Exotiks Biotech, Nagercoil - 629 003, Tamil Nadu, India.

ABSTRACT

The assessment of immunomodulatory effect of aerial parts of Andrographis paniculata extracted with various organic solvents on stimulated human peripheral blood Monocytes revealed the most significant inhibitory effect only with aqueous extract. Further, it was also proved that the effect is exclusively due to the drug and not because of cytotoxicity.

RESISTANCE PATTERN OF GRAM NEGATIVE UROPATHOGENS AGAINST AMINOGLYCOSIDES

Sabahat Saeed1 and Perween Tariq2

1 Department of Microbiology, Jinnah University for Women, Karachi, Pakistan.
2 Department of Microbiology, University of Karachi, Karachi Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

The antibiotic resistance pattern of 345 Gram negative bacilli, isolated from urinary tract infections in females, was determined against aminoglycosides viz., neomycin, streptomycin, gentamicin and kanamycin. The highest rate of resistance was recorded against neomycin (44.6%). The rates of resistance to other antibiotics were observed as kanamycin 9.7%, streptomycin 17.4% and gentamicin 13%. The susceptibility pattern of uropathogens varied among the genera.

PARAMPHISTOMUM CERVI INFECTION IN THE LIVER OF BUFFALOES IN KARACHI, PAKISATN

Samreen Mirza1, Nasira Khatoon1 and F.M. Bilqees2

1Department of Zoology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan
2Jinnah University for Women, Karachi, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

Paramphistomum cervi is one of the most common trematode infection in bovines specially in buffaloes. The present studies have confirmed that a least 50-70% buffaloes slaughtered in slaughter houses are infected with this trematode. During the present survey 130 out of 150 buffaloes were found infected with this parasite, the commonly infected organ was found to be the liver. Hundreds of trematodes were found attached to liver and sometimes hardly any liver tissue was obvious appearing as a mass of beads. This infection has an adverse effect on the health of animals and their byproducts.

EFFECTS OF DIESEL OIL-POLLUTED SOIL ON EMERGENCE AND GROWTH OF SEEDLINGS OF THESPESIA POPULNEA (L.) SOL. Ex. CORR.

D. Khan1 and S. Shahid Shaukat2

1 Department of Botany, Government National College, Karachi, Pakistan.
2 Institute of Environmental Studies, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

The effects of diesel oil pollution on Thespesia populnea (L.) Sol. Ex. Corr. were investigated in a series of artificially and freshly polluted sandy soil with 0, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 2.5, 4.0 and 5.0 mL diesel oil per 100g soil. Emergence of seedlings was impeded and germination losses occurred at high diesel oil concentrations. All the parameters of seedling growth viz. height, number of leaves, stem diameter, hypocotyl and epicotyl lengths, cotyledon area per seedling, area of the largest leaf, total leaf area per seedling and dry biomass of shoot, root and seedling declined progressively with increase of diesel oil concentration in the rhizosphere. Chlorophyll – a, b and total chlorophyll contents in fresh leaves declined significantly. Against control where around 10 internodes were produced, under diesel oil pollution only six or at the most seven internodes were produced. Diesel oil shortened the internodes. Diesel oil reduced the number of days of retention of cotyledons and primary and secondary leaves with the seedlings i.e., diesel oil pollution not only enhanced the cotyledon abscission but also the abscission of primary and secondary leaves and even the tertiary leaves under very high concentrations. In spite of the extreme diesel toxicity to T. populnea under very high diesel oil contamination, the plant showed good potential of phytoremediation against diesel pollution in sandy soil contaminated up to 10, 000 ppm of petrodiesel.

EFFECT OF CRUDE OIL CONTAMINATION ON CHLOROPHYLL CONTENT IN ZEA MAYS L.

Ezeonu, Chukwuma S. and I.N.E. Onwurah

Pollution Control and Biotechnology Unit, Department of Biochemistry, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.

ABSTRACT

The Zea mays plant is a valued Ecosystem component. This biotic component was used as a marker to determine the impact the crude oil had on the soil where it was spilled. Chlorophyll plays an important role in photosynthesis. The results indicated oil spill had negative impact on the productivity of the soil and declined chlorophyll contents of the Zea mays. The higher the amount of crude oil spilled on soil, the lower the quantity of chlorophyll measured, showing that crude oil reduces the rate of chlorophyll production.

SEASONAL VARIATION IN WATER SOLUBLE POLYSACCHARIDE ALGINIC ACID EXTRACTED FROM SARGASSUM BOVEANUM J. AGARDH (PHAEOPHYTA, SARGASSACEAE) ALONG THE DIFFERENT SHORES OF KARACHI COAST, PAKISTAN

Fozia Khan and Rashida Qari

Institute of Marine Science, University of Karachi, Karachi 75270, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

Seaweeds are found in great abundance in Pakistan. The present studies deal with survey of perennial brown alga, S. boveanum, along Karachi coast for its alginic acid and other biochemical constituents. Round the year studies with monthly interval indicated alginic acid concentration in this alga to be high in winter (December to February; 15.85 to 24.68 %) and low in summer (May to September; 11.12 to 17.63 %). Moisture contents of the sample dried at 70 0C for 24 hours range from 5.89 to 13.9 %. Ash content varied from 23.54 to 41.35 % and carbohydrates from 28.51 to 46.98 %. Biomass availability of this alga was ranged from 570 to 1150 g.m-2; varying temporally along the coast.


 
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