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Abstract October 2013

Abstract 2013
+ Abstract October 2013

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BIOLOGY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY
VOLUME 10, NUMBER 4, OCTOBER, 2013

 

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 10 (4): 483-490, 2013.

EFFECTS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS (CREATED BY HIGH TENSION LINES) ON SOME INDIGENOUS SPECIES -VII. MIMOSACEAE, MOLLUGINACEAE, NYCTAGINACEAE AND PAPILIONACEAE

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Sahar Zaidi*1, Surayya Khatoon2, Sadaf Zohair2 and Muhammad Imran2

1Department of Botany, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, Gulshan-e-Iqbal Campus, Karachi-75300, Pakistan.
2Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.
*Corresponding author: email: saharzee@hotmail.com

ABSTRACT

Effects of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) (created by high tension wires) were studied in 33 specimens belonging to 12 species of 4 angiosperm families. In the study genotoxic effects of EMFs were studied on these plants. The aspects covered in the present study include PMC meiosis, meiotic products and pollen viability. The plants were collected from localities having 132, 220 and 500 kilo volt high tension wires and controls were collected from localities free from any type of electric wires. A number of meiotic abnormalities including stickiness, pairing disturbances (univalents and multivalents), precocious chromosomes, laggards, bridges and multipolar divisions were observed both in test and controls; but these abnormalities were found to be significantly higher in test (exposed to EMFs) plants as compared to their controls (unexposed to EMFs).The test plants also showed abnormal meiotic products (dyads and hypertetrads) in some specimens. Besides this the percentages of sterile pollen grains were also significantly higher in test plants. These abnormalities and pollen sterility showed a direct correlation with the increase in voltage i.e. as the voltages increases these abnormalities and pollen sterility also increases.

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 10 (4): 491-497, 2013.

OCCURRENCE OF A REDUVIID BUG (HEMIPTERA: HETEROPTERA: REDUVIIDAE) IN INDUS DELTA, SINDH, PAKISTAN

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D. Khan1, Imtiaz Ahmad2 and S. Viqar Ali3

1Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan.
2MAH Qadri Biological Research centre, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan.
3Sindh Coastal Community Development Project, Sindh Coastal Development Authority, Karachi, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

A male reduviid bug (0.9 cm in size) is reported from the fruits and propagules collection of a mangrove, Rhizophora mucronata from Patiani creek of Indus delta, Sindh. This plant material was stored in a nearby village for some time. The external morphology, wing venation and structure of male genitalia are presented. The identification of the bug at species level is underway.

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 10 (4): 499-501, 2013.

EVALUATION OF CAULIFLOWER GERMPLASM FOR EARLINESS

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Ghulam Jellani, Nausherwan Nobel Nawab, Tahira Noor, Taj Naseeb Khan and Muhammad Farooq

Horticultural Research Institute, National Agriculture Research Centre, Islamabad, Pakistan.       

ABSTRACT

This experiment was carried out during 2011 at Vegetable Crops Research Program, Horticulture Research Institute, National Agricultural Research Center, Islamabad to assess the production capabilities of different cauliflower genotypes under summer condition of Islamabad. The morphological characteristics studied were plant height (cm), plant spread (cm), days to maturity, mature plant size (cm), single plant weight (g), single curd weight (g), yield (t/ha) based on curd weight. The maximum yield (17.767 t/ha, 1415.7 t/ha and 1273.8 t/ha) was recoded in the genotype, TSX- C37 (F1), Taxila (Local) and White Corona, respectively as compared to the other genotypes. The highest value for growth parameters were recorded in plant spread (42.35cm), days to maturity (85.14) and mature plant size (68.54cm) in cv. First Early followed by cv. Second Early with plant spread (45.73cm), days to maturity (90.56 days) and mature plant height (76.45cm) and cv. Taxila (Local) with plant spread (45.05cm), days to maturity (94.05) and mature plant size (37.07cm).

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 10 (4): 503-508, 2013.

MARINE POLLUTION MONITORING AT LYARI RIVER OUTFALL USING SATELLITE REMOTE SENSING

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Atif Shahzad1, Syed Shahid Shaukat2, Syed Jamil Hasan Kazmi1 and Kiran Shahzad2

1Department of Geography, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan
email: atif.sb@gmail.com
2Institute of Environmental Studies, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan

Abstract

In this study Landsat TM data was employed to ascertain the water quality of marine water at Lyari River outfall. Lyari River is a seasonal river and main sewage carrier, it is one of the sources of water pollution at Karachi port area. In the present study multiple regression algorithms were derived through multi-spectral data acquired from Landsat TM sensor and the sea truth data collected at different pre-designated sites. Water quality parameters ascertained at different locations included turbidity, total suspended solids and biochemical oxygen demand. The algorithm used was based on exo-atmospheric reflectance in different spectral bands. A window of 3x3 pixels was selected coinciding with the sea truth locations and the mean of digital numbers from these pixels were utilized to calculate volumetric radiance and reflectance. During the calculation of reflectance solar zenith angle taken from meta-data provided with the satellite image and earth to sun distance based on Julian days were used. The efficiency of models was evaluated using Karl Pearson's coefficient of correlation and maps were generated employing calibrated algorithms of water quality parameters.

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 10 (4): 509-514, 2013.

BIOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION OG GONAD AND SOFT BODIES DURING GONADAL MATURATION IN THE LIMPETS, CELLANA KARACHIENSIS (GASTROPODA: PATELLIDAE)

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Fatima Hayat Shaheen Zafar1*and Zarrien Ayub2

1Department of Zoology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan
2Center of Excellence in Marine Biology University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan
* Corresponding author: Fatima Hayat Shaheen Zafar
Phone number: 021-99261300-07; Mobile number: 03009282277
E-mail address: fatimahamood@yahoo.com

Abstract

The present study measured the concentration of protein, carbohydrate and lipid in the gonad and soft bodies of male and female limpets, Cellana karachiensis during the gonadal maturation stages that is, developing, ripe and spawning. The protein concentrations increased significantly in gonadal tissue with the advancement of maturation stages in both males and females of C. karachiensis. The concentrations of carbohydrate in the developing, ripe and spawning gonads were similar in both sexes. However, the lipid concentration in the gonads of male and female limpets was significantly higher in ripe gonads. The concentrations of protein, carbohydrate and lipid in the soft bodies of males and females did not vary significantly during maturation stages, however, the total lipid and carbohydrate concentrations showed significant difference in the soft bodies being higher in females than males.

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 10 (4): 515-536, 2013.

PARENTAL INVESTMENT OF BIOMASS IN POD, SEED AND SEED PACKAGING IN A TREE OF WIRY WATTLE (ACACIA CORIACEA SUBSP. PENDENS) GROWING IN KARACHI, PAKISTAN

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D. Khan, Zulfiqar Ali Sahito and M. Javed Zaki

Department of Botany, University of Karachi,  Karachi-75270, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

One hundred and five mature pods from a solitary tree of Acacia coriacea subsp. pendens Gowen and Muskingrowing in Botanical Garden of University of Karachi, Pakistan, were collected in the month of March 2012 and studied for various size parameters after air-drying for around two months. The pod weight averaged to 2.23 ± 0.073g (ranging from 0.9965 to 4.8622g) and tended to distribute normally. The number of mericarps per pod varied by 26.99% and averaged to 7.24 ± 0.19. The brood size averaged to 4.37 ± 0.19 seeds and tended to be positively skewed.  The frequency of pods containing seed in each mericarp was low (10%). Ninety per cent of the pods had one or more empty seed chambers. The seed mass per pod varied by a quantum of 44.35% and averaged to 0.5834 ± 0.2892 g and maximally 1.2572g in one pod. The pericarp mass of pods varied from 0.4934 to 3.5002g per pod (CV: 31.6%). The weight of single seed for  a sample of 399 normal seeds collected from 105 pods was less variable (15.58%) as compared to the brood size (CV: 44.35%).  The weight of individual seed averaged to 139.70 ± 1.0827 mg varying from 58.4 to 243.7 mg (4.17 -fold variation). The distribution of seed weight of normal seeds was asymmetrical (negatively skewed). The proportion of pericarp to fruit (PFR) was 73.26 ± 0.899% and proportion of seeds to fruit (SFR) was 24.45± 0.816%.  There was a positive linear relationship between logarithms of seed yield per pod and mass of the pod (r = 0.7878). The slope of the line (b) was 1.3766, not significantly different from 1 (t = 0.266, NS). Also, there was significant positive linear relationship between log (number of seeds per pod) and log (pod mass). The slope (b = 1.0594) of the regression was not significantly different from 1 (t = 0.495, NS). The investment in pericarp declined with increase of brood size significantly. The increase in brood size in a pod associated positively with seed mass proportion to pod mass but negatively with pericarp proportion to pod mass.  The seed packaging costs for 105 pods was expressed on the basis of pericarp [g.g-1 seeds (SPC1)] and pericarp [g per seed (SPC2)].  The SPC1 averaged to 3.6399 ± 0.2197 g.g-1 seeds and SPC2 averaged to 0.4277 ± 0.0231 g per seed varying by 69.03 and 55.8%, respectively. On individual seed basis, seed packaging cost was 3.06 times of the average seed weight. SPC1 and SPC2 both distributed asymmetrically (positively skewed) i.e. the magnitude of the SPC was quite high in few pods - generally those yielding single seed. On an average 72.35% of the pod mass was allocated to protection and nutrition of seeds, 25.3% to seed production and 2.39% to the aril (elaiosome) for dispersal due to birds or ants.

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 10 (4): 537-546, 2013.

ANTIBACTERIAL, ANTIFUNGAL AND ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF CURRY LEAVES MURRAYA KOENIGII (L.) SPRENG

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Fariha Afzal  , S. Shahid Shaukat and Omm-e-Hany

Institute of Environmental Studies, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

Antibacterial activity of different solvent extracts of leaves and water extract of stem (branch) and leaves of Murraya koenigii were found effective against bacterial species strains such as Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus aureus, Eschericia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis . The results confirmed the antimicrobial effect of Murrayakoenigii extract against human pathogenic bacteria. Antifungal activity was also investigated against Fusarium moniliforme, Fusarium oxysporum, Macrophomina phaseolina and Rhizoctonia solanii. The extract inhibited the radial growth of test fungi. Anthelminthic activity of Murraya koenigii was also detected in the different solvent extracts of leaves. Phytochemical screening of Murraya leaf extract was also performed which confirmed the presence of various proteins,saponins, phenolics, alkaloids and terpenes, Additionally, anthocyanins, flavonoids and soluble phenols were estimated to be in ample amounts.. The antibacterial activity is possibly due to antioxidant protein of curry leaf. Antfungal and anthemintic activities are presumably due to phenolics , alkaloids or terpenes.

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 10 (4): 547-551, 2013.

ANTAGONISTIC ACTIVITY OF CULTURAL FILTRATES OF FIVE TRICHODERMA SPECIES AGAINST PATHOGENIC FUNGUS  ALTERNARIA SOLANI

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Hina Zafar1, S. Shahid Shaukat2 and Toqeer Ahmed Rao1

1Department of Botany, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, Gulshan-e-Iqbal, Karachi-75300, Pakistan.
2Institute of Environmental Studies, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

Biological control is a non chemical measure which is usually as effective as chemical control. Several mechanisms are involved in biological control that include, among others, competition for nutrients, induced resistance and secretion of inhibitory substances etc. Trichoderma is a soil borne mycoparasitic fungus effective against many soil borne and foliar diseases. Trichoderma spp. are often used in agriculture as biocontrol agents against a number of pathogenic fungi in vitro and in vivo. Culture filtrate of five Trichoderma species (viz. T. viride, T. virens, T. harzianum, T. koningii and T. pseudokoningii) were used against Alternaria solani. Culture filtrate of all the species of  Trichoderma retarded the growth of A. solani but T. viride and  T. harzianum most strongly suppressed the growth of Alternaria solani.

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 10 (4): 553-558, 2013.

NEUROPHARMACOLOGICAL STUDIES OF MYRICA NAGI BARK

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Shazia Syed1*, Mansoor Ahmad2, Nudrat Fatima2, Mahjabeen3 and Noor Jahan3

1*Department of Chemistry, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.
2Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Dept of Pharmacognosy, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.
3Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Dept of Pharmacology, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

Myrica nagi Thunb. (Family Myricaceae) is a medicinal herb known for its diuretic, wound healing properties, and its use in throat and dental problems. Its neuro-pharmacological or CNS activity is not reported previously. In the present study, neuro-pharmacological activities were studied by open field test, traction test, head dip test, rearing test, and swimming induced depression test. All the CNS related tests were performed in a calm and peaceful environment. Neuropharmacological investigation of the test drug was carried out at two different doses i.e. 300mg/kg and 500 mg/kg of crude extract of M. nagi. Diazepam at 2mg/kg dose was used as standard drug. In neuropharmacological studies, the test drug exhibited dose dependant antidepressant activity i.e. M. nagi extract at low dose (300mg/kg) exhibited significant activity with respect to the control group and at high dose (500mg/kg) exhibited highly significant activity in Open Field Test, Cage Crossing Activity, Head Dip Test, Raring Activity, Light and Dark Activity and Forced Swimming Test. 

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 10 (4): 559-562, 2013.

FREQUENCY AND RESISTANCE PATTERNS OF METHICILLIN- SENSITIVE AND METHICILLIN- RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS IN PNS SHIFA HOSPITAL KARACHI, PAKISTAN

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Sabahat Saeed1 and Sumaira Kiran1,2

1Department of Microbiology, Jinnah University for Women, Karachi, Pakistan.
2Diagnostic Lab of Clinical Microbiology, PNS Shifa Hospital, Karachi Pakistan.
sabahatsaeed2003@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

An increase in resistance of Staphylococcus aureus to antibiotics; especially methicillin, vancomycin and linezolid; is a growing concern limiting the treatment modalities. The current study was conducted to find out the frequency and antibiotic resistant pattern of methicillin-sensitive and –resistant S. aureus. All the clinical samples received at Diagnostic Microbiological Laboratory PNS Shifa Hospital Karachi were processed. Staphylococci were identified by standard procedures. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolated were identified by a slide latex agglutination kit for the detection of penicillin binding protein 2 (PBP 2). Two hundred and fifty six Staphylococcus isolates were recovered from different samples of blood, pus, urine, ear swab, sputum, ascetic fluid, throat swab and pleural fluid. One hundred and forty eight (60.2%) were coagulase positive. Of these, 32 (21.8%) were found to be MRSA. Antibiogram of methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) and MRSA was determined by standard Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Co-existence of resistance to other antibiotics with methicillin was also noted in the present study. Vancomycin, linezolid and rifampicin were found to be the most effective drugs against both MRSA and MSSA. Highest resistance was found against penicillin i.e. 81.25% in MRSA and 75% in MSSA. It is concluded that due to the high and changing pattern of resistance of S. aureus, antimicrobial susceptibility testing is mandatory.

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 10 (4): 563-570, 2013.

ETHNOBOTANICAL STUDIES ON SOME USEFUL TREES OF ASTORE VALLEY (GILGIT-BALTISTAN) PAKISTAN, WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO MEDICINAL USES

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Ali Noor1, Surayya Khatoon1 and Moinuddin Ahmed2

1Department of Botany - University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.
alinoor_na@yahoo.com, surayyakhatoon@yahoo.com
2Department of Botany - Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, Karachi-75300, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

An ethnobotanical survey of the Astore valley (Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan) was carried out to collect information regarding the various indigenous uses, particularly the medicinal uses of plants in the valley. Thirty-three species of ethnobotanically important trees belonging to 23 genera and 15 families were recognized as being used in the folk-medicine system for ailments like heart diseases, skin, urinary problems, joint pain, eye diseases and fractured bones etc.; and for various other purposes like shelter, and for constructing houses, furniture, and domestic tools by the indigenous people of the valley. Ethnobotanical information for nine species is being reported for the first time from Astore valley; while for another seven species some additional ethnobotanical uses are being reported as compared to those reported by some previous workers. Common names of species are provided in the Astori Shina language and English. The highest number of Ethnobotanically important tree species (10) belonged to the family Rosaceae, followed by the family Salicaceae (5 species), and family Pinaceae (4 species).
Ninety-nine percent people of the valley depend on the local tree species for timber and fire wood, while partially depend upon medicinal plants for their ailments. Therefore, the plant resources are under threat and should go extinct in near future if any conservation steps are not taken. During the study, five taxa viz. Pinus gerardiana, Betula utilis, Juniperus excelsa, Fraxinus xanthoxyloides and Sorbus lanata were recognized as rare in the study area. It was also noticed that the younger people were mostly unaware of the indigenous uses of the local flora. Therefore, immediate steps are needed to conserve both the indigenous knowledge and the plants in the Astore valley.

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 10 (4): 571-576, 2013.

DETERMINATION AND COMPARISON OF HARVEST BY TRADITIONAL AND MODERN METHODS ON QUALITY AND STORABILITY OF GRAPE FRUIT

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Waseem Ahmed1*, Saeed Ahmed1, Aman Uallah2 and Rashid Ahmed

1Institute of Horticultural Sciences, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan
2Post Harvest centre, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan
3Department of Crop Physiology, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan
Corresponding author E-mail address:  waseemuaf12@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

Determination and Comparison of harvesting by traditional and modern methods on fruit quality and storability of the Ray Ruby and Shamber of grapefruits, at 8±1°C and 85-90% relative humidity were evaluated. The traditional method, using a hooked pole, was compared with a modern technique, where the picking pole was equipped with along cloth sleeve held open by a ring for collecting the harvested fruits. The fruits were stored for three months at 8±1°C and 85-90% relative humidity. Fruit samples were taken at specific times for determination of fruit quality in terms of respiration rate, heat production  total soluble solids (TSS), physiology weight loss (PWL) and titratable acidity vitamin C, sugar (Total sugars , reducing, non reducing). At the termination of the experiment, the fruits were evaluated for general quality parameter. The results showed that the modern method significantly decreased respiration rate, heat production and physiology weight loss, delayed TSS accumulation and reduced titratable acidity maintained sugar level, resulting in improved fruit quality, reduced post-harvest losses and extended shelf-life of fruits.

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 10 (4): 577-580, 2013.

COMPARATIVE EFFICIENCY OF ORGANIC AND INORGANIC FERTILIZERS ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF WHEAT IN RAINFED CONDITIONS

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Muhammad Ali Khan*, M.R.Chattha, M. Z. Awan, A.S.Anjum, M. Imran, Sher Muhammad, Sikander Khan and M. Imran Kasana

National Institute of Organic Agriculture, NARC, Park Road, Islamabad, Pakistan
*Corresponding author’s email: alikhan.fos@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

A field research was undertaken to evaluate the comparative efficiency of farmyard manure and chemical fertilizers (NPK) levels with or without farmyard manure on the growth, grain yield and germination count of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Chakwal-50) The experiment was laid out under Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with 5 replications at Bhone Research Station Chakwal during 2011- 2012. . The soil of the experiment site was clay, alkine, calcareous in nature with low fertility and deficient in available phosphorus. Single super phosphate as N @ 100 Kg/ha, P source @ 75Kg/ha, and Recommended dose of K @ 75 kg/ha. was applied to all the treatments at the time of sowing except control treatment.  Because of different combinations of fertilizers NPK and FYM, statistically significant differences in grain yield and yield components of wheat were recorded. Maximum grain yield of 5334 Kg/ha-1 was recorded with the application of full fertilizer and FYM. Minimum grain yield 2680 Kg/ha-1 was obtained with no fertilizer control treatment.
INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 10 (4): 581-584, 2013.

STRAWBERRY CULTIVATION IN PAKISTAN WITH REFERENCE TO PESTS AND DISEASES AND THE ROLE OF IPM IN SAVING THIS NOVEL PRODUCTION

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Imtiaz Ahmad1, Tahir Anwar2 and Seema Tahir3

1M.A.H Qadri Biological Research Centre, University of Karachi, Karachi- 75270, Pakistan
2Pesticide Research Institute, Southern-zone Agricultural Research Center, Pakistan Agricultural Research Council (PARC), Karachi University Campus, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.
3Department of Zoology, University of Karachi, Karachi- 75270, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

Strawberry production as a winter crop in Pakistan on a commercial scale is a recent one, only 1.5 to 2 decades old. Yet its sustainability is threatened by pests and diseases. The strawberry aphid is not only its most serious pest but also a number one carrier of virus. The damages include curled leaves, yellowish spots and the sticky honey dew excreted by the pest. A black sooty mold often develops on the leaves reducing photosynthesis and resulting probably in the reduction of fruit yield. The strawberry mold yellow-edge virus (MYEV) and strawberry crinkle virus (CV) often cause severe damages to the plant and hence tremendously reduce the yield. The use of pesticides in a very large amount is also not a solution because its regular use produces resistance in the pest. Moreover, after the restrictions imposed by WTO in a very near future, the efforts to promote the export of this production would be in danger. The only remedy left is the continuous and strict scouting and efficient IPM strategies as discussed in the results and discussion and surveying of the plant for the pest occurrence and the, strict inspection of the incoming trans-plants. Monitoring of the aphids should start early in the crop season and should continue in the whole duration of the crop and cultural and mechanical control management steps especially checking the intrusion of the pests from the nearby areas should continue until the harvest time. These procedures hopefully would make this ingenious and most valuable crop cultivation in Pakistan sustainable and successful.

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 10 (4): 585-592, 2013.

OBSERVATIONS ON THE FOOD AND FEEDING HABITS OF STRIPED PIGGY, POMADASYS STRIDENS (FORSSKAL, 1775) (FAMILY; POMADASYIDAE) FROM KARACHI COAST, PAKISTAN

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Amtyaz1 and Muhammad Atiqullah Khan2

1Department of Zoology, Sir Syed Govt. Girls College Nazimabad, Karachi-74600, Pakistan.

 Cell No.0092-3212374804. Email; imtiazsafi76@gmail.com

2Department of Zoology, University of Karachi, Karachi- 75270, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

 Pomadasys stridens (Forsskal, 1775) is an excellent food fish and widely distributed in the Indo- pacific region. It inhabits higher part of rocky tide pools, and shallow waters.
The pattern of food and feeding habits of P. stridens were studied during the period from January 2001 to April 2002 using points and frequency of occurrence methods. The fish was observed to be carnivorous, which fed mainly on Crustaceans (14.53), mollusks (11.57) small teleosts (11.1), and pollychaets (1.99) etc. Analysis of fullness of stomach revealed 4.84% gorged, 9.76% full, 2.85% three fourth full, 10.07% half  full, 14.39% quarter full, 23.04% little and 35.04% were found to be empty. Feeding intensities were higher in fishes of larger size groups (140-219mm total length) while poor feeding condition was exhibited by smaller size groups (50-139mm total length). The composition of food of different size groups and seasons was calculated. Semi digested food, Crustaceans and miscellaneous food materials were the most frequent food items for smaller size groups (50-139mm), while the diet constituent shifted to semi digested food, miscellaneous, molluscs, teleosts and crustaceans in larger size groups (140-219 mm total length).

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 10 (4): 593-596, 2013.

LENGTH – WEIGHT RELATIONSHIP IN COMMON SEABREAM ACANTHOPAGRUS BERDA (FORSSKAL, 1775) FROM KARACHI, PAKISTAN

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Lubna Hameed, Habib -ul- Hassan, Muhammad Zaheer Khan and Muhammad Asim

Department of Zoology University of Karachi, Karachi-75270 Pakistan.
E-mail: lubnaasim@ymail.com

ABSTRACT

To describe length-weight relationship in Acanthopagrus berda (Forsskal, 1775), its 1687 specimens (male, female and unsexed) were examined during the period from January 2005 to December 2006. The samples were obtained from three main landing centers of Karachi (Pakistan). The Fish Harbour, Ibrahim Haidary and 100 Quarters Korangi Karachi. Because most of the marine fish catch from Sindh and Balochistan provinces of Pakistan were brought to these centers for auction. The maximum size of male was 33.8 cm and the maximum size of female was 34.7 cm. The body weight ranged from 77.0 to 900g in case of male and 128 – 932.38g in female samples. The fork length (cm) and weight (g) relationship was described statistically using SPSS ver. 14. The values of “a” and “b” were determined by log10 transformed length and weight values. The relationship of length and weight was subjected to t- test analysis at p < 0.001. The magnitude of correlation coefficient (r²) for male specimens was 0.879, for female specimens 0.882 and overall (males, females and unsexed) 0.979. The magnitude of ‘b’ was near theoretical value of 3 in overall cases (isometry) and significantly different in male and female samples (negative allometry).

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 10 (4): 597-599, 2013.

HISTOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS ON DEVELOPMENT OF SPERMS IN LITOPENAEUS VANNAMEI (BOONE, 1931) (CRUSTACEA:DECAPODA)

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Faiz Muhammad1* and Muhammad Shafi2

1Centre of Excellence in Marine Biology University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.
2Key Laboratory of Marine Genetics and Breeding (Ocean University of China), Ministry of Education, Qingdao 266003, P. R. China.

ABSTRACT

We conducted the histological observations on development of sperms in white leg shrimp L. vannamei, a prime aquaculture species. The testes have three distinctive stages of sperms, spermatogonium, spermatocytes and spermatids, in addition the nurse cells. The spermatozoa were observed in distal vas deferens (DVD) and in ejaculatory duct. The spike of the spermatozoa is prominent. We concluded that development of the sperms is a continuous process all along the reproductive tract.

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 10 (4): 601-611, 2013.

CURRENT DISTRIBUTION AND STATUS OF THE MAMMALS, BIRDS AND REPTILES IN RANN OF KUTCH WILDLIFE SANCTUARY, SINDH

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Syed Ali Ghalib1, M Zaheer Khan1, Saquib Aijaz Hussain2, *Afsheen Zehra1, Naseem Samreen1,
Fozia Tabassum1, Tanveer Jabeen1, Abdur Razzaq Khan3, Lajpat Sharma4 and Tasneem Bhatti5

1Department of Zoology (Wildlife & Fisheries), University of Karachi, Karachi. 75270
2Environmental Management Consultants, Karachi.
3Halcrow Pakistan (Pvt) Limited, Karachi
4 Sindh Wildlife Department, Mithi
5Sindh Board of Revenue, Karachi

ABSTRACT

Wildlife Surveys were undertaken in the prime wildlife habitats of Rann of Kutch Wildlife Sanctuary from 2006 – 2012 and a total of 30 species of mammals, 112 species of birds, 20 species of reptiles and 22 important plant species  were recorded from the area. The site is very important being a Wildlife Sanctuary, an important Bird Area (IBA), a Ramsar Site and a part of Global – 200 Eco regions. The key species include: Bluebull (Boselaphus tragocamelus), Chinkara (Gazella bennetti), Wild Ass (Equus hemionus), Pangolin (Manis crassicaudata), Caracal (Felis caracal), Wolf (Canis lupus), Hyaena (Hyaena hyaena), Honey Badger (Mellivora capensis), Sarus Crane (Grus antigone), Houbara Bustard (Chlamydotis undulata), Indian Peafowl (Pavo cristatus), Indian Whitebacked Vulture (Gyps bengalensis), Egyptian Vulture (Neophron percnopterus), Long billed Vulture (Gyps indicus) and Red- headed Vulture (Sarcogyps calvus). A total of 9 threatened species of mammals and birds have been recorded from the area. Based on present study, an action plan for the safeguard of the biodiversity of the Sanctuary has been suggested.

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 10 (4): 613-630, 2013.

A SECURITY SYSTEM EMPLOYING EDGE-BASED RASTERSTEREOGRAPHY

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Muhammad Wasim1 , Syed Arif Kamal2 and Abdulbasit Shaikh1

1Graduate School of Engineering Sciences and Information Technology, Hamdard University, Karachi, Pakistan
2SF-Growth-and-Imaging Laboratory, Department of Mathematics, University of Karachi, Karachi 75270, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

This paper introduces human-face recognition using edge-based rasterstereography, a biometric identification technique employing pattern recognition, which has the potential to be used as identification-based-security system. A raster grid was projected on human face, distortions of which were used to extract curvature information — unique for a face (principal identification and recognition criterion). This information, in coördinate form, was processed by image-processing algorithms. A modified-raster grid was constructed and tested. The modification, mainly, consisted of use of green dots instead of conventional screen composed of stacked squares, which gave acceptable results for green color. Registration, identi-fication and verification were the three phases of face-recognition system proposed by the authors. In the first step, subject’s face was captured using a digital camera and stored in the system database. In the second one, the registered face was compared with all the stored faces in the database. The verification phase consisted of comparing the identified face with own stored template. Once the facial image passed these three stages, the face was recognized as the one belonging to a particular individual. Our face-recognition system correctly recognized 190 out of 200 human faces during test runs. This algorithm was computationally efficient and effective. The edge-based-rasterstereographic-face-recognition system seemed to be suitable for identification and security purposes as time and cost-saving mechanism.

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 10 (4): 631-635, 2013.

EFFECTS OF POWDERED SPIRULINA PLATENSIS BIOMASS ON PH AND TITRATABLE ACIDITY OF PROBIOTIC DOOGH CONTAINING POWDERED MINT DURING COLD STORAGE

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Vajiheh Fadaei1, Atefeh Eslami-Moshkenani1*, and Kianoush Khosravi-Darani2

1Department of Food Science & Technology, Shahr-e-Qods Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
2Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Faculty of Nutrition Sciences and Food Technology,
Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences , Tehran, Iran

ABSTRACT

Spirulina has been used for many years as human food because of its high protein content and nutritional value. The plenty of biologically important compounds in the algae, provide new opportunity for producing functional dairy products The main purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the powdered Spirulina platensis on the titratable acidity and pH of probiotic Doogh samples containing Mentha piperita during the refrigerated storage.In this research, Doogh samples were enriched with different concentrations of Mentha piperita (0.5 and 1%) and Spirulina platensis (0, 0.3, 0.5 and 0.8%). The treatments were stored at 4 °c for 21 days. pH and acidity of samples were measured at regular (7-day) intervals. The results showed that an increase in the concentration of Spirulina platensis induced a significant increase in the titratable acidity of probiotic Doogh during cold storage. However, the pH decreased slowly with the increasing alga content. There was no significant difference in pH and titratable acidity between samples with various concentrations of powdered Mentha piperita during storage time.

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 10 (4): 637-643, 2013.

THE EFFECT OF THE DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS OF WHEAT FIBER AND GELATIN ON SELECTED PHYSICOCHEMICAL, TEXTURAL AND SENSORY PROPERTIES OF FAT-FREE CONCENTRATED FLAVORED YOGURT

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Farideh Vahid-Moghadam1 , Vajiheh Fadaei 2* and Rezvan Pourahmad2

1M.Sc student  of Food Science & Technology, Varamin-Pishva branch, Islamic Azad University, Varamin, Iran
2Department of Food Science & Technology, Varamin-Pishva branch, Islamic Azad University, Varamin, Iran

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present research was to incorporate different concentrations of gelatin (0.025, 0.05 and 0.1, w/w) and wheat fiber (1, 1.5 and 2%, w/w) into free-fat flavored concentrated flavored yogurt and to compare physicochemical ( titratable acidity, dry matter, syneresis and viscosity), textural (hardness and adhesiveness) and sensory (mouth feel, texture, stickiness, flavor, odor and overall acceptability) properties of such yogurts prepared to full-fat flavored concentrated yogurt, control, on day 1 of storage. From the overall results of replacement of fat with gelatin and wheat fiber in flavored concentrated yogurt, it could be concluded that gelatin and wheat fiber can improve the texture and sensory properties of fat-free concentrated yogurt and that preferred sample is fat-free flavored concentrated yogurt containing 0.1% gelatin and 1.5% wheat fiber.

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 10 (4): 645-650, 2013.

ELISA BASED SCREENING OF POTATO VARIETIES / LINES AGAINST POTATO VIRUSES

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Sher Muhammad1, Muhammad Shahbaz2, Muhammad Tariq Javed3, Muhammad Iqbal2, Muhammad Shafiq Tariq2, Muhammad Tasdiq Hussain Shahid2 and Nazar Hussain Khan4

1Centre of Agricultural Biochemistry and Biotechnology (CABB), University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan
2Potato Research Institute, Sahiwal, Pakistan
3Deparment of Botany, GC, University, Faisalabad, Pakistan
4Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan
Corresponding author’s email: sher1325@hotmail.com

ABSTRACT

The reaction of 20 potato genotypes was determined using double antibody sandwich ELISA (DAS- ELISA) against six viruses viz; Potato Leaf Roll Virus (PLRV), Potato Virus X (PVX), Potato Virus Y (PVY), Potato Virus S (PVS), Potato Virus A (PVA) and Potato Virus M (PVM). The study was conducted at Potato Research Institute, Sahiwal during 2010-11 and 2011-12. The samples were collected from the field and tested in the laboratory of Plant Pathology at Potato Research Institute, Sahiwal. The reaction of ELISA for different viruses showed that out of 20 genotypes, different responses were detected with varying percentage against six potato viruses, some shows moderately susceptible behavior against potato viruses and some shows susceptible behavior: susceptible response means that there is not a single gene present which can resist against potato viruses. Five genotypes viz; FD 75-47, SH-5, FD 76-12, FD 74-33 and FD 74-8 showed the resistance response against all the potato viruses in both years experiments. This indicates that these 5 genotypes are the good source of resistance and may be useful for the development of potato cultivars resistant to potato viruses.

INT. J. BIOL. BIOTECH., 10 (4): 651-656, 2013.

EFFECT OF DIFFERENT PLANTING AND HARVESTING TIMES ON YIELD AND YIELD RELATED TRAITS OF CASSAVA (MANIHOT ESCULENTA CRANTZ) IN COASTAL AREA OF BALOCHISTAN, PAKISTAN

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Javaid Akhtar1, S.A.R. Kazmi1 and Abdul Hameed Solangi2

1Crop Diseases Research Institute, PARC, Karachi University Campus, Karachi-75270
2Coastal Agricultural Research Station, SARC, PARC, Karachi, Pakistan.

Abstract

Cassava occupies an important position among root crops; therefore it was important to study the impact of different planting times with respect to different intervals of harvesting time as the crop offers a flexible harvesting period. The experiment was carried out at Coastal Agricultural Research Station (Bhawani) of Pakistan Agricultural Research Council during the years 2007-2009. The cuttings were planted in March & December (2007) and harvested at four different intervals (8, 12, 18 and 24 months).  The crop showed better performance with respect to sprouting percentage and most of the other parameters of growth when planted in March as compared to December. Plants of March plantation showed maximum growth. The parameters under investigation showed great variation both with respect to time of plantation and different intervals of harvesting period. Maximum total fresh root weight per plant and yield / hectare (tons) was obtained when plantation was carried out in March and harvested at 18 & 24 months of growth. In December plantation yield was substantially low.

 

 

 

 
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